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Richard PENN

Male 1706 - 1771  (65 years)


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  • Name Richard PENN 
    Born 17 Jan 1706  Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    AFN P20M-TR 
    Will 21 Mar 1750 
    Died 4 Feb 1771  Stanwell, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Probate 4 Mar 1771  Prerogative Court of Canterbury, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 

    • (1) Roach, Hannah Benner, "The Family of William Penn-A Collated Record," Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1967, pp. 88-92:

      RICHARD PENN, fourteenth child of the Founder and sixth of Hannah Callowhill, was born at Bristol 17 11m (January) 1705/6, at the house of his grandfather, Thomas Callowhill. He was apprenticed to business in London, and married there by license dated 26 October 1728, apparently in St. Saviour's Church, Southwark, HANNAH LARDNER, born about 1709, daughter of Dr. John Lardner, deceased, late of Gracechurch Street, London. Apparently because of the marriage, the following January, 1729, Richard's one-quarter interest in the American estates was vested in his brothers John and Thomas Penn in trust for Richard. And although nominally he was one of the throe joint Proprietors, he was the only one of them who never came to America, even after his brother John left him his half of what remained of the Founder's East and West Jersey property, and named Richard his sole executor of that part of his estate.

      Richard and his wife had their principal residence at Stanwell, Middlesex, a suburb of London, but in his will written 21 March 1750, he said he was then possessed "of a house called Batavia House, in the parish of Sunbury, in the County of Middlesex," and in a codicil he left a house in Cavendish Square to his wife. He had also devised in his will all his "private & particular rights to any Manors Tracts Lands Tenemts or Heredts" and his proprietary rights in New Jersey and arrears of rents to his American executors, Lynford Lardner, his wife's brother, and Richard Peters, in trust to sell, collect and remit the proceeds to his English executors. By his last codicil he made his son Richard residuary legatee and devised the New Jersey land in fee to him, John, the elder son, having been left the one-quarter right in the Province. He died 4 February 1771, and was buried at Stoke church where he directed a family vault was to be erected. His widow Hannah survived him fourteen years, dying at Laleham, Middlesex, according to The Gentleman's Magazine, 20 April 1781.

      Issue of . . . Richard Penn and his wife Hannah Lardner:

      i. JOHN PENN, called the Elder, b. 14 July 1729; d. testate 9 February 1795, ae. 66 years, bur. at Christ Church, Philadelphia; m. 1st, ca. 1747, probably GRACE COX, d. 17 March 1760, daughter of James Cox; m. 2nd, at Christ Church, Philadelphia, 31 May 1766, ANN ALLEN, d. in Upper George Street, London, 4 July 1830, daughter of Chief Justice William Allen of Philadelphia. No issue by either wife. John Penn's first marriage ar the age of eighteen was disapproved of by his uncle Thomas Penn, and he was sent to the Continent with a tutor to oversee his studies abroad. After Thomas' marriage in 1751, John agreed to come to Pennsylvania, and arrived in Philadelphia 1 December 1752. During his stay he was a member of the Provincial Council and one of the commissioners attending the Albany Conference in 1754. He returned to England in the late autumn of 1755.

      Three years after the death of his first wife, his uncle Thomas Penn and his father Richard commissioned him Lieutenant Governor of the Province, and he returned to Philadelphia, arriving on the Pennsylvania Packet 29 October 1763, with his brother Richard Penn. Upon The death of their father Richard in 1771, his one-fourth interest in the Proprietary estate became vested in John as the eldest son, and he returned to England with his American wife. Sailing on the Ship Brittania 5 May, they arrived in England 4 June 1771. Two years later they were back in Philadelphia, having come from New York, where they landed, and were met at Bristol on 29 August 1773, by "a great number of Gentlemen and ladies who accompanied them to town." Once more commissioned Lieutenant Governor in place of his brother Richard, he acquired the property in the upper part of Blockley Township on the west side of the Schuylkill which became known as Lansdowne.

      When the British approached Philadelphia in the fall of 1777, John Penn and his wife were taken into military custody and sent to the Union Iron Works in New Jersey under parole until the British evacuated the city. Hoping ro prevent confiscation of his whole property, he had taken the oath of allegiance to the Commonwealth and the United States by 15 July 1778, but the following year the family was divested of its Proprietorship and the land, with the exception of their private estates, by Act of Assembly. In the ensuing years he was occupied in the management of the private estates not sequestered by the Commonwealth, and in achieving the settlement of indemnity of ??130,000 granted the family. In 1787, he and his brother Richard came to an agreement resulting from the "so great alteration in the affairs and estate of the Proprietary family." Out of the share John would receive, Richard, as younger brother was to have one-third, John retaining two-thirds. In the spring of 1788, John Penn and his wife went back to England, leasing Lansdowne to William Bingham, who occupied it until 1792, when once more the Penns returned to Philadelphia where John died in 1795. By his will, probated in Philadelphia 18 February 1795, he left his one-quarter right to the Manor of Springettsberry in Philadelphia County to his brother Richard for life, with remainder to Richard's Son William in tail male, then to Richard's second son Richard, Jr. in tail male, with residue to his wife Ann (Allen) Penn.

      ii. HANNAH PENN, b. ca. 1731; d. testate at Cavendish Square, London, bur. at Stoke Poges 2 October 1791; m. 19 July 1774, JAMES CLAYTON, late of Sunbury, Middlesex; bur, at Stoke Poges 23 January 1790. No issue. By her will, proved 21 October 1791, Hannah (Penn) Clayton left her estates to her brothers John and Richard Penn, and to Richard's children.

      iii. RICHARD PENN, b. ca. 1736; d. testate at his house in Richmond, 27 May 1811, in his 76th year; m. at Christ Church, Philadelphia, 21 May 1772, MARY MASTERS, b. 3 March 1756, daughter of William Masters and his wife Mary Lawrence; d. 16 August 1829, ae. 73 years, at the house of her younger son Richard, Jr., in Great George Street, London. Richard Penn first came to Philadelphia in 1763 with his elder brother John, as noted above, and remained until October, 1768, when he returned to England. When John went to England in 1771, on the death of their father, Richard was sent over as Lieutenant Governor during his brother's absence, arriving 16 October 1771. On his brother's resuming the governorship in 1773, there was considerable coolness between them for a time, heightened by a dispute between them over the interpretation of provisions in their father's will. The dispute was settled in 1774, when Richard released to John the fourth part of his father's lands devised him for life. The following year he purchased the property in the Northern Liberties, known as Peel Hall, where Girard College now stands.

      That same year Richard and his wife carried the "Olive Branch" petition of the Continental Congress for presentation to the King. They remained in England during the Revolution, and Richard was elected to the House of Commons early in 1784, for the borough of Appleby, Westmoreland. He was still representing it when he and his wife came back to Philadelphia, having arrived at New York on the Speedy Packet 17 September 1786, to join his brother pressing their claims to Pennsylvania property. After the agreement of 1787, noted before, relating to the portions of income he and his brother John would receive from the sale of lands, Richard went back to England where he continued to represent various constituencies in Parliament. From 1796 to 1802, he sat for the city of Lancaster. In 1807, he paid another visit to Philadelphia with members of his family, residing on Chestnut Street between Eighth and Ninth, but stayed only about a year. He appears to have been the most popular and well-liked member of the Penn family to visit Philadelphia since the death of his grandfather, the Founder.

      Issue: 1. WILLIAM PENN, b. 23 June 1776; d. in Nelson Square, Southwark, London, 17 September 1845, bur. at St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol; m. by Dr. James Abercrombie of Christ Church, Philadelphia, 7 August 1807, CATHERINE JULIA (or JULIANA CATHERINE) BALABREGA, b. 13 March 1785, bapt. at Christ Church, daughter of Jacob and Mary Balabrega; d. after 1812. No known issue. William Penn was entered at St. John's College, Oxford, but took no degree, though he had remarkable abilities and was an excellent classical scholar. He came to Philadelphia with his father in 1807, and remained until at least 1812, living in various parts of the State. On his father's death in 1811, his Uncle John's life-interest in the fourth part of the general estate, and the one-third part of the sales of their private estate were vested in him, but his extravagance and lack of restraint brought him into debt, and after his return to England he appears to have spent much of the remainder of his life in or about the debtors' prison in London. 2. HANNAH PENN, d. unmarried at Richmond, Surrey, 16 July 1856. She had accompanied her father and brother to Philadelphia in 1807. 3. RICHARD PENN, b. ca. 1784; d. unmarried at his house in Richmond, Surrey, 21 April 1863, ae. 79 years. For many years he was in the Colonial Department of the English government, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1824. Upon the death of his brother William in 1845, the life use of his grandfather Richard's fourth of the Pennsylvatia rights were vested in him, but on his own death in 1863 without issue, the right passed to his second cousin, Granville John Penn, in accordance with the limitations of the family entail. 4. MARY PENN, b. 11 April 1785; d. 26 March 1863; m. 1821, as his second wife, SAMUEL PAYNTER who d. 24 July 1844. Of Richmond, he was a J.P. for Surrey and Middlesex., and was High Sheriff of Surrey in 1838. No issue. 5. A Daughter, unnamed, d. 17 June 1790, presumably in infancy.

      iv. WILLIAM PENN, b. ca. August 1747; d. 4 February 1760, ae. 12 years, 8 months, bur. at Penn church, Bucks.

      (2) Jenkins, Howard M., The Family of William Penn, Founder of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA & London, England: H.M. Jenkins, Headley Bros., 1899, pp. 177-202:

      RICHARD PENN AND HIS DESCENDANTS.

      Richard Penn, son of William Penn the Founder, was the only one of the three Young Proprietaries, inheritors of the Pennsylvania property, who did not come to visit their inheritance. Richard was born, as already stated, at the house of his grandfather, Thomas Callowhill, in Bristol, January 17,1705/6. He was named after his uncle Richard, the younger brother of the Founder, who died in his youth, more than thirty years earlier. In 1720, as appears from his mother's letter to Hannah Blackfan, Richard was " at school." Later he was sent to business in London, and in a letter from his brother Thomas to (their brother) John, in 1728, the former speaks of him as an apprentice, and says,-

      "Neither would I by any means have Dick one day more, while he is an apprentice, absent himself from business, and therefore beg you not to put it in his head, for if he does not now for two months, while all their customers are in town, constantly attend and ingratiate himself with them, it being his last Spring, I had almost as lief see him drive plow," etc.

      However judicious Thomas's views may have been as to Richard's conduct, it appears that the latter, not far from the date of this letter, must have exchanged apprenticeship for matrimony. In the reconveyance to the Penns of the Pennsylvania estates by Gee and Woods, the surviving mortgagees, in January, 1728/9, one-fourth of the Proprietary right, being Richard's share, was conveyed to his brothers John and Thomas, in trust for him, the reason for this being, as stated in a note in the pleadings in the Maryland Boundary case, "Mr. Richard Penn being then married was the reason why the legal estate was not vested in him, only the Trust thereof."

      Richard Penn married Hannah Lardner. She was the daughter of Dr. John Lardner, a physician of Gracechurch Street, London, and Woodford, Epping Forest, Sussex, her mother, the wife of Dr. Lardner, being a Winstanley.

      July 11, 1729, writing to his brother John, Richard says, "My wife joyns with service to you." This was but a few days before the birth of their first child, John, who was afterwards Governor of Pennsylvania. The following letter to his uncle John ("the American") is among the Penn papers:

      "LONDON, July 15, 1729.

      "Dear John I hope you got well home-I got well to Town. Last night about Eleven o'clock Mrs. Penn was happily delivered of a fine Boy. He is to be named after your honour and I'm to have ye pleasure to stand Godfather. Your last Civillitys have put me so far in yr debt that I fear [I] shall never have opportunity enough to return them, but pray believe me, dear sir, your most obedient [etc.]

      "GEO: STAINFORTH.

      "To JOHN PENN, ESQ., at Fein's,
      "near Maidenhead, Berks."

      It may safely be assumed that Richard's marriage was regarded by his two elder and bachelor brothers as an "early" and not prudent one. Richard's correspondence with them in the years following discloses that John, partly, no doubt, from his larger portion, and Thomas, from his superior business sense and greater personal force, dominated the youngest member of the trio. A letter to Thomas in Pennsylvania, undated, but evidently in 1732 or 1733 (well written for that day, in a good hand, and fairly spelled), refers to the landed interests, expresses regret for taking Thomas's time, and proceeds, "but I am sure you'd excuse me, for you know what a situation I was in when you left us, and I declare I never wanted a guinea so much as now." There is also this postscript:

      "My little boy is in breeches, and I think has throve ever since; he sends his Duty to you, my little girl is hardly old enough, but I do it for her."

      Richard's will shows that in 1750 he had a house, or houses, in London, and sundry references in the fragmentary family letters suggest that he must have spent some time in town, but his principal residence during most of his married life was at Stanwell, in the city suburbs, in Middlesex. He writes from there to his brother Thomas in Pennsylvania as early as January 20, 1732/3, and for many years his correspondence is usually dated there. A letter from Bishop Vickris (the old friend of the family, especially of John, heretofore repeatedly mentioned) to John Penn, dated at Wandsworth, May 2, 1736, says,-

      "I got to Stanwell just at dinner time, & stay'd till 5 o Clock Yr Bror Dick was so good as to propose carrying me to Twitnam [Twickenham] in his Chair which I readily accepted on, & twas a great Ease to me. Yr Cosen Will Pen went to Sussex last week & no body Knows when he Returns."

      Richard and William Penn, 3d, seem to have been quite friendly; at any rate, there is a note extant from the former to his brother John's housekeeper at Feens, Hannah Roberts, October 29, 1734,-during John's visit to Pennsylvania,-as follows:

      "I am going the latter part of this week with my cousin William Penn into Sussex; he wants two or three spaniels; if all my bro's [John's] are not disposed of I desire you will send by the bearer of this letter two or three of them, and the gun which was my cousin Springett's-it is a whole stock and steel mounted."

      Richard was apparently desired by his brothers to go to Pennsylvania. The letter, already cited, of his sister, Hannah (Penn) Freame, in June, 1736, from Philadelphia, to John Penn, in England, says, "He [Thomas] much wonders at my brother Richard's declining to come over."

      By the betterment of the Pennsylvania estate Richard and his family benefited of course, and probably from about 1740 they felt themselves comfortably off. But there are traces in the letters of Richard's consciousness of his subordination to his brothers. In an earnest letter to John in January, 1745/6, a few months before the latter's death, he complains of John's having treated him like a child in regard to financial matters, etc. Other family affairs are suggested in other letters. In one from Thomas Penn, in London, to Richard Hockley, April 16, 1741, the former says,-

      "My Brother Richard and Sister are gone to Bath, where she has been dangerously ill, but is recovered; her illness so discomposed my Brother that he has not taken regularly to the waters, so that he can give me no account of the Effect they have upon him."

      Bishop Vickris, writing from Bristol, July 3, 1747, to Thomas Penn, says,-

      ". . . I congratulate your Bro and Sister Penn upon their having another Son, and if he bears the Name of his Good and Honourable Grandfather I hope he will inherit his virtues, which will make him truly Rich and Great."

      Richard and Hannah Penn had four children:

      1. John, Governor of Pennsylvania. . . . He was twice married, but left no issue.

      2. Hannah, who is referred to above in the letter to John, in 1732 (or 1733), as "my little girl," not old enough to send her duty message to her uncle. There is among the Penn letters one from her to her uncle John, written in a very formal, childish hand (though she must have been some twelve or thirteen years old), as follows:

      "TWICKENHAM, 4th Ap. 1745.

      " HONOURED SIR

      "I have done according to your Desire in consulting with Mrs. Delafosse what Work I should do, and she advises me to do Cross Stitch chairs. I saw my Papa and Mama, last Saturday, who were very well, as is

      "Honoured Sir

      "Your most dutiful Niece

      "HANNAH PENN."

      Hannah married James Clayton, and died in Cavendish Square, London, without issue. She was buried at Stoke Poges, October 2, 1791, where her husband also had been buried January 23, 1790. Her will was proved October 21, 1791, leaving her estate to her brothers John and Richard Penn and the children of the latter.

      3. Richard, who became Governor of Pennsylvania. . . .

      4. William. His birth is alluded to in Bishop Vickris's letter, above, in 1747. He died in childhood, February 4, 1760. In a letter to Governor James Hamilton, at Philadelphia, February 8, 1760, Thomas Penn says, "Our family is now under great affliction, my Brother's in particular, his youngest son and your God Son dyed last Monday of a lingering fever." One of the codicils to Richard Penn's will says William was buried in Penn Church, Bucks.

      Richard Penn died February 4, 1771, and was buried at Stoke Poges. His will, made in 1750, and the four codicils, 1756, 1760, 1763, 1768, convey considerable family information. The will is dated March 21, 1750, and was proved March 4, 1771. The testator describes himself as "of Stanwell, in the county of Middlesex, Esquire." He appoints William Vigor, Esq., of Taplow, Bucks, and Joseph Freame, of London, banker, his executors (but as they both died before he did, a codicil later appoints his wife Hannah in their stead), they to act as to all his personal estate in Great Britain or elsewhere, except America. For America he appoints Lynford Lardner, Richard Peters, and Richard Hockley. He says in the will proper (1750), after speaking of his eldest son, John Penn, "I have at present only three younger children, a daughter, Hannah Penn, and two sons, Richard Penn and William Penn." In the codicil, March 13, 1760, he says, "My younger son William Penn is lately dead." He directs that a family vault be made "in the body of Stoke Church, in the county of Bucks," fourteen or sixteen feet long, seven feet broad, seven feet high. He says (1750), "I am possessed of an house called Batavia House, in the parish of Sunbury, in the County of Middlesex, with the garden [etc.]. I have purchased two individual sixth parts thereof." Later in a codicil he says he has bought two-sixths more. He leaves a house in Cavendish Square to his wife.

      Hannah Lardner Penn, wife of Richard, survived her husband over fourteen years. Her death is noted in the Gentleman's Magazine (Vol. LV., Part I., p. 326) as of date April 20, 1785:

      "At Laleham, Middlesex, Mrs. Penn, widow of the late Hon. Richard Penn, formerly proprietor and governor of Pennsylvania, in North America."

      John Penn, eldest child of Richard Penn and Hannah Lardner, became, in 1763, just when the Colonial wars closed and the Revolutionary ferment began, Lieutenant-Governor of Pennsylvania for his father and uncle, and he has the distinction of being the last Proprietary Governor. His life from 1752 to his death in 1795 was mostly spent in Pennsylvania, and at his death he seems to have left behind a good repute, thus fairly preserving, if he did not increase, the family name in the Founder's Colony.

      His early life, however, had upon it a serious cloud. He married "while a school-boy," as the accounts phrase it, a wife whom his family, and perhaps more particularly his uncle Thomas, compelled him to repudiate. The right and wrong of this transaction appear to me very uncertain, but the data available are too meagre to permit intelligent discussion of it. The wife was, it seems, the daughter of James Cox, of London,-whether the silversmith who made Thomas Penn's wedding presents for Lady Juliana, I do not know. Probably the marriage occurred as early as 1747, in which year John would have been eighteen years old.

      The course adopted with John was to send him off to Geneva, to pursue his studies in care of a tutor. The record of this exile in the Penn manuscripts of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania is quite complete. Thomas Penn, August 6, 1747, made an agreement with one Robert Dunant to take John to Geneva, teach him, direct his conduct, etc. A little later they set off, Thomas Penn accompanying them to the Continent. John writes to his uncle, October 2, 1747, from Basel, "After we parted, we went on," etc., and adds a postscript: "I hope you will excuse writing, as I cannot get any pen fit to write with, having left the writing box behind, it being put into your chaise, out of a mistake." Dunant and John reached Geneva October 10, and December 1 John acknowledges letters from Thomas, written at Frankfort and Rotterdam, on his return, and London after his arrival home.

      The stay at Geneva continued about three years, until the autumn of 1751. The preserved letters passing between uncle and nephew are quite numerous, and it would appear that Thomas did not spare reproofs, while John at times pleads so abjectly for pardon for faults committed, especially in London, as to awaken our concern as to his entire sincerity, and to show, certainly, that he very mach wished the continuance of his uncle's favor. There is also a letter, without date, from James Cox to Thomas Penn, reciting John's marriage to his daughter, and pressing the inquiry, since John has now finished his studies, what is proposed to be done. It is a straightforward letter, couched in sensible language, and, so far as it goes, gives no unfavorable impression of the Cox side of the case. August 26, 1750, William Lowther writes to Thomas Penn from Geneva, saying he had found John Penn there, doing well, had received many civilities from him, etc. A year later Thomas Penn was arranging for John to travel, and provided funds for him through Thomas Hyam & Son, London, merchants and bankers. In September or October, 1751, John set off; he writes from Turin October 13, from Milan six days later, from Florence November 6, and from Rome the 11th of December. Precisely how or when the tour concluded does not appear, but the time must have been not much later. In the summer following he came to Pennsylvania. Writing from Hitcham, England, August 26, 1752, to Richard Peters at Philadelphia, Thomas Penn says,-

      "I wrote you a few lines by my nephew from Deal, who arrived just in time to take Mr. Morris's passage off his hands, as we thought it best for him to stay a little longer."

      The Pennsylvania Gazette, November 30, 1752, contains advices from New York, November 27:

      "Last Monday there arrived here Capts. Bryant and Garrison from London. John Penn, Esq., a Grand Son of the late William Penn, Esq., Proprietary of Pennsylvania, came passenger with Capt. Bryant, and is since set out on his Way for Pennsylvania."

      And the same journal, December 7, adds,-

      "Friday last John Penn, Esq., (son of the Honourable Richard Penn, Esq., one of our Proprietaries), arrived here from London."

      Shortly after his arrival, John Penn was made a member of the Provincial Council. The minutes, Tuesday, February 6, 1753, state,-

      "The Governor [James Hamilton] proposed to introduce Mr. John Penn, the Eldest son of Proprietor Richard Penn, lately arrived here, into the Council, and left it to the consideration of the Board what Place they would be pleased to offer him; Whereupon the Council, taking the Governor's Proposition into their Consideration, unanimously agreed, as he stood in so near a Relation to the Proprietaries, and was himself perfectly agreeable to them, to place him at their Head, and that when he shall have taken the legal Qualification he should be considered as the first named or Eldest Counsellor on the Death or Absence of the Governor or Lieutenant Governor."

      The minutes show him to have been moderately attentive to the Council meetings; his presence is noted after August (1753) at eight of them within six months. In 1754 he was one of the Commissioners sent to represent Pennsylvania in the conference with the Indians at Albany, New York. April 6 of that year Governor Hamilton informed the Council that he intended to appoint John Penn and Richard Peters, of the Council, and Isaac Norris and Benjamin Franklin, of the Assembly, "as Commissioners for this Province to the treaty in Albany in June next."

      John's conduct here, however, did not please his uncle. Letters from the latter to Richard Peters refer to him in terms of sharp dissatisfaction. These letters especially belong to the year 1755. February 21 of that year Thomas Penn writes to Peters,-

      "I write you this line to tell you in confidence that my nephew's demands have been so much more than they should be on Mr. Hockley that he is ordered not to take any more than the amount of his bills. [Some bills, he complains, have been drawn by J. P. on parties in London who did not even know him, and have gone back unaccepted.] I think he had better return to Europe, and begin to fear he wants to settle in England."

      Again, August 15, Thomas Penn wrote to Peters, and after farther complaints of John, said,-

      "Your letter . . . shows me plainly that I must never expect any assistance from him. . . . I receive great pain to find after all my expense he will remain so useless a branch of my family. I could not have thought it possible that any young man would have said he could not do business, and hated a place belonging to his Family, where any man might live with the greatest satisfaction, and that he lives in a sort of exile in the place where he could live with honour, and where he would have been sent had he married the first Duke's daughter in the kingdom. . . . I have nothing to do now but to throw him off my mind, as much as possible, and hope for a more useful member of society in my own offspring. . . . I think it better he should return."

      Following these instructions, no doubt, in the autumn of 1755, about three years from the time of his arrival, John Penn returned to England. His last attendance at the Governor's Council is recorded on September 24 of that year. What occurred in England in the following eight years to improve the relations between himself and his uncle must be left to surmise, but in 1763 he returned to Pennsylvania, commissioned by his uncle and his father as their Lieutenant-Governor. Thomas Penn writes to Richard Peters, from London, August 31, 1763, thanking him for remaining in Philadelphia till his nephew, by whom this letter is sent, should arrive, and adds, "We are very sensible Mr. John Penn will arrive at a time of great difficulty. . . . I make no doubt all those we have experienced the friendship of will assist him. . . . My nephew Richard Penn accompanies his brother, to see the country. I must desire your friendly offices to him." In the "Colonial Records" (Vol. IX. p. 71), a memorandum, at New Castle, on Saturday, October 29, says,-

      "The Assembly sent a Verbal Message to the Governor by three Members that the House, having understood that His Honour intended to set off To-morrow morning for Philadelphia in order to meet the Hon'ble John Penn, Esquire, lately appointed his Successor in the Government, and this day arrived in the river from England, proposed to adjourn, [etc]."

      In the Council, at Philadelphia, October 31, the commission of John Penn, signed by Thomas Penn and Richard Penn on the 18th of June, and with the royal approval August 31, was produced and read, and he took "the usual oaths." Then "the Governor, attended by the Council, Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen, and Common Council, and preceded by the Sheriff and his officers, went to the Court House, where his commission was published with due solemnity in the presence of a very great concourse of people. Immediately afterwards the Battery Guns fired a Royal Salute, and the bells of Christ Church. [were] rung in compliment to him."

      The next day "the Governor, accompanied by the Earl of Stirling, Lynford Lardner, and Richard Penn, Esq's.,
      and several other gentlemen, went to New Castle," where the commission was publicly read, etc., with due ceremony.

      The commission given John, it seemed, was for three years only, and was to expire December 1, 1766; accordingly the Council minutes show that in 1766 a new commission was sent over, extending to 1769, and in 1769 another for three years more. But in 1771, upon the death of his father, John again went back to England. In the Council, Monday, May 6, 1771, the president, James Hamilton, announced that John Penn had embarked for Great Britain on the previous Saturday. Richard Penn, his brother, produced in October following (16th) a commission as Lieutenant-Governor, and served as such until August, 1773, when John returned. On Monday, the 30th of that month, John Penn appeared in the Council and produced a revocation of Richard's commission, dated April 30, and his own commission of the same date.

      The public service of John Penn, beginning in 1763 and closing thirteen years later with the final collapse of the Proprietary government, fortunately and favorably shuts from view the apparent shortcomings of his earlier life. It was, on the whole, creditable to him. His position through the whole period was one of extreme difficulty, and the fact that he retained his place without alienating the good will of the people generally is a testimony to his personal qualities.

      May 31, 1766, John Penn married Ann, the eldest daughter of Chief-Justice William Allen, of Philadelphia. The marriage is upon the register of Christ Church, and presumably took place there. The Pennsylvania Gazette, in its issue of June 6, 1766, announced,-

      "On Saturday last the Honourable John Penn, Esq., our Governor, was married to Miss Ann Allen, eldest daughter of the Honourable William Allen, Esq., Chief Justice of this Province, a young Lady adorned with every Accomplishment to render the married State happy."

      Of this event Thomas Penn writes to Richard Peters, July 17, 1766,-

      "I have this day an account of my nephew's marriage from himself, and write to him by this opportunity to wish him joy. I think there is a good prospect of their being happy; she has good sense, great sweetness of temper and prudence, and I think he knows how to prize qualities so amiable in so agreeable a form."

      The presumption is that the first wife, the daughter of James Cox, was then deceased, but the light on that episode is very imperfect. By neither marriage, so far as appears, was there issue. By his connection with the Allens John Penn's social, and for a brief time political, influence was increased. Up to 1776 the Allens were in the front rank of Colonial importance. Mrs. Penn's mother, Mrs. Allen, wife of the Chief-Justice, was the daughter of Andrew Hamilton, the distinguished lawyer, defender of the newspaper press, Speaker of the Assembly, etc., and the brothers of Mrs. Allen-uncles of Mrs. Penn-were Governor James Hamilton, of Bush Hill, and Andrew Hamilton, of The Woodlands. Mrs. Penn's brothers, John, James, and Andrew Allen, were active and prominent men, the last named for some time Attorney-General of the Province.

      The displacement of his brother Richard by John in 1773 seems to have been somewhat abrupt; it caused a serious breach between them. The diary of Mrs. Penn's brother, James Allen, contains these allusions to the matter:

      "August 23 [1773]. The 20th of this Month, Mr. John Penn, my Sister, & Brother John [Allen] arrived at New York in the Grammar Mast Ship, & are daily expected here. He comes to assume the Government & to supersede his Brother; to his [Richard's] great dissatisfaction. This step, tho' highly approved by Mr. John Penn's friends, it is thought will lay the foundation of a lasting animosity between the brothers. Mr. John Penn's reasons for this measure are that his Brother has set up a claim to the Proprietary Estate in reserved Lots & Manors, & immediately on his coming to the Government entered a Caveat in the Proprietary Offices, declaratory of his right, which he still reserves, notwithstanding his signing Patents as Governor.

      "Sept. 8,1773. Last night at Club the Governor and his brother met for the first time since his arrival, but they took no Notice of each other, Mr. Penn never having visited his Brother, and being determined to continue at variance."

      A letter from Judge Yeates to Colonel Burd, October 6, 1773, says,-

      "The accounts from Philadelphia tell us there is no connection between the present and later Governors, though they have dined together twice in public. Mr. Richard Penn takes no notice of his brother, nor even speaks to him."

      And a letter the following day from Edward Shippen to Colonel Burd says,-

      "Mr. Bob, Morris, the head man at the Merchant's feast, placed Governor Penn on his right hand, and his brother, the later Governor, on the left; but not a word passed between the two brothers."

      This estrangement continued for some time, but appears to have been healed within a twelvemonth; a letter from Lady Juliana Penn to John Penn, at the end of 1774, expresses her satisfaction in learning from his letters of an earlier date that a reconciliation had been effected. She speaks most kindly of the matter, and adds that "Mr. Penn [her husband] would be sorry any [letter] went from hence without mentioning the subject, till he is sure you have received his approbation and affectionate compliments upon it."

      In a letter to Lady Juliana, April 3, 1775, John said, "I have received your favor of December 31, and am obliged to you and my uncle for your kind congratulations on the reconciliation between me and my brother, which, as you observe, was happily timed, for I was then surrounded with many vexations, and I do not yet see an end to them."

      In 1773, after his final return from England, John Penn purchased of Dr. William Smith a tract of one hundred and forty-two acres on the west side of the Schuylkill, and soon after built upon it a handsome mansion, giving to the place the name "Lansdowne." The estate is now a part of Fairmount Park. The house was burned in 1854. It is understood that Horticultural Hall, erected for the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, occupies nearly or exactly the site of the mansion. Its erection was completed before 1777, as it appears on a map of that year-Faden's-and is there marked as exceeding in size and distinction the other "seats" of the neighborhood. "Lansdowne" was left by John Penn's will to his wife, and she almost immediately- March 9, 1795-conveyed it to her niece's husband, James Greenleaf.

      " Lansdowne" was John Penn's principal home for the remainder of his life, though he had, probably always, a city house also. In the stress of the war operations in 1777 he was sent by military authority to Union Iron-Works, in New Jersey, with Chief-Justice Chew, and remained there a prisoner on parole from August of that year until May following. The feeling towards him seems to have been kindly. General Washington, in 1787, when in Philadelphia attending the Constitutional Convention, twice or oftener accepted his invitations to dine or drink tea. Glimpses of the social situation are afforded by extracts from family letters. December 13, 1783, Mrs. Rebecca Shoemaker wrote to her husband from Philadelphia,-

      "That set [the Tory party] have prudently determined, as they can not exist in retirement either at Lansdowne or any where else out of public places, to join the others, and Gov. [John] Penn and lady, Mrs. Allen and mother . . . and all their former intimates, are now as happy at Mrs. Stewart's, formerly M'Clanachan, at the French Minister's, or in any other Whig Society, as ever they were in the select circle they once were the principals of."

      Same to same, May 23, 1785:

      "Betsy Allen has been confined to her chamber six months with the Rheumatism. Her eldest daughter is now grown up and is a very fine girl. Perhaps if young J. Penn would think so it would be agreeable; he lives a most recluse life over Schuylkill. He bought about 20 acres of land and is making it all a garden and has built a house in a most singular stile. I believe he still retains that peculiarity of address and manner we thought he had in N. York."

      John Penn died February 9, 1795, and was buried in Christ Church. A tablet within the church bears this inscription:

      Here lieth
      The Body of
      The Honorable JOHN PENN, Esqr
      One of the late Proprietaries of
      Pennsylvania
      who died February 9th A D 1795
      Aged 67 years

      Two statements in reference to his death and his remains are commonly made, and both apparently are on the authority of Watson, who says that he died "in Bucks county," and that, after interment " in Christ Church ground," his remains were "taken up and carried to England." As to the latter statement, Mr. Thomas H. Montgomery says that the records of the church afford no evidence of such removal. The diary of Jacob Hiltzheimer records: "February 12, 1795. Mr. John Penn, formerly Governor, when this State was a province of Great Britain, was buried from his house on Pine street, in Christ Church yard."

      Ann Penn survived her husband, and was made by his will, dated January 2, 1795, his residuary legatee, and coexecutor with John F. Mifflin. John Penn had had, after his father's death in 1771, the life use of that one-fourth of the Pennsylvania Proprietary right which had come to this branch of the family in 1729. A decision by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, in 1800, in the suit of Richard Penn against his brother John's executors, reviewed the subject of their property relations, including an agreement which the two brothers had made in 1787 respecting the division of the moneys received from the estates. The decision of the Court was for the defendants.

      Richard Penn, brother of Governor John Penn and second son of Richard the Proprietary, was born, as his obituary implies, in the year 1735. He was thus six years younger than John. He entered St. John's College, Cambridge, but quitted without a degree. By the will of his uncle, John Penn, he received a small allowance, about eighty pounds a year, but this he found quite inadequate to support his mode of life. Letters from him to his uncle Thomas, asking assistance, and the latter's somewhat sharp replies, are among the Penn papers. His arrival in Pennsylvania with John, in October, 1763, has been noted. John, as Governor, appointed him to a place in the Council, and he qualified January 12, 1764. He was the first president of the Jockey Club of Philadelphia, formed in November, 1766, and so continued until 1769, in the beginning of which year he returned to England. He there remained until after the death of his father, in February, 1771. He was then appointed Lieutenant-Governor by his uncle Thomas and his brother John, and came again to Pennsylvania, arriving here October 16, 1771. He served a little less than two years in the place to which he had been appointed, and was superseded, as already mentioned, by John in August, 1773. Contemporary accounts generally represent him as more popular at that time than John. The journal of Miss Sarah Eve says,-

      "August 30th.-This morning . . . hearing that Mr. John Penn was to be proclaimed Governor, curiosity led Deby Mitchel and I to go to see him. For my part I had rather be his brother than he, the one possesses the hearts of the people, the other the Government. Yesterday he made a public entry into Town with a large train."

      The estrangement of the brothers was apparently not of John's choice, and he made overtures to Richard, intended to heal the breach. An offer from John of an allowance of five hundred pounds a year, while the latter remained Governor, Richard declined, but upon the death of Richard Hockley, John appointed him naval officer at Philadelphia, and he accepted the place with appropriate acknowledgments.

      Richard married at Christ Church, May 21, 1772, during his service as Governor, Mary, the daughter of William and Mary Masters. This marriage has a romantic interest, for thus it came about that the daughter of Letitia Penn's unsuccessful suitor of 1701 now became the wife of Letitia's nephew. William Masters had married in 1754, many years after his failure with "Tishe," Mary, the daughter of Thomas Lawrence, sometime mayor of the city, and had died in 1760, leaving two daughters, Mary and Sarah, aged respectively four and two years. It was the elder of these whom Richard Penn now married, and the disparity of the ages of the two may be noted. Richard was then thirty- seven years old, and his wife, born March 3, 1756, was a little past sixteen.

      Thomas Masters, grandfather of the young bride, had had, early in the eighteenth century, a large holding of ground in the "Northern Liberties" of Philadelphia, and this, inherited by William Masters, passed to his widow and little girls. The widow Masters also received from her father, Thomas Lawrence, in 1761, a large lot on the south side of Market Street, between Fifth and Sixth, and erected there soon after a handsome house, one of the finest in Philadelphia, which became later an "historic mansion" of the city. Here she was living with her two daughters at the time of Mary's marriage to Richard Penn, and a conveyance was made to the bride, by the widow, two days before the wedding, of her interest in the property, "in consideration of natural love and affection," it being obviously a wedding present.

      The Market Street house became known as "Richard Penn's," though as a matter of fact his ownership in it was only through the interest of his wife, and their married life in it extended but little beyond three years. The house was burned January 2, 1780, while in their ownership. Jacob Hiltzheimer's diary, that date, says,-

      "Early this morning a fire broke out in Mr. Penn's house on Market street, occupied by Mr. Holker, the French consul, which destroyed all but the first floor."

      And Elizabeth Drinker in her journal records,-

      "1780, January 2, Richard Penn's large house, up Market St., took fire last night, and this morning is consumed all but ye lower story. A most violent snowstorm this afternoon and all night."'

      Richard Penn bought, in April, 1775, of Andrew Doz, the "Peel Hall" estate, forty-five acres, on which Girard College now stands, and it was during his ownership, November, 1777 (he being then in England), that the British engineer officers burned the house, with many others, along the north side of the then city, as a supposedly necessary feature of their defensive operations. "Peel Hall" was sold February 15, 1779, by Tench Francis, attorney for Richard Penn, to Owen Biddle, and the description in the conveyance shows its condition:

      ". . . with the outhouses, improvements, and gardens, being now torn down, burnt, and almost destroyed, and the tract or piece of land belonging thereto being laid waste, and opened to commons, the Fences which enclosed the same being taken away and destroyed."

      In the summer of 1775 Richard Penn, with his family, went to England. He had been solicited by the Continental Congress, then sitting at Philadelphia, to take to London the second petition of the Congress, the Address to the King, called the "Olive Branch," which John Dickinson had drawn up. Penn and Arthur Lee, agent in London for the Massachusetts Colony, presented it to the Earl of Dartmouth September 1, 1775, and in November, the petition being under consideration in the House of Lords, Richard Penn was interrogated, on motion of the Duke of Richmond, as to the condition of the American Colonies. His replies were intelligent and judicious; he had had, no doubt, a sympathy with the Colonial claims, and was well qualified to give information as to the circumstances out of which they arose.

      Following upon this return to England, Richard Penn spent there practically the whole of his remaining years. During the continuance of the Revolution, the receipt of funds from Pennsylvania being probably mostly cut off, he appears to have been in severe financial straits. A letter (1780) says, "My friend Richard Penn's distresses have almost drove him to distraction. I understand from Mrs. Penn they are now kept from starving by the bounty of Mr. Barclay. For aught I know Mr. Penn might long ago have been in the Fleet Prison, had not Mr. Barclay stepped forth to his relief."

      With the termination of the war his own and his wife's circumstances no doubt improved. In 1785 the Masters family, Richard Penn joining, sold the Market Street house and grounds to Robert Morris. In 1787 his brother John agreed with Richard to pay him one-fourth of the sums received by him (John) as his share of the one hundred and thirty thousand pounds voted by the State of Pennsylvania as compensation under the Divesting Act, and one-third of the returns from sales of the reserved property made after the act was passed. Upon the death of John, Richard succeeded to the life-right which John had enjoyed in the Proprietary estate.

      For many years Richard Penn was a member of Parliament. He was elected to the House of Commons April 9, 1784, for the borough of Appleby, Westmoreland, and represented it until December 20, 1790, when he was returned for Haslemere, Surrey. From 1796 to 1802 he sat for the borough of Lancaster, and in 1806 was again chosen for Haslemere. His residence is named as Queen Anne Street West, County Middlesex. In 1808, or earlier, he came to Philadelphia with other members of his family, and his residence appears in the Directory of that year as at 210 Chestnut Street, between Eighth and Ninth. This visit is commonly spoken of as not continuing more than about a year. He returned, and died in England. The Gentleman's Magazine says,-

      "May 27, 1811. At Richmond [Surrey] in his 76th year, R. Penn Esq., grandson of W. P., one of the Proprietaries, and formerly Governor of Pennsylvania."

      Mary Penn survived her husband eighteen years. The Gentleman's Magazine records,-

      "Aug. 16, 1829. At the house of her younger son, Richard Penn, Esq., in Great George street, aged 73, Mary, relict of the Hon. Richard Penn, one of the Hereditary Lords of Pennsylvania."

      Richard Penn is spoken of as an attractive and genial man. Thompson Westcott says he "possessed a fine person, elegant manners, was of a social disposition, and a bon vivant. He was the most popular member of his family who visited Pennsylvania after the death of the Founder."

      Of the four children of Richard and Hannah Lardner Penn, only Richard, as has already appeared, had issue. His children by Mary Masters Penn were:

      1. William, of whom an account will be given below.

      2. A daughter, mentioned but not named in the Gentleman's Magazine, who died Jane 17, 1790. (The notice simply says, " June 17, 1790: The youngest daughter of Richard Penn, Esq.") She was probably an infant.

      3. Hannah, who died unmarried at Richmond, Surrey, England, July 16, 1856. She accompanied her father and brother William to Philadelphia in the visit of 1808.

      4. Richard. . . .

      5. Mary, born April 11, 1785; married 1821 (being second wife of) Samuel Paynter, Esq., of Richmond, Surrey, J. P. for Surrey and Middlesex, High Sheriff of Surrey in 1838. Her husband died July 24, 1844. She died without issue March 26, 1863.

      Our consideration of the line descended from William Penn the Founder, through his son Richard, is thus narrowed to the two sons of Richard, 2d, and Mary Masters. These sons, William and Richard, 3d, left no issue, and the line thus ends. It only remains, therefore, to speak appropriately of them. The two brothers were both notable men, having remarkable talents, but William's ability was offset by serious defects and weaknesses. They have each the distinction of receiving in the Gentleman's Magazine an extended and appreciative obituary notice, from which we shall quote below.

      William Penn was born in England, June 23, 1776. He was entered at St. John's College, Cambridge, but did not take his degree. While there he produced (1794) a pamphlet "which attracted the particular notice of Mr. Pitt, Mr. Wyndham and the Government generally," its title being Vindicic?? Britannic??. It was a reply to a pamphlet which had been published by Gilbert Wakefield, of Jesus College, Cambridge, entitled "The Spirit of Christianity compared with the Spirit of the Times in Great Britain." The pamphlet was criticised by the Analytical Review, and Penn rejoined with such effect that, had his habits and disposition favored, "a path was opened for him to any advancement he could possibly desire." Unfortunately, "he was too fond of that species of festive companionship in vogue at that period, and which precluded a man from standing in any other sphere."

      William was for a time a captain in the Surrey militia. He came to Philadelphia with his father and sister Hannah in 1808, and appears to have remained in Pennsylvania for at least four years. Letters written by him in 1810 are dated in Dauphin County, and in 1812 he signs legal papers as of Northampton County. The most notable event of his visit here, if not of his life, was his marriage. This was the occasion of much sharp comment and of some warm discussion. His wife was named Catharine Julia (or Juliana Catharine) Balabrega, her parents being Jacob and Mary, of Philadelphia. She was born March 13, 1785, and was baptized in Christ Church. What her relations to William Penn may have been is not disclosed, but his appearance at the house of Rev. Dr. James Abercrombie, rector of Christ Church, on the evening of August 7, 1809, to say that within an hour he would return with Miss Balabrega to be married, threw that worthy clergyman into extreme distress, and when at the end of the time Penn appeared with her and her sister, Dr. Abercrombie and an intimate friend of Penn, who had been hurriedly summoned, earnestly endeavored. to dissuade him from the step. Penn insisted, however, that he was determined upon it, and declared that if the rector refused to officiate, he would go to an alderman nearby-naming him-at once, "and enter into a civil contract of marriage," upon which Dr. Abercrombie yielded and married them. Later, having been much criticised, Dr. Abercrombie published a pamphlet, in which he presented two letters from William Penn, describing the marriage (as here stated), an extended letter from Bishop White, and a still longer opinion of a lawyer, justifying him (Dr. Abercrombie) in performing the marriage.

      The objection to the bride is suggested, but not positively stated. Bishop White develops his opinion of the case by means of a supposititious example, in which one of the couple proposing to be married "labours under the apparently just imputation of very faulty conduct." William appears to have been sincerely attached to his wife at least as late as August 11, 1812. On that date he wrote from Easton, Pennsylvania, to John Penn, of Stoke Poges, proposing to sell to him all his interest in Pennsylvania, with the avails of which he wished to purchase an annuity. Having explained and urged the proposal,-which apparently was not accepted,-he says,-

      "I do not think I am likely to last very long, which Idea renders me doubly solicitous to place beyond the reach of Inconvenience a most deserving Wife, who is indeed my only Friend on this side of the Atlantic. I shall certainly never visit the other, and am grown so misanthropic that I protest I see no difference between the old, and the new World, except [etc.]." He subscribes himself "your faithful, affectionate, and much obliged kinsman."

      He returned to England later, however, and lived there until his death. Of his wife there is no further definite information. They are said to have been childless. In 1817 he is styled "of St. John st., Adelphi, Co. Middlesex." Much of his time he spent in or near the debtors' prison in London.

      He wrote for sundry periodicals, his contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine being usually over the signature of "the Rajah of Vaneplysia," the last word being an anagram of Pennsylvania, omitting two of the n's. His learning was quite extensive, and indeed pedantic, as an example of his letters in the magazine mentioned sufficiently shows.

      He died in Nelson Square, Southwark (London), September 17, 1845. "Pursuant to his own desire," says the notice in the Gentleman's Magazine,"the remains of Mr. Penn were deposited in the church of St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol, by those of his illustrious ancestor, Admiral Sir William Penn." We cite in conclusion as to him a further paragraph from the same obituary:

      "Extravagance and heedlessness brought him into debt, and he passed so much of his time within certain confines in Southwark, that he afterwards, when free from such restraint, declined to quit that neighborhood, and ended his days there. He was a kind, good-hearted man, and according to a common remark might truly be said to have been an enemy to no one but himself. More than this he was a man of transcendent abilities, an excellent classical scholar, and possessed of a wonderful memory, which he displayed by an extraordinary power of quotation in conversation. His talents, however, were rendered unavailable, from a recklessness and indifference to his position in society, and a turn for conviviality, which was towards the end of the last century very much in fashion. When he chose he could transfix the minds of those he associated with by the depth of his research and splendid talents. We have heard it asserted, that after a midnight excess, and being completely oppressed with wine, instead of retiring to rest, he would wrap a wet napkin round his head, and write a powerful paper for the Anti- Jacobin. He mixed with the highest ranks in society, and was courted in every company; and it was of him George the Fourth (then Prince of Wales). said, 'He was a Pen often cut (drunk, a term now obsolete, as well as the custom, in a great degree), but never mended.' Had he improved the opportunities which came in his way towards the end of last century and beginning of this, there was probably no elevation attainable which he might not have reached."

      Richard Penn, the younger brother, remained a bachelor, and appears to have been a man of estimable character. It was at his house in Great George Street, as already mentioned, that his mother died in 1817. He was for many years a trusted and useful official of the Colonial Department of the English government. He devised a cipher code for use in despatches, published 1829, with the title "On a New Mode of Secret Writing." He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society November 18, 1824. His portrait, by E. W. Eddis, was engraved (1834) by M. Ganci. The obituary notice in the Gentleman's Magazine says,-

      "Mr. Richard Penn, jun., entered the Colonial Department, at the beginning of the present century, in which he remained many years successively under Lord Hobart, Viscount Castlereagh, and Earls Camden and Bathurst. He had talents admirably suited for official duties, added to a bonhomie and agreeable address which gained him the esteem of everyone. He had also a very profound acquaintance with the French language, and was well versed in all its difficulties of grammatical construction. Possessed of a competent fortune, he dispensed it in a manner suitable to a gentleman. His benevolence and charity were of the most extensive nature, and to be in distress was at all times a sufficient recommendation to his bounty; but his feeling for the orphan was particularly strong. Mr. Penn possessed a rich vein of humor, with much good sense and good nature, all of which are fully evinced in a little book which he wrote, under the title of 'Maxims and Hints on Angling, Chess, Shooting, and other Matters; also Miseries of Fishing; by Richard Penn, Esq., F.R.S.' (London, Murray, 12mo, 1842). There are very many neat woodcuts interspersed in the work, from designs by his friend Sir Francis Chantrey, and other eminent artists."

      Richard Penn died at his house at Richmond, Surrey, April 21, 1863, "aged 79." He had enjoyed after the death of his elder brother (1845) the life use of the Richard Penn fourth of the Pennsylvania rights, and upon his death they vested in his second cousin, Granville John Penn, in accordance with the limitations of the family entail, heretofore mentioned. He survived his sister, Mrs. Paynter, it will be observed, only about a month, and with his decease this line from William Penn the Founder closed.

      (3) The National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, England <http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk>:

      Description: Will of Richard Penn of Stanwell, Middlesex
      Date [proved]: 04 March 1771
      Catalogue reference: PROB 11/965
      Dept: Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury
      Series: Prerogative Court of Canterbury and related Probate Jurisdictions: Will Registers
      Piece: Name of Register: Trevor Quire Number: 95 - 139
      Image contains: 1 will of many for the catalogue reference
    Person ID I18516  Frost, Gilchrist and Related Families
    Last Modified 9 Dec 2019 

    Father William PENN,   b. 14 Oct 1644, St. Katherine by the Tower, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 30 Jul 1718, Ruscombe, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 73 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Mother Hannah CALLOWHILL,   b. 18 Apr 1664, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 20 Dec 1726, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 62 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Married 5 Mar 1696  Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 

    • (1) Jenkins, Howard M., The Family of William Penn, Founder of Pennsylvania: Ancestry and Descendants, London, England: Headley Bros., 1899, pp. 67 et seq:

      WILLIAM PENN'S SECOND MARRIAGE.

      Two years after the death of his [first] wife, Penn married again. His second wife, Hannah Callowhill, was the daughter of Thomas Callowhill and the granddaughter of Dennis Hollister, both of Bristol, England, prosperous men of business and prominent Friends. (Clarkson describes them as "eminent merchants," and Janney follows this.) A deed of June 26, 1661, shows the marriage of Thomas Callowhill and Hannah Hollister as about occurring, and describes him as a "button-maker, sonn and heir of John Callowhill, late of said city [Bristol] gent, deceased." Later, in 1682 and 1711, other deeds describe Thomas Callowhill as "linen draper," and this, no doubt, was his occupation during most of his business life.

      Dennis Hollister was a grocer. He had four daughters, Hannah, Lydia, Mary, and Phebe. Hannah married Thomas Callowhill; Lydia married Thomas Jordan, a grocer; and Mary married Simon Clement, a merchant.

      Penn, of course, was well acquainted with families of Friends in all parts of England, and doubtless knew the Callowhills. His courtship of Hannah, as appears from letters preserved among the Penn papers of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, was warmly pursued in the later months of 1695. It is probable, but is not clear from these letters, that the engagement of marriage had then been made.

      The Bristol records of the Friends record the birth of Hannah Callowhill, daughter of Thomas and Annah (sic), of High Street, Bristol, Second month (April) 18, 1664. She was, therefore, nearly thirty-two years old at the time of her marriage. . . .

      The marriage proceedings were regularly conducted according to the Friends' order, which, newly set up in 1672 when Penn was first married, had now become well settled and recognized. The intention of marriage was declared to the "men's meeting," at Bristol, November 11, 1695, and the meeting gave leave to proceed, February 24, 1695/6. On the 5th of March following the marriage took place. The certificate of the marriage follows. I am not aware that it has heretofore been published. Penn's biographers generally refer to his second marriage, as to his first, quite indefinitely, most of them not giving the date:

      [The memorial or copie of the certificate of William Penn's and Hannah Callowhill's marriage the certificate itselfe being wrott on a pece of Parchment stampt with the five shillings stamp according to the statute.]

      Whereas it doth appeare by the Memorialls of the mens meeting of the people called Quakers in the Citty of Bristoll that William Penn of Warminghurst in the County of Sussex Esq and Hannah Callowhill daughter of Thomas Callowhill of the Citty of Bristoll Linen drap did on the eleaventh day of the ninth month 1695 manifest their intentions of marriage. And whereas such their intentions were on the foure and twentieth day of the eleaventh month in the yeare aforesaid published in the publique meeting house of the said People in the psence of many people there congregated. Now forasmuch as there appeares noe just cause wherefore a marriage betwixt the said William Penn and Hannah Callowhill should not be consumated. We therefore whose names are hereunto subscribed are witnesses that on the day of the date hereof the said William Penn taking the said Hannah by the hand did declare that he did take the said Hannah Callowhill to be his wife. And that the said Hannah holding the said William by the hand did declare that she did take the said William Penn to be her husband.

      And that also the said William Penn and Hannah Callowhill holding each other by the hand did mutually promise each to other to live together husband and wife in love & faithfullnes according to God's holy ordinance untill by death they shall be separated. And also the said William and Hannah as a further testimony of such their taking each other & of such their promise to each other have hereunto with us subscribed their names this fifth day of the first month in the yeare one thousand six hundred ninety & five.

      WILLIAM PENN
      HANNAH PENN.

      [Witnesses:]

      George Bowles
      Thomas Sturg
      Alexander Pyot
      Gilbert Thompson
      Thomas Bivin
      John Corke
      Henry Goldney
      Mary Russel
      Elizabeth Goldney
      Sarah Hersent
      Lydia Gregory
      Paul Moon
      Nicho Reist
      Tho: Speed
      Mary Speed
      Tho Lewis
      Alce Cooper
      Katherine Bound Joshua Mallet
      John Whiting
      John Clarke
      Nathaniel Wade
      James Stretter
      William Lickfold
      Thamazin Yeamans
      Thomas Jordan
      John Everard
      Abraham Jones
      John Harper
      Henr Dickinson
      J. Penington
      W. Penington
      Mary Wherly
      Sarah Jones
      Judith Dighton
      Elizabeth Cooke Rich Sneade
      Charles Harford
      Benja. Coole
      Richard Vickris
      John Field
      Rogr Haydock
      John Boulton
      John Vaughton
      John Tompkins
      D. Wherly
      Margt Duffeild
      Briget Haynes
      Eliz. Penington
      George Diton
      Robert Bound
      Tho Hicks
      John Clement
      James Millard Thomas Callowhill
      Anna Callowhill
      Sp: Penn
      Laetitia Penn
      Wm Penn Jur
      Thomas Harris
      Walter Duffeild
      Phebe Harris
      Mary Clement
      John Lloyd
      George Stephens
      Hump: Crosley

      [Certified to be an Extract from the Register or Record numbered 116, and entitled a Register of Marriages of the Society of Friends.]
    Family ID F8262  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Hannah LARDNER 
    Married Abt 26 Oct 1728  St. Saviour, Southwark, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Marriage License 26 Oct 1728  London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 9 Dec 2019 14:42:13 
    Family ID F8274  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart