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Joris Janszen RAPALJE

Male Bef 1604 - 1663  (> 58 years)

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  • Name Joris Janszen RAPALJE 
    Born Bef 28 Apr 1604  Valenciennes, Spanish Netherlands [now D??partement du Nord, France] Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Christened 28 Apr 1604  St. Nicolaes Roman Catholic Church, Valenciennes, Spanish Netherlands [now D??partement du Nord, France] Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Immigration 1624  New Netherland [now NY] Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Name Georges RAPAREILLIET 
    Died 23 Feb 1663  Brooklyn, Kings County, NY Find all individuals with events at this location 
    • (1) Macy, Harry, Jr., "375th Anniversary of the Eendracht and Nieuw Nederland," The New York Genealogical & Biographical Society Newsletter, Winter 1999:

      This year marks the 375th anniversary of the arrival in New Netherland of the first two ships carrying permanent European settlers to the colony. On a day in the early spring of 1624, the Eendracht entered what is now New York Harbor, and then proceeded up the North (Hudson) River. To the native people who lived along these waterways, the sight of a European ship was no longer remarkable, as Dutch traders had been visiting the area since Henry Hudson's arrival in 1609. But the Eendracht was different - it brought men, women and children who intended to stay in the colony.

      We know the names of only a few of the passengers on the Eendracht, and on the Nieuw Nederland which arrived about two months later, and only four of the identified families aboard these two ships are known to have left descendants in the colony - Rapalje, Monfort, du Trieux, and Vigne. The other settlers appear to have died in the next few years, or returned to the Netherlands.

      The four families who survived were Walloons, from Valenciennes, Roubaix, and other towns, all now in France's D??partement du Nord, but then part of the Netherlands under the rule of Spain. They were Protestants, and in order to worship as they pleased they had fled north to Amsterdam and Leiden, where the Spanish were no longer in control. When the West India Company sought settlers for its new colony, these recent refugees were ready to move once again.

      They sailed on tiny vessels, which took weeks to make the crossing, totally cut off from the rest of the world, only to arrive in a country which, from a European standpoint, was a wilderness. It is difficult for us today to imagine a comparable experience, unless we think of a voyage to outer space.

      The Walloon families who remained in New Netherland were soon joined by Dutch and a variety of other European settlers, and within two years Africans had been added to the mix, creating North America's most multi-ethnic colony.

      As so many pertinent records of this time have been lost, we are particularly fortunate that sixty-one years after the Eendracht's arrival one of its passengers, Catalina (Trico) Rapalje, made two famous depositions in which she recalled her first years in the colony.

      The three hundredth anniversary of the Eendracht was observed in 1924 with considerable ceremony, as well as an issue of U.S. postage stamps (for the "Huguenot-Walloon Tercentenary").

      It is probably safe to say that those who can trace a line to one or more of the four families must now number in the millions. As we approach the 375th anniversary, thanks to the upsurge in interest in genealogy a substantial number of these descendants have become aware of their link to this momentous event, and we hope they will be encouraged to observe the anniversary in appropriate ways.

      For genealogists, the best documented account of the two ships and their passengers is George O. Zabriskie's article "The Rapalje-Rapelje Family," part of the series "The Founding Families of New Netherland," published in the Holland Society's journal de Halve Maen, 46:4 (Jan. 1972):7-8, 16; 47:1 (Apr. 1972):11-13; and 47:2 (July 1972):11-14. In his text and footnotes Zabriskie directs the reader to the primary sources from which we derive our knowledge of this period. Other secondary accounts, particularly those published in the 19th century, should not be accepted without reference to Zabriskie.

      The Eendracht sailed from Amsterdam on January 25, 1624. Joris Rapalje and Catalina Trico were married in Amsterdam on January 21, and we know from her depositions that they sailed on this ship. Jean Monfort and his wife Jacqueline Moreau had a certificate (attestation) from Amsterdam's Walloon Church on January 23 "pour le West Indes," so they and their son Pierre (and any other children still living) also sailed on the Eendracht.

      The Nieuw Nederland sailed on or after March 30, 1624. Philippe du Trieux had a certificate from Amsterdam's Walloon Church on March 11, "pour Wes Inde," and this has to be the vessel that brought him to New Netherland, probably accompanied by his second wife Susanne du Chesne, and his children Philippe and Marie.

      Although we do not have a Netherlands record regarding the departure of Ghislain and Adrienne (Cuvellier) Vigne and their children Marie, Christine, and Rachel, they certainly were on one of these vessels, as their son Jan would be the first male child born in the new colony, or at least the first male child who survived and remained there (Sara Rapalje was the first female child born in New Netherland).

      By the time the Nieuw Netherland sailed the Company had drawn up regulations to govern the new settlements. These are printed (in Dutch and English) in A. J. F. van Laer, ed., Documents Relating to New Netherland 1624-1626 (1924). The final sections of the regulations read: "Finally, they shall take the oath of allegiance and obedience to the High and Mighty Lords the States General and to this Company, and shall in all things comport themselves as good and loyal subjects are bound to do. The foregoing articles having been read to the colonists going over in the ship 'Nieu Nederlant,' they took the oath of allegiance this 30th day of March, anno 1624."

      (2) Zabriskie, George Olin, "The Founding Families of New Netherland, No. 4 - The Rapalje - Rapelje Family, Part I," de Halve Maen, Vol. 46, No. 4 (January 1972), pp. 7-8, 16:

      Early in January, 1624, a youthful Walloon couple must have watched with absorbed interest the bustling waterfront scene in Amsterdam as the ship Eendracht (Unity) was made ready for a long voyage. They had been recruited together with a number of families, mostly Walloons, to sail aboard the vessel as an advance party of colonists for the West India Company's lands in far off America. The two young people, Joris Janszen Rapalje and Catalina Jeronimus Trico (as they later became known in New Netherland), had agreed to join the group subject to one condition, namely, that they could arrange to be married before the ship sailed.

      Little time remained to them, for the departure date was drawing near and marriage in Holland took a good deal of time. Normally, after a couple satisfied the civil authorities of their intent to wed the action was followed by the proclamation of banns on the next three Sundays, in the church or churches to which they belonged, before the marriage could take place. Joris and Catalina registered their intention on Saturday, January 13, 1624 (New Style). They became man and wife in the Walloon Church in Amsterdam on the second Sunday, January 21, one week earlier than normal and doubtless with an assist from the Amsterdam Chamber of the Company.

      In the marriage intention registry the entry about them reads, with various abbreviations and deletions, in Dutch and English as follows:

      Joris Raparlie van Valenchie . . . / boratwercker out 19 jaeren woon . . . op't Waele / padt & Catharina triko van [word parijs crossed out] pris in / [word Vranckrijck crossed out] Walslant geasst . . . met mary Fla[m]egh / haar suster woon . . . in de Vles out 18 yae . . .

      (Signed with their marks)

      Joris Raparlie, born in Valencie . . . borat worker, age 19 years, living at the Waele padt, and Catharina Triko, born in [word "Paris" deleted] pris, in [word "France" deleted] Walslant, assisted by Mary Flamergh, her sister, living in de Vles, age 18 years.

      Omitted from this record are several items of information customarily included to indicate, for example, duration of residence, and present marital status (we may safely assume that neither party was previously married). Since both were minors, the omission of parental approval suggests that neither had parents residing in Amsterdam or still living. And as Joris was not "assisted" by anyone, he may not have had a male relative in Amsterdam.

      Their marriage record at the Walloon Church in Amsterdam reads in French as follows: "Espous?? le 21 de Janvier [1624] Joris Raporbie de Valencenne, et Caterine triko."

      Thus we note that Joris was born at Valenciennes in Hainaut, a province at that time in the southern part of the Spanish Netherlands. The region has been in the D??partement du Nord of France since 1661.

      From the patronymic used by Joris in New Netherland we know that his father was Jan (in Dutch) or Jean (in French or Walloon) Raparlie, or similar spelling. Alleged ancestries for Joris have been published in several versions, practically all of them "built upon the sands of tradition instead of a solid foundation of documentary evidence." This is especially true of the account which uses the folklore-stereotype of three brothers coming to America, as conceived and delineated by General Jeremiah Johnson more than a century ago.

      Based on the report made by a French researcher in 1960, it seems apparent that Joris was baptized Georges Rapareillet on April 28, 1604, in the Church of St. Nicholas at Valenciennes as the natural son of Jean Rapareillet. The record does not list the mother's name. Baptism of a Protestant child in a Catholic church was not unusual as that time as it helped avoid persecution. No futher particulars about Joris have been found in the Amsterdam and Leyden church records and those of the Bibliotheque Walloone on microfilm at the Genealogical Society in Salt Lake City, or that support assertions that his surname was originally "de Rapalje."

      Unfortunately the marriage entry does not reflect a second version of Catalina's birthplace (as it did for Joris) to assist in its identification. "Pris Walslant," her place of birth as plainly written on the intention document in place of the crossed out words "Paris, France," has not been identified, except that it was in Wallonia. Phonetically the word "Pris" is similar to periji; both names have much the same "ee" terminal sound. The site was likely a farm or some rural locality. In 1961 John I. Coddington listed it as "Pry," due south of Charleroi; also, there was a farming area spelled "Pres," northwest of Charleroi. These locations are in present Hainaut, a Walloon province in Belgium.

      Little has been found regarding the family named Trico, as variously spelled, in filmed copies of the old Dutch and Walloon records in Salt Lake City. As the 1960 report from France points out, "Searches to establish the origin of Catharine Trico are next to impossible . . .", due to the sparseness of records which provide at least a few clues to her family and place of birth.

      When the two Labadists, Jasper Danckaerts and Peter Sluyter, visited New York in 1680 a man named De La Grange (given name presumably Arnoldus) and his wife Cornelia de Fonteijn took Danckaerts to the Wallabout on May 30 to visit "his" aunt, Catalina Trico, "an old Walloon woman from Valenciennes, seventy-four years old." From this we can assume that Catalina's birthplace or early home at "Pris" was near Valenciennes. This gains support from the marriage intention of Mary Flamegh, the "sister" (in reality a half-sister) who assisted Catalina at the registry office, that shows: "Mary was a native of Valenciennes."

      Records at Amsterdam disclose that on July 5, 1615 (intention and first banns dated June 13), Phillipe de Fonteijn de Wikkat and Mary were married in the Walloon Church. Both were born in Valenciennes; he was 22, she 21. The intention document, which both of them signed, indicates that he was assisted by his brother Jehan de fonteijne de Wickart, and she by her uncle, Zacherias Flamen. Absence of a notation about parental approval may indicate this Mary's parents were dead in 1615. Cornelia de Fonteijn, wife to De La Grange, was probably a daughter of the Carel Fonteijn who came to New Amsterdam in 1658 and lived for years in Bushwick, now part of Brooklyn. Pending a study of the De La Grange and De Fonteijn families, we assume that Carel was the son of Mary Flamegh and nephew of Catalina Trico, then making Catalina the great-aunt of Mrs. De La Grange.

      The marriage of Joris and Catalina on January 21, 1624, premitted them to sail four days later, Thursday, January 25, on board the Eendtracht, Adrian Joriszen Tienpont (or Thienpont), skipper. Their fellow passengers included Sebastian Janszen Krol, John Monfort and his wife Jacqueline Moreau, about a dozen other families, probably also Walloons with marriageable daughters and perhaps several sons, together with about 30 unaccompanied men (seamen and soldiers), some of whom may have been Walloons.

      A long series of momentous events in Europe had preceded and led to this first sailing of colonists to New Netherland. Early in the previous century, and coincident with the rise of the Reformation, the Spanish sovereign became by inheritance the absolute ruler over a flourishing region to the north that roughly consisted of the present Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemberg and northern France. As the leading Catholic power, Spain through two successive monarchs, Charles V and his son Philip II, sought to prevent the spread of the new faith by oppressive measures and outright persecution. Philip's coercive methods, including use of the Spanish Inquisition, became so harsh that the provinces rebelled in 1568, thus commencing a war for independence that lasted 80 years.

      Although at first the Spanish tercios were victorious everywhere, the tide turned and by the year 1600, with the Spaniards ousted from Dutch soil and their army crushed at the battle of Niewport, the Netherlands won de facto recognition as an independent nation even though the war would continue sporadically until 1648. In 1579 the seven northernmost provinces had united in political federation and two years later declared themselves free of Spanish rule as the Republic of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. William of Orange, surnamed the Silent, was the heart and soul of the Dutch revolt and through his leadership the States General came to direct the destinies of a new and vigorous commonwealth. The southern provinces remained under Spanish control.

      The Spanish persecution had caused widespread migrations from all of the Netherlands to England, Scandinavia, the German states along the Rhine, Switzerland, and to some extent to France. After the formation of the Dutch republic, many of these people from the northern provinces returned home. At the same time thousands of the migrant Flemish and Walloons removed to the Netherlands from England, the Germanies and elsewhere. In addition, migrations from the Spanish Netherlands continued for many years.

      As a result of these developments the Spanish Netherlands stagnated while the Dutch Republic prospered. Holland's "Golden Age" began in the arts, sciences and commerce. Amsterdam became the leading trade center of Europe and Holland its foremost maritime power.

      In 1609, at the initiative of Spain, now a suitor and no longer the orbiter of Europe's destinies, the Twelve Years Truce was negotiated that gave the Dutch opportunity to further extend their maritime and commercial operations throughout the world. That same year Henry Hudson, an Englishman employed by the Dutch East India Company, explored the river named for him in America. He was soon followed by Dutch explorers and traders. From 1615 to 1618 the States General granted several short-term charters to merchants seeking to exploit the fur trade in New Netherland; afterward there ensued a period of free trade.

      As the Truce ended, in 1621, the States General chartered the West India Company with a 24-year monopoly of navigation and trade on the eastern coasts and adjacent islands of North and South America, and along the west coast of Africa south of the Tropic of Cancer. Although its charter took effect from July 1, 1621, the Company did not become fully organized and operational for two years. Plans made during the hiatus enabled an enterprising Huguenot refugee, Jesse de Forest, and ten other heads of Walloon families at Leyden, to sail in the ship Pigeon from Amsterdam on July 1, 1623, for South America to select a suitable place for the Leyden Walloons to settle.

      Departing from the Texel on July 16, the Pigeon and her companion vessel, the yacht Mackeral, made for Plymouth, England, whence they sailed on August 11. Near the Madeira Islands the ships parted company on September 14, the Pigeon continuing toward South America and the Mackeral proceeding to the West Indies. After spending weeks in the Caribbean in search of a Spanish prize, the Mackeral sailed north and reached the Hudson River on December 12, 1623. The ship wintered near present Albany and left in 1624 at a time "when the grain was nearly as high as a man."

      During the two-year organizational period of the West India Company, several trading ventures to New Netherland were authorized on condition that the ships return to Holland before July 1, 1622. At least two failed to come back until late in 1623; each of these ships left trade goods and small craft in New Netherland, and one or perhaps both left men there.

      One of these ships was the Witte Deijf (White Dove). Before departing from America her captain turned over five boats to Jonathan de Necker, skipper for Willem Smellen who later became a director of Zeeland Chamber of the Company. These small craft included a 32-ton yacht, the Omvallende Nooteboom (Falling Nut Tree), less sails and rigging; a 16-ton yacht (probably the Rooden Deijf (Red Dove), less anchor, cables and munitions; a sloop of six tons; a Zaandam barge, and a Biscay shallop, or sloop. These vessels also wintered near Albany.

      The other ship that returned to Holland in 1623 was commanded by Adrian Joriszen Tienpont, skipper for a merchant named Courten of the Zeeland Chamber. On November 1, 1623, Tienpont appeared before the Assembly of Nineteen, executive body of the Company, and asked approval for another voyage to the Hudson to recover some trade goods and two sloops, and to bring back several people.

      Rather than grant permission for another independent venture the Assembly of Nineteen directed the Amsterdam Chamber, which administered New Netherlan, to "equip" such a ship, including provision for additional trade goods. The Nineteen suggested that five or six families be sent over on this vessel as an advance party of "the colonists preparing to go to New Netherland."

      (3) Zabriskie, George Olin, "The Founding Families of New Netherland, No. 4 - The Rapalje - Rapelje Family, Part II," de Halve Maen, Vol. 47, No. 1 (April 1972), pp. 11-13:

      During the late fall of 1623 the West Indian Company's supreme executive body, the Assembly of Nineteen, directed the Amsterdam Chamber to "equip" a vessel with trade goods and an advance party of colonists for a voyage to New Netherland. At about the same time, by coincidence, the Reformed Church Consistory in Amsterdam, on November 30, approved the application of Sebastian Janszen Krol to serve in the West Indies as a Comforter of the Sick. Krol was to have sailed on December 7, 1623, but became ill and did not go.

      When Krol recovered he was assigned as Comforter to the Sick to the colonists preparing to go to New Netherland. Consistory records indicate that he sailed from Amsterdam on January 25, 1624. That same day the Walloon congregation issued a transfer of membership certificate "to the West Indies" for John Monfort and his wife Catherine (error for Jacqueline) Moreau. As pointed out previously, the Rapaljes, Krol, the Monforts and others departed on the Eedracht with Tienpont as skipper. We do not know when they reached the Hudson River, but it was probably in late March or early April 1624.

      Many years later, in 1685 and again in 1658, Catalina Trico, widow of Joris Janszen Rapalje, made depositions concerning her arrival in America. It should be noted that such a declaration, in law a statement made orally upon oath in response to questions and taken down in writing for use in court in lieu of the witness' oral testimony, must not be considered as uninterested historical account of the circumstances related. Catalina's first deposition was made to assist William Penn in his dispute with the Calverts over the bounday separating Pennsylvania and Maryland, later known as the Mason-Dixon line. The purpose of the second deposition is not apparent.

      Catalina stated that she came on the Eedracht, "whereof was Commander Arien Jorise belonging to the West India Company, being the first ship that came here for the said Company . . . [and] their said commander Arien Jorise stayed with them all winter and sent his son home with the ship. . .". Furthermore, she said that Tienpont sent two families and six men to the Connecticut River; two families and eight men to the Delaware River; and left eight men at the mouth of the Hudson "to take possession."

      Moreover, Catalina then continued, "The rest of the passengers went with the ship up to as far as Albany, which they then called Fort Orange. When the ship came as far as Esopus, which is half way to Albany, they lightened the ship with some boats that were left there by the Dutch that had been there the year before a-trading with the Indians upon their own accounts and gone back again to Holland, and so brought the vessel up. . .". From this it seems likely that the two sloops Tienpont left behind in 1625 were the boats Catalina said were at Esopus.

      According to her deposition as printed about 18 families were taken to Fort Orange. In fact, however, at the time the families were removed from Fort Orange to New Amsterdam in 1626, only eight families and 10 to 12 men were there. So she may have meant "about 18 families and men." However, some of the families may have been withdraw earlier.

      In her first deposition Catalina said four couples were married as sea and that, some three weeks after their arrival, these eight people had been sent to the Delaware. In a statement made at the same time and for the same purpose, another colonist, Pieter Laurenson, said the first Dutch settlement on the Delaware consisted of three or four Walloon families. Thus the number of families sent to that area is uncertain and so, too, the total number aboard the Eendracht.

      In August 1624 an unnamed ship returned to Amsterdam with furs and messages from colonists in "that part of Virginia called New Netherland" after she "had conveyed some families from Holland thither." The vessel is said to have been the Mackeral, but that ship could not have sailed from the Albany area when "the grain was nearly as high as a man" (late July or early August) and reached Amsterdam during the latter month. Because the Mackeral indeed had been in New Netherland she has also been credited with taking the advance party as proposed the previous November - another manifest impossibility since, as we have seen, that ship departed from Holland on July 16, 1623.

      The new arrival, in fact, was Eendracht under the command, according to Catalina Trico, of Adrian Tienpont's son; and on board for a short visit home was Sebastian Janszen Krol. Some years later, on June 30, 1634, Krol in a deposition about his first trip to New Netherland said he had "made a voyage and stay of 7?? months in that country," a slight exaggeration of his actual sojourn.

      But soon after coming home Krol told the Amsterdam Consistory, on November 14, 1624, "that there are pregnant women there [meaning the colonies in America]." He did not say, as some writers have suggested, that children already had been born in New Netherland. Krol asked for authority to perform baptisms and marriages. A week later, on November 21, he received permission "to administer christian baptism and marriage sacraments in 'the Virginias.'" He sailed again for New Netherland in December 1624, or January 1625, on the Orangeboom.

      Having considered the advance party of Walloon colonists, we move now to the main body. On March 28, 1624, the Assembly of Nineteen approved the "articles and instructions" as drawn up for the guidance of "the colonists who go to New Netherland for the chamber of Amsterdam [and who] will be enrolled tomorrow." After a day's delay the colonists took an oath of acceptance and allegiance before the Amsterdam magistrates on March 30. That day or soon afterward they sailed for America on the Niew Netherlandt, Cornelis Jacbszen May, skipper. On board as a "passenger in the service of the Company" was Willem van der Hulst (or Verhulst), who would succeed May as Director of New Netherland in 1625.

      Other passengers almost certainly included the following, who with their destinations are listed and dated among the Amsterdam Walloon dismissals (1) Philipp de Treux, on March 11, 1624 "to the West Indies"; (2) Antone Harduin, on March 13, "to Virginia"; (3) Arnould Rhemi and wife Marie Bauldwyn, and Antonie Rhemi, on March 27, "to Virginia." Two years later, in 1626, "Aernou Renay" became plaintiff in a suit against Verhulst in New Netherland.

      When dismissed by the Company after a year in office as resident Director of New Netherland, Verhulst returned to Amsterdam in 1626. On July 10, 1627, in Amsterdam, he made a deposition designed to help Hendrik Eelkens and partners establish a claim against the West India Company for the five boats which Eelkens' ship Witte Deijf had left in New Netherland late in 1623. Verhulst declared that the Niew Nederlandt sailed up the Hudson to near Albany -

      ["]where they found a yacht anchored, called the Falling Nut Tree, and that the principal commanders and officers of the ship called New Netherland took into their possession the said yacht and lodged therein the families which were in their ship, as they also made use of the said yacht, until they had an opportunity to land and build dwelling places in which they afterward lodged the said families.["]

      In Trico's deposition the sequence was "made a small fort" and then "built themselves some huts of bark . . .". Verhulst had no reason for mentioning the Eendracht families, but it is likely that they too were temporarily lodged on the anchored yacht. Verhulst, continuing -

      ["]Declares further, at the time they arrived at the yacht, on this yacht was already the commandery of Jan Jansz. Brouwer who with certain people were also lodged therein, in the service of the West India Company. Declares further that they found at the same time a yacht called the Red Dove with sails and tackle; that they used this yacht too in the service of the West India Company, sailing it along the coast to the north and to the south, and have been trading with it in the service of the same Company; that they also found there a biscay-sloop which they also used in the service of the same Company.["]

      The only account of New Netherland's first colonists that approaches contemporary reportage is that of Nicholas Wasssenaer, an Amsterdam physician who from 1622 to 1651 kept his countrymen up to date to current events by compendiums issued every six months at a time before newspapers arrived. He was seldom an eye-witness to the occurrences described but depended almost entirely on word of mouth information. Although an indefatigable reporter and as a rule factually well grounded, Wasssenaer in his synoptic method, or perhaps reliance on less than fully informed sources, sometimes omitted details of interest to latter-day researchers.

      Thus, Wasssenaer in his narrative does not mention the five boats left by the Witte Diejf in New Netherland during 1623, or the important roles they played on arrival of Niew Nederlandt in the Albany area. Nor does he refer to the advance party of colonists aboard Eendracht and their employment of these boats along with some people and trade goods under the direction of Skipper Adriaen Joriszen Tienpont of Eendracht. Omitted, too, is the fact that Verhulst was on Niew Nederlandt. Plainly, Wasssenaer's account is far from complete. He states that the West India Company -

      ["]equipped in the spring a vessel of 130 lasts called the Niew Nederlandt, whereof Cornelis Jacobsz May of Hoorn was skipper, with a company of 30 families, mostly Walloons, to plant a colony there. They sailed in the beginning of March, and, directing their course by the Canary Islands, steered toward the Wild Coast, and gained the west wind which luckily [took] them in the beginning of May into the [Hudson] River. . . . [Note: Lucky indeed, to be propelled westward by a wind blowing from west to east. - G.O.Z.] He [May] found a Frenchman lying in the mouth of the river . . . but . . . with the assistance of those of the yacht Mackeral, which had lain above, they caused a yacht of two guns to be manned, and conveyed the Frenchman out of the river . . .

      ["]This being done, the ship sailed up to the Maykans [Mohegan Indians], 44 leagues, and they built and completed a fort named "Orange," with four bastions on an island by them called Castle Island. They forthwith put the spade on the ground and began to plant, and before the yacht Mackerel sailed the grain was nearly as high as a man, so that they are bravely advanced. They also placed a fort which they named "Wilhelmus" on Prince's Island . . . for the defence of the river below. On leaving there the course lies for the west wind, and, having got it, to the Bermudas, and so to the Channel and in a short time to the Fatherland . . .["]

      Not only is the foregoing report incomplete, it is partially incorrect. According to Wasssenaer the Niew Nederlandt sailed "the beginning of March"; but she was still in Amsterdam on the last day of March. Fort Orange was not built on Castle Island but on the west bank of the Hudson, in present downtown Albany. "Fort Wilhelmus" on "Prince's Island" has baffled many writers, most of whom have tried to place it downriver from Albany. Wasssenaer failed to tell his readers that he had moved his locale from the Hudson to the Delaware River, where the fort was built on present Burlington Island. Note his sequence: they built Fort Orange, planted crops, then the Mackeral sailed; whereupon they "placed" Fort Wilhelmus, and "on leaving there" sailed toward Bermuda, and the west wind, no longer a strange phenomenon, wafted them home.

      Wasssenaer wrote his account under a sub-title dated April 1624, and used 1624 in the margin. These were changed to 1623 in O'Callaghan's published version, thus further garbling the story. The original content has nevertheless been called "trustworthy" and "contemporary" (ergo accurate), and the information given in the Trico deposition was until very recent times rejected as the babblings of a senile old lady. It seems apparent, however, that it is Trico who has a better claim to trustworthiness than Wasssenaer as interpreted and embellished by O'Callaghan and his followers. In point of fact, the details she recalled after more that fifty years, and when over eighty years of age, are remakably accurate.

      When one considers the size of Niew Nederlandt, 130 "lasts" (260 tons), in relation to the about 30 colonizing families, their belongings, tools and other equipment, plus the soldiers and crew, it seems not unlikely that this count included the people on Eendracht.

      Of the known colonists, only the Rapaljes can be and with certainty to have remained continuously in New Netherland. The Monforts came back to Holland, but returned to New Netherland in 1639 with their son Peter and his family. The de Trieux family would stay in America, but in 1624 Philippe's wife had not been dismissed from the Amsterdam Walloon Church, so he may have returned to Holland for her and their chldren. The Vigne family (name also spelled Vinje and Vinge) apparently came to New Netherland on one of the two 1624 ships, despite many assertions to the contrary. Rachel, the third daughter of Guilliam Vigne and Ariantje Cuvilje, was baptized March 16, 1623 (New Style) in the Walloon Church at Leyden. The Vigne family is generally believed to have stayed.

      (4) Zabriskie, George Olin, "The Founding Families of New Netherland, No. 4 - The Rapalje - Rapelje Family, Part III," de Halve Maen, Vol. 47, No. 2 (July 1972), pp. 11-14:

      Like some genealogical studies of other Dutch families in America, early accounts written about Joris Janszen Rapalje, his wife Catalina Jeronimus Trico and their offspring tend to share more solicitude for tradition than ascertainable fact. Not infrequently the writers differ over such basic data as when and where the Rapaljes lived, and when and where their children were born. Let us consider these matters with a view to clarifying the sequence of events and establishing a factual record.

      First it should be noted that the Rapaljes lived initially at Fort Orange, and not on Long Island or Staten Island as been variously asserted. Joris, a textile worker in Holland until he and Catalina emigrated as youthful newlyweds in 1624, adapted himself to the endless toil of the pioneer, although we do not know exactly what he did. Without farming experience, he could have helped clear the land and plant crops during the three growing seasons (Catalina called them "years") the family lived at Fort Orange. Perhaps he served as a field-guard while others cleared and planted, or aided the fur traders in dealing with the Indians or in processing furs. In any event Joris profited from the experience, for in later years he would own and operate farm property in the Wallabout section of Brooklyn.

      Soon after the harvest in 1626 the Rapaljes' sojourn at Fort Orange terminated when the Company re-settled all eight families there in Manhattan. With their removal from the area, Fort Orange ceased to be a settlement and reverted to its former status of fortified trading post; and so it remained for several years. In 1630 a small number of Rensselaerwyck colonists arrived, some with families. Another group came in 1631; and others followed. For these people the fort provided protection and a source of supply. Long afterward, in 1652, the village of Beverwyck was established encompassing Fort Orange within its boundaries.

      The re-location of families downriver was pursuant to the Company decision to establish a center of operations for New Netherland on Manhattan. Selection of this locale over the initially favored Burlington Island in the Delaware River made it necessary to build up the site, called New Amsterdam, and for this purpose Company-obligated colonists were brought together on the southern tip of Manhattan. Here a fort, building lots, farms and a road system had been laid out and construction began. More land was to be cleared, and houses and stalls built. But settlers from Patria were few and progress slow. Even after 1629, when land was offered to the patroons and free settlers alike, the settlement grew very slowly.

      For some time after arriving in New Amsterdam, the Rapaljes probably lived in a rough shelter near the East River. Again, we do not know the nature of Joris' work; perhaps he was a farmhand at the outset, helping to clear and cultivate the land, or caring for the farm animals sent over from Holland in 1625. Eventually, as Joris moved up in the world, the couple acquired a building lot just south of the Fort, and there they built two houses on the north side of Pearl Street, at Nos. 17 and 19, west of Het Marckvelt (present Whitehall Street); their daughter Sarah lived next door at about No. 15. The records of New Amsterdam and New Netherland show that Joris embarked upon a many-faceted career in which, besides gaining prominence in public affairs, he became a plantation owner, part-owner of a privateer, trader and tavernkeeper.

      In 1637 Joris bought from the Indians land at the Wallabout (Dutch for "an inner bay") in present Brooklyn - the first acreage to be purchased in that part of Long Island, adjacent to the East River. The 1639 Manatus Map shows two "plantages" there, both his (the word signified something less than a fully equipped farm). While Joris, with several others, may have farmed the Wallabout property at that time, the Rapaljes did not move there permanently until after 1650. Their daughter Sarah was born at Fort Orange; all the other children were born on Manhattan. The family probably moved after selling their Pearl Street home in 1654. Caralina retained ownership of the smaller house on this lot until she sold it in 1674.

      Day-to-day actions of the Rapaljes and other colonists were greatly influenced by the ever-present Indians, a volatile and powerful element, generally well disposed but dangerous when provoked. As Catalina said in her deposition in 1688, the Indians near Fort Orange "came and made Covenants of friendship with ye said Arien Jorise, the Commander, Bringing him great Presents . . . that they might come & have Constant free trade with them . . . ye said Deponent lived in Albany three years, all which time ye sd Indians were all as quiet as lambs, & came & traded with all ye freedom imaginable. . . ."

      This statement was true except for one isolated incident. When the ship Mackeral sailed from New Netherland in 1624 the supercargo, Daniel Krieckenbeeck, remained at Fort Orange and in 1626 was in command. In July of that year he and three of his men were killed. According to Wasssenaer, one of them "they (the Mohawks) devoured after having well roasted him; the rest they burnt."

      Despite its potential for creating permanent hostility between the Dutch and Mohawk Indians, this episode caused only momentary friction. Some writers have stated that the incident brought about the removal of colonists from Fort Orange, but that was not the case. Protected by the fort, the Dutch families stood in no great danger of attack; but they were needed to construct the fort and other buildings at New Amsterdam, and to add more manpower to control the warlike Manhattan Indians.

      A good deal has been written about the Company's several Directors General in New Netherland, much of it derogatory, often justifiably so. Willem Kieft, by far the least competent of those officials, was commissioned in September 1637 and took office March 28, 1638. His Indian policy as outlined in a resolution he induced his Council to pass on September 15, 1639 was "To exact tribute from the Indians in maize, furs or wampum, and in the case of unwillingness to employ proper means to remove their reluctance."

      Naturally, friction developed and relations worsened until in February 1643, upon Kieft's orders, Dutch soldiers and burghers massacred two unsuspecting groups of Indians - men, women and children - in their encampments, one at Pavonia on the Jersey shore of the Hudson and the other on Manhattan. In retaliation the vengeful Indians, besides destroying an immense amount of property, killed, captured or drove into New Amsterdam virtually every settler in the lower Hudson Valley. It was probably during this period of conflict, which brought New Netherland to the brink of ruin, that the Rapaljes' son Jacob was "slain by the heathens."

      Some time before, in 1641 while Kieft was demanding taxes from the natives, a colonist on Manhattan was murdered by an Indian from Westchester. The culprit was identified but Kieft could not induce the tribesmen to deliver him up. Angered, the Director asked the commonalty to elect a board of twelve men to advise him on what to do and on Indians problem in general. But when duly elected, the Twelve Men recommended various reforms, whereupon Kieft dismissed the board; but not before three members concurred, or so he claimed, in taking extreme measures against the Indians. Joris was one of the Twelve but, to his credit, not one of the three named by Kieft.

      After the family removed to the Wallabout, more Indian troubles developed. In September 1655, when Stuyvesant and most of his armed forces were on the Delaware subduing the Swedes, Indians swarmed into New Amsterdam to avenge the slaying of a squaw for stealing peaches. After hours of harassing the inhabitants, wounding the burgher who shot the woman, and killing several of the watch, the warriors crossed over to the Jersey shore and captured or slew most of the Dutch settlers found there. The next day they moved on to Staten Island and continued to pillage and kill. Again, nearly all Dutch families in the lower Hudson Valley had to abandon temporarily their farms and settlements, and flee to New Amsterdam for protection; and again the colony sustained heavy losses in property.

      The selection of Joris Rapalje as one of the Twelve Men showed his standing among the colonists. After the family removed to the Wallabout he served as schepen on the Brooklyn court from 1655-57 and in 1660. Records of the Brooklyn Reformed Church show that he witnessed the baptism of a grandson on April 30, 1661; and in the membership records we find, under date of December 25, 1662, Joris Janszen Rappalje, Catharina Jeronymos and Catharina Joris Rapalje listed as joining the church from "the Manhattans." Joris died February 21, 1663, according to John A. Bogart in The Bogart Family (Scranton, Pa., 1959, p. 64), and most likely was buried on his farm at the Wallabout.

      Catalina Jeronimous Trico was a remarkable person. She did not read or write; at least we must assume so, since she signed her marriage intention and a deposition by mark. Starting out as an 18-year-old French-speaking Walloon bride on a Dutch ship bound for a little known land, she observed and retained for over sixty years many unusual details of the voyage to America.

      In her old age she correctly recalled, for example, that the two boats at Esopus belonged to Dutchmen who the year before had "been a tradeing with ye Indians upon there owne accounts . . .". Also, that eight men were left at the mouth of the Hudson to take Possession . . . ". We can verify many of the major aspects of her testimony, such as the name of the vessel she came on, the skipper's name and the fact that he stayed for the first winter, and sent his son back to Holland in command of the ship. We have no way to cross-check some statements, such as the numbers of families and men sent to various locations, but we know she was very nearly right in her count, and fully correct regarding the areas to which the people were dispatched.

      Catalina helped her husband with his business affairs until his death, and outlived him by many years. In 1660 she was visited by the Labadists, who said she then hand 145 living descendants, with an increase to 150 anticipated. Dr. George E. McCracken, in the October 1959 of The American Genealogist, provides a list of 110 descendants and in-laws. And if we can believe a passage in Governor Thomas Dungan's official report of September 1686/7, this number more than doubled in about seven years. Dungan's report, which concerned the province's fortifications, contains this digression: " . . . the people growing every day more numerous & they generaly [sic] of a turbulent disposition. In this Country there is a woman yet alive [certainly Catalina] from whose Loyns there are upwards of three hundred and sixty perons now living. The men that are here have generally lusty strong bodies."

      After the publication of Part I of this article, Mr. Hugh T. Law of the French and Mediterranean Genealogical Research Asssociation, 1216 Lillie Circle, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, furnished data about the parentage of Joris Janszen Rapalje which augments that previously given. We are grateful to Mr. Law and his client, Mrs. Irma P. Snow, for the information. It is based mainly on research performed in 1960 in France.

      From his investigations Mr. Law drew two conclusions: (1) that Walloon and Huguenot families sometimes took their children to Roman Catholic priests to be baptized, in the absence of Protestant clergy or to avoid persecution; and (2) that Roman Catholic priests sometimes refused to recognize the validity of Protestant marriages and recorded children born of such marriages as illegitimate.

      Mr. Law considers that the following six children of Jean Rapareillet were siblings, and that their unamed mother was "la femme Rapareille, molnier [miller]," who was buried February 23, 1606, at Valenciennes. All the baptismal and burial entries here given are from registers of St. Nicolaes Roman Catholic Church of that city, in the D??partement du Nord, France:

      1. Olivier, son of Jean, baptized February 28, 1594.

      2. Anne, daughter of Jean, baptized September 17, 1595.

      3. Francois, son of Jean, baptized November 1, 1596.

      4. Nicolaes, son of Jean, baptized July 10, 1598.

      5. child, of undetermined sex, buried November 16, 1600, without baptism.

      6. Georges [Joris Janszen, in Dutch], "illegitimate" son of Jean, baptized April 28, 1604.

      Two older Raparelle children, also baptized in St. Nicolaes' Church, may have been sisters or half-sisters of Joris, namely, (1) Jejenne, daughter of Jean, bapt. August 1, 1578; and (2) Marie, daughter of Jean, bapt. July 28, 1580.

      Bith dates of the eleven children of Joris and Catalina have been taken from the Geslast [Geslacht] Register (Genealogical Register), which gives the names and dates of birth van de kinderen of Joris Hanse Rappelje; Catalina is not mentioned. This document comprises two handwritten pages, the first of which - measuring 7-7/8 by 12-1/2 inches in size - is a copy of an earlier record, having been written an one sitting by one person.

      From various indications, such as incorrect spelling of some Dutch words, and gratuitous use of "De Rapalje" for Daniel (after the others had been listed without surnames), it seems that this copy was made in the early 18th century. The second sheet, 7-1/4 by 12 inches in size, contains similar handwriting and may have been penned at the same time as the first, although the writing is much more crowded. This page provides names of the spouses of Joris' children; names and birthdates of the children of his son Jeronimus, and the names of their spouses. We are indebted to Mr. Robert G. Goelet, a Trustee of the Holland Society and President of the New-York Historical Society, and to Mr. James Gregory, Librarian of the latter, for xerox copies of this document.

      There has been controversy over the birthdate of Sarah, the eldest child. The Genealogical Register entry plainly reads the "9th" (of June, 1625). But a descendant of hers, a Gysbert Bogart, reportedly said that his great-grandmother Sarah was born on the 7th, not the 9th. We prefer the written evidence over word-of-mouth tradition. Sarah's birthplace was Fort Orange, whereas the ten other children were born at New Amsterdam, the last five being baptized in the Dutch Reformed Church. Many families had children who died young; perhaps the Rapaljes had one or more who were born and died between 1629 and 1635, and whose identities were unknown to the compiler of the Register.

      The eleven known children of Joris Janszen Rapalje and his wife Catalina Jeronimus Trico were:

      1. Sara Joris Rapalje, born June 9, 1625, "De eerste Dochter Van Joris Janse Rappelje, Genaamt, Sara." She married, first, Hans Hansen Bergen, and second, Tunis Gysbertszen Bogaert.

      2. Marritje Joris Rapalje, born March 11, 1627, "De Twede Dochter, Genaamt Marrietie." She married Michiel Pauluszen Van der Voort.

      3. Jannetje Joris Rapalje, born Aust 18, 1629, "De Derde Dochter, Genaamt Jannetie." She married Rem Janszen Van der Beeck.

      4. Judith Joris Rapalje, born July 5, 1635, "De 4 Dochter Genaamt, Judick." She married Pieter Pieterszen Van Ness.

      5. Jan Joriszen Rapalje, born August 18, 1637, "Den Eersten soon, Genaamt, Jan. " He married Maria Fredericks Maer.

      6. Jacob Joriszen Rapalje, born May 28, 1639, "De Twede soon, Genaamt, Jacob." He was "killed by the heathens," probably in 1643.

      7. Cathalynje Joris Rapalje, born March 28, and baptized March 29, 1641, "De Fifde Dochter, Genaamt, Cateleyntie." She married Jeremiah Janszen Westerhout.

      8. Jeronimus Joriszen Rapalje, born June 27, and baptized June 28, 1643, "De Derde Soon, Genaamt, Jeronemus." He married Annetje Teunis Denys.

      9. Annetje Joris Rapalje, born February 8, and baptized February 11, 1646, "De Sesde Dochter, Genaamt, Annetie." She married Marten Reyerszen.

      10. Elizabeth Joris Rapalje, born March 28, and baptized March 29, 1648. "De Sevende Dochter, Genaamt, Elisabett." She maried Dirck Corneliszen Hogeland.

      11. Daniel Joriszen Rapalje, born December 29, 1650 and baptized January 1, 1651. "De Vierde soon, Genaamt, Daniel De Rappelje." He married Sarah Abrahams Clock.

      As previously noted, there were pregnant women in New Netherland when Krol left to return to Holland in mid-1624. Since Sarah Rapalje was born on June 9, 1625, Catalina Trico was not one of them. And probably Ariantje Cuvilje (Vigne) had not yet conceived Jan Vigne since her daughter Rachel was only about fifteen months old at the time Krol departed. Hence it is improbable that Jan and Sarah were the first "christian" male and female children born in New Netherland. Those honors must go to the two or more infants born of undetermined parentage in the last half of 1624 and the early part of 1625, to parents, that is, who joined most of the other early colonists in returning to Europe after their contract term expired, or who were released early.

      In April 1656, Sarah Rapalje referred to herself as "Sara Joresey, first born christian daughter of New Netherland." Her statement would be true if all children born before her were males, or if it meant she was the first of the living native-born female New Netherlanders. Jan Vigne and Sarah Rapalje apparently were the first "christian"male and female who were born, lived, and died in New Netherland.

      It would be manifestly unfair to the three pioneer families - Rapalje, Vigne and du Trieux, who stayed on after offspring were born - to rank them in a sequence necessarily arrived at by conjecture; each was one of the three Founding Families of New Netherland.

      (5) Law, Hugh T., How to Trace Your Ancestors to Europe, Salt Lake City, UT: Cottonwood Books, 1987, p. 86:

      In 1972 George Olin Zabriskie, Fellow of the American Society of Genealogists, published an article entitled, "The Rapalje-Rapelje Family." He used the Raparlie-Trico marriage and with my permission the Rapareilliet baptism and burial records from Valenciennes. I publish them here because many people interested in this family probably have not seen his article in the magazine, de Halve Maen. He spelled the surname Rapareillet, as in my researcher's report. But I now see in the microfilmed records that it is spelled "Rapareilliet," more like the "Raparlie" spelling used in the Amsterdam record.

      (6) Bergen, Teunis G., Register of the Early Settlers of Kings County, Long Island, N.Y. [Reprint], Baltimore, MD: Clearfield Company, Inc., 1997, p. 234:

      Joris Jansen, the common ancestor of the family, emigrated in 1623; m. Catalyntje dau. of Joris Trico of Paris; d. about 1665. Resided at first in Albany, where his dau. Sarah was born, and not in Brn [Brooklyn] as asserted by some writers, then in N.A. [New Amsterdam], and finally on his plantation at the Wallabout in Brn of 167 morgens, for which he obtained a patent June 16, 1637. Was one of the 12 men representing the N.N. [New Netherland] in 1641, and mag. of Brn in 1655, '56, '57, '60, and '62. Some writers prefix a De to his surname so as to make in De Rapalie, but the compiler has seen no conclusive evidence to justify it, nor has he found among the public and private records of this vicinity or elsewhere an instance where either Joris Jansen or any of his descendants have made use of said prefix. Issue: - Sarah Jorise, b. June 9, 1625, m. 1st Hans Hansen Bergen, m. 2d Tunis Gysbertse Bogaert; Marretje Jorise, b. Mar. 16, 1627, m. Michael Paulus Vandervoort; Jannetje Jorise, b. July 5, 1635, m. Pieter Pietersen Van Nest; Jan Jorise, b. Aug 28, 1637; Jacob Jorise, b. May 28, 1639; Catelyntje Jorise, b. Mar. 28, 1641, m. Jereimias Jansen Van Westerhout; Jeronemus Jorise, b. June 27, 1643; Annetje Jorise, b. Feb. 8, 1646, m. 1st Marten Reyerse, m. 2d Joost France; Elizabeth Jorise, b. Mar. 26, 1648, m. Dirck Cornelise Hoogland; and Daniel Jorise, b. Dec. 29, 1652. Made his mark "R" to documents.
    Person ID I21285  Frost, Gilchrist and Related Families
    Last Modified 9 May 2021 

    Father Jean RAPAREILLIET 
    Mother --- (RAPAREILLIET),   d. Bef 23 Feb 1606, Valenciennes, Spanish Netherlands [now D??partement du Nord, France] Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F9396  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Catalina Jeronimus TRICO,   b. Abt 1605, Prisches, Spanish Netherlands [now D??partement du Nord, France] Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Sep 1689, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 84 years) 
    Married 21 Jan 1624  Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Netherlands Find all individuals with events at this location 
     1. Sarah Joris RAPALJE,   b. 7 Jun 1625, Fort Orange, New Netherland [now Albany, Albany County, NY] Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1685, Bushwick [now Brooklyn], Kings County, NY Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 59 years)
     2. Jannetje Joris RAPALJE,   b. 18 Aug 1629, New Amsterdam, New Netherland [now New York City, New York County, NY] Find all individuals with events at this location
     3. Judith Joris RAPALJE,   b. 5 Jul 1635, New Amsterdam, New Netherland [now New York City, New York County, NY] Find all individuals with events at this location
     4. Marritje Joris RAPALJE,   b. 11 Mar 1637, New Amsterdam, New Netherland [now New York City, New York County, NY] Find all individuals with events at this location
     5. Jan Joriszen RAPALJE,   b. 25 Aug 1637, New Amsterdam, New Netherland [now New York City, New York County, NY] Find all individuals with events at this location
     6. Jacob Joriszen RAPALJE,   b. 28 May 1639, New Amsterdam, New Netherland [now New York City, New York County, NY] Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1643  (Age 3 years)
     7. Cathalyntje Joris RAPALJE,   b. 28 Mar 1641, New Amsterdam, New Netherland [now New York City, New York County, NY] Find all individuals with events at this location
     8. Jeronimus Joriszen RAPALJE,   b. 27 Jun 1643, New Amsterdam, New Netherland [now New York City, New York County, NY] Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 1690  (Age > 48 years)
     9. Annetje Joris RAPALJE,   b. 8 Feb 1646, New Amsterdam, New Netherland [now New York City, New York County, NY] Find all individuals with events at this location
     10. Elisabeth Joris RAPALJE,   b. 28 Mar 1648, New Amsterdam, New Netherland [now New York City, New York County, NY] Find all individuals with events at this location
     11. Daniel Joriszen RAPALJE,   b. 29 Dec 1650, New Amsterdam, New Netherland [now New York City, New York County, NY] Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified 9 May 2021 
    Family ID F9393  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart