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Founder of PA William PENN

Male 1644 - 1718  (73 years)


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  • Name William PENN 
    Title Founder of PA 
    Born 14 Oct 1644  St. Katherine by the Tower, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Christened 23 Oct 1644  Allhallows, Barking, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    AFN JW1J-XJ 
    Will 27 May 1712  Ruscombe, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Died 30 Jul 1718  Ruscombe, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Probate 4 Nov 1718  Prerogative Court of Canterbury, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Jordans Meeting House Burial Ground, Jordans, Chalfont St. Giles, Buckinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 

    • (1) "William Penn," Encyclopædia Brittanica, 2010, © 2010 Encyclopædia Brittanica, Inc.:

      William Penn, (b. Oct. 14, 1644, London, Eng. - d. July 30, 1718, Buckinghamshire), English Quaker leader and advocate of religious freedom, who oversaw the founding of the American Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers and other religious minorities of Europe.

      Early life and education

      William was the son of Admiral Sir William Penn. He acquired the foundations of a classical education at the Chigwell grammar school in the Essex countryside, where he came under Puritan influences. After Admiral Penn's naval defeat in the West Indies in 1655, the family moved back to London and then to Ireland. In Ireland William heard Thomas Loe, a Quaker itinerant, preach to his family at the admiral's invitation, an experience that apparently intensified his religious feelings. In 1660 William entered the University of Oxford, where he rejected Anglicanism and was expelled in 1662 for his religious Nonconformity. Determined to thwart his son's religiosity, Admiral Penn sent his son on a grand tour of the European continent and to the Protestant college at Saumur, in France, to complete his studies. Summoned back to England after two years, William entered Lincoln's Inn and spent a year reading law. This was the extent of his formal education.

      In 1666 Admiral Penn sent William to Ireland to manage the family estates. There he crossed paths again with Thomas Loe and, after hearing him preach, decided to join the Quakers (the Society of Friends), a sect of religious radicals who were reviled by respectable society and subject to official persecution.

      Quaker leadership and political activism

      After joining the sect, Penn would eventually be imprisoned four times for publicly stating his beliefs in word and print. He published 42 books and pamphlets in the seven years immediately following his conversion. In his first publication, the pamphlet Truth Exalted (1668), he upheld Quaker doctrines while attacking in turn those of the Roman Catholics, the Anglicans, and the Dissenting churches. It was followed by The Sandy Foundation Shaken (1668), in which he boldly questioned the Trinity and other Protestant doctrines. Though Penn subsequently qualified his anti-Trinitarianism in Innocency with Her Open Face (1669), he was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he wrote his most famous book, No Cross, No Crown (1669). In this work he expounded the Quaker-Puritan morality with eloquence, learning, and flashes of humour, condemning the worldliness and luxury of Restoration England and extolling both Puritan conceptions of ascetic self-denial and Quaker ideals of social reform. No Cross, No Crown stands alongside the letters of St. Paul, Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy, and John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress as one of the world's finest examples of prison literature. Penn was released from the Tower in 1669.

      It was as a protagonist of religious toleration that Penn would earn his prominent place in English history. In 1670 he wrote The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience Once More Debated & Defended, which was the most systematic and thorough exposition of the theory of toleration produced in Restoration England. Though Penn based his arguments on theological and scriptural grounds, he did not overlook rational and pragmatic considerations; he pointed out, for example, that the contemporary prosperity of Holland was based on "her Indulgence in matters of Faith and Worship."

      That same year Penn also had an unexpected opportunity to strike another blow for freedom of conscience and for the traditional rights of all Englishmen. On Aug. 14, 1670, the Quaker meetinghouse in Gracechurch Street, London, having been padlocked by the authorities, he preached in the street to several hundred persons. After the meetings, he and William Mead were arrested and imprisoned on a trumped-up charge of inciting a riot. At his trial in the Old Bailey, Penn calmly and skillfully exposed the illegality of the proceedings against him. The jury, under the leadership of Edward Bushell, refused to bring in a verdict of guilty despite threats and abusive treatment. For their refusal the jurymen were fined and imprisoned, but they were vindicated when Sir John Vaughan, the lord chief justice, enunciated the principle that a judge "may try to open the eyes of the jurors, but not to lead them by the nose." The trial, which is also known as the "Bushell's Case," stands as a landmark in English legal history, having established beyond question the independence of the jury. A firsthand account of the trial, which was a vivid courtroom drama, was published in The People's Ancient and Just Liberties Asserted (1670).

      Admiral Penn died in 1670, having finally become reconciled to his son's Quakerism. Young Penn inherited his father's estates in England and Ireland and became, like his father, a frequenter of the court, where he enjoyed the friendship of King Charles II and his brother, the duke of York (later James II). In 1672 Penn married Gulielma Springett, a Quaker by whom he had eight children, four of whom died in infancy. In the 1670s Penn was tirelessly active as a Quaker minister and polemicist, producing no fewer than 40 controversial tracts on religious doctrines and practice. In 1671 and 1677 he undertook preaching missions to Holland and northern Germany, where the contacts he established would later help him in peopling Pennsylvania with thousands of Dutch and German emigrants. The later years of the decade were also occupied with political activities. In 1679 Penn supported the Parliamentary candidacy of the radical republican Algernon Sidney, going on the hustings twice - at Guildford and later at Bramber - for his friend. During these years he wrote a number of pamphlets on behalf of the radical Whigs, including England's Great Interest in the Choice of this New Parliament (1679), which is noteworthy as one of the first clear statements of party doctrine ever laid before the English electorate.

      Founding and governorship of Pennsylvania

      Penn had meanwhile become involved in American colonization as a trustee for Edward Byllynge, one of the two Quaker proprietors of West New Jersey. In 1681 Penn and 11 other Quakers bought the proprietary rights to East New Jersey from the widow of Sir John Carteret. In that same year, discouraged by the turn of political events in England, where Charles II was ruling without Parliament and prospects for religious freedom seemed dark, Penn sought and received a vast province on the west bank of the Delaware River, which was named Pennsylvania after his father (to whom Charles II had owed a large debt canceled by this grant). A few months later the duke of York granted him the three "lower counties" (later Delaware). In Pennsylvania Penn hoped to provide a refuge for Quakers and other persecuted people and to build an ideal Christian commonwealth. "There may be room there, though not here" he wrote to a friend in America, "for such a holy experiment."

      As proprietor, Penn seized the opportunity to create a government that would embody his Quaker-Whig ideas. In 1682 he drew up a Frame of Government for the colony that would, he said, leave himself and his successors "no power of doing mischief, that the will of one man may not hinder the good of a whole country." Freedom of worship in the colony was to be absolute, and all the traditional rights of Englishmen were carefully safeguarded. The actual machinery of government outlined in the Frame proved in some respects to be clumsy and unworkable, but Penn wisely included in the Frame an amending clause - the first in any written constitution - so that it could be altered as necessity required.

      Penn himself sailed in the Welcome for Pennsylvania late in 1682, leaving his family behind, and found his experiment already well under way. The city of Philadelphia was already laid out on a grid pattern according to his instructions, and settlers were pouring in to take up the fertile lands lying around it. Presiding over the first Assembly, Penn saw the government of the "lower counties" united with that of Pennsylvania and the Frame of Government incorporated in the Great Law of the province. In a series of treaties based on mutual trust, he established good relations with the Lenni Lenape Indians. He also held an unsuccessful conference with Lord Baltimore, the proprietor of the neighbouring province of Maryland, to negotiate a boundary between it and Pennsylvania. When this effort proved unsuccessful, Penn was obliged in 1684 to return to England to defend his interests against Baltimore.

      Before his return, he published A Letter to the Free Society of Traders (1683), which contained his fullest description of Pennsylvania and included a valuable account of the Lenni Lenape based on firsthand observation. With the accession of his friend the duke of York as James II in 1685, Penn found himself in a position of great influence at court, whereby he was able to have hundreds of Quakers, as well as political prisoners such as John Locke, released from prison. Penn welcomed James's Declaration of Indulgence (1687) but received some criticism for doing so, since the declaration provided religious toleration at the royal pleasure rather than as a matter of fundamental right. But the Act of Toleration (1689), passed after James's abdication, finally established the principle for which Penn had laboured so long and faithfully.

      Penn's close relations with James brought him under a cloud when William and Mary came to the throne, and for a time he was forced to live virtually in hiding to avoid arrest. He used this period of forced retirement to write more books. Among them were An Essay Towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe (1693), in which he proposed an international organization to prevent wars by arbitrating disputes, and A Brief Account of the Rise and Progress of the People Called Quakers (1694), which was the earliest serious effort to set down the history of the Quaker movement. Penn also drafted (1696) the first plan for a future union of the American colonies, a document that presaged the U.S. Constitution.

      In 1696, his first wife having died in 1694, Penn married Hannah Callowhill, by whom he had seven children, five of whom lived to adulthood. Meanwhile, affairs had been going badly in Pennsylvania. For about two years (1692-94), while Penn was under suspicion, the government of the colony had been taken from him and given to that of New York. Afterwards, Pennsylvania's Assembly quarreled constantly with its Council and with Penn's deputy governors. The "lower counties" were unhappy at being unequally yoked with the larger province of Pennsylvania. Relations with the home government were strained by the Quakers' conscientious refusal to provide military defense. In 1699 Penn, his wife, and his secretary, James Logan, returned to the province. He settled many of the outstanding difficulties, though he was compelled to grant the Pennsylvania Assembly preeminence in 1701 in a revised constitution known as the Charter of Privileges. He also allowed the lower counties to form their own independent government. After less than two years Penn's affairs in England demanded his presence, and he left the province in 1701, never to see it again. He confided his Pennsylvania interests to the capable hands of James Logan, who upheld them loyally for the next half century.

      Final years

      Penn's final years were unhappy. His eldest son, William, Jr., turned out a scapegrace. Penn's own poor judgment in choosing his subordinates (except for the faithful Logan) recoiled upon him: his deputy governors proved incompetent or untrustworthy, and his steward, Philip Ford, cheated him on such a staggering scale that Penn was forced to spend nine months in a debtors' prison. In 1712, discouraged at the outcome of his "holy experiment," Penn began negotiations to surrender Pennsylvania to the English crown. A paralytic stroke, which seriously impaired his memory and dulled his once-keen intellect, prevented the consummation of these negotiations. Penn lingered on, virtually helpless, until 1718, his wife undertaking to manage his proprietary affairs. Penn's collected works were published in 1726.

      Frederick B. Tolles
      Ed.

      (2) Roach, Hannah Benner, "The Family of William Penn-A Collated Record," Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1967, pp. 70, 78-83:

      For the benefit of those unfamiliar with the Founder's progeny, it should be noted that he was twice married and was the father of sixteen children. However, by his first wife, Gulielma Maria Springett, only his eldest surviving son, William Penn, Jr., has known descendants living today [1967]. They stem from the latter's granddaughter, Christiana Gulielma Penn who married Peter Gaskell. . . . By the Founder's second wife, Hannah Callowhill, only their second son, Thomas Penn, has descendants living. They stem from Thomas's youngest daughter, Sophia Margaretta Juliana Penn who married William Stuart, Archbishop of Armagh. *

      * * *

      WILLIAM PENN, eldest son of . . . Admiral Sir William Penn, and his wife Margaret (Jasper) Van der Schuren, was baptized at Allhallows Church, Barking, London, on 23 October 1644. Since his numerous biographers have covered the varied aspects of his life in extenso, this present record includes only basic vital statistics and is restricted to brief references to his residence in Pennsylvania.

      He entered Christ Church College, Oxford, as a "gentleman commoner," 26 October 1660, but remained less than two years. It was during this period, as he recalled twenty years later, that he "had an opening of joy, as to these parts"-culminating in his charter from the king and the founding of Pennsylvania. He married first, at King's Chorleyword, parish of Rickmansworth, Herts., 4 2m (April) 1672, GULIELMA MARIA SPRINGETT. Born "a few weeks after the death of her father," Sir William Springett, who had died 3 February 1643/4, she is named on his mural monument in the church at Ringmer, Sussex, as "Gulielma Maria Posthuma Springett." Her mother was Sir William Springett's first wife, Mary, only daughter of Sir John Proude.

      Penn was in his thirty-seventh year when he received the charter for Pennsylvania in March, 1681. He was just past his thirty-eighth birthday when, having left his pregnant wife and small children in England, he landed at New Castle on the Delaware River in October, 1682. He remained in his province of Pennsylvania until mid-August, 1684, when he returned to England on the Ketch Endeavour.

      During the next ten years he suffered imprisonment, the temporary loss of his government, and the loss of his wife Gulielma Maria, who died 23 12m (February) 1693/4, six months before Pennsylvania was restored to him. She was buried at Jordans, aged fifty years. Heretofore the number of their children has been thought to be seven. It is now known that they had eight. Of these only three lived beyond infancy.

      Issue of 5. William Penn, the Founder, by his 1st wife Gulielma Maria Springett:

      i. GULIELMA MARIA PENN, b. at Rickmansworth, Herts., 23 11m (January) 1672/3; d. 17 1m (March) 1672/3, bur. at Jordans.

      ii. WILLIAM PENN, b. at Rickmansworth, 28 11m (January) 1673/4; d. 11 3m (May) 1674, bur. at Jordans.

      iii. MARIA MARGARET PENN (twin), b. at Rickmansworth, 28 11m 1673/4; d. 24 12m (February) 1674/5.

      iv. SPRINGETT PENN, b. at Walthamstow, Essex, 25 11m (January) 1675/6; d. at Lewes, Sussex, 10 2m (April) 1696.

      v. LETITIA PENN, b. at Warminghurst, Sussex, 6 1m (March) 1678/9; d. testate and was bur. at Jordans 6 April 1746; m. at Horsham, Sussex, 20 August 1702, WILLIAM AUBREY, son of William and Elizabeth Aubrey; bur. at Jordans 23 May 1731. No issue. . . .

      vi. WILLIAM PENN, JR., b. at Warminghurst, 14 1m (March) 1680/1; reported to have d. in Belgium 23 June 1720. . . .

      vii. A Daughter, unnamed, b. at Warminghurst, 1m (March) 1680, while her father was in Pennsylvania; d. in infancy.

      viii. GULIELMA MARIA PENN (2nd), b. at Warminghurst, 17 9m (November) 1685; d. at Hammersmith, Middlesex, 20 9m 1689, bur. at Jordans.

      Just over two years after the death of his first wife, 5. William Penn married secondly at Bristol on 5 1m (March) 1695/6, HANNAH CALLOWHILL, born 11 12m (February) 1670/1, daughter of Thomas Callowhill, linen draper of Bristol, and his wife Hannah Hollister. Three years later on 3 September 1699, accompanied by his second wife and daughter Letitia, Penn sailed on the Canterbury for Pennsylvania, arriving at Philadelphia the following 3 December. 6. William Penn, Jr., the only surviving son of the first marriage, remained in England, having been married only the previous January. The Founder's stay in Pennsylvania on this second and last visit was only slightly longer than his first; he had stayed twenty-two months the first time, twenty-three months the second time. He and his wife and daughter left on the Dolmahoy 3 November 1701, arriving in England early in December of the same year.

      For a time the Penns lived at Bristol, although Penn occasionally took lodgings in London when he had business there, or a house in the suburbs. From 1710 until his death, the family home was at Ruscombe in Berkshire near Twyford and about six miles from Reading. It was at London, however, that Penn suffered his first stroke early in 1712, and then a second one at Bristol the following October. A third stroke in February, 1712/13, at Ruscombe, so shattered his physical strength and disabled his mental powers that he never recovered. He died testate at Ruscombe 30 July 1718, aged seventy-four years, and was buried at Jordans the following 5 August.

      In his will, written at London when he was recovering from his first stroke, he noted that since his eldest son . . . William was amply provided for by a settlement of "his Mothers and my ffathers Estate," he was devising the government of his province to English trustees, but neglected to specify the nature of the trust. To other trustees, of which his wife, his father-in-law Thomas Callowhill, and his sister Margaret Lowther were three, he left all his lands in Pennsylvania and America, with power to sell so much as would be sufficient to pay his debts. They were then to convey to his daughter Letitia Aubrey, and to the three children of his son, 6. William-Gulielma Maria, Springett, and William Penn, 3rd, or their heirs-each 10,000 acres to be laid out in Pennsylvania. The rest of his lands were to he conveyed by the trustees to and among the children of his second marriage. All his personal estate and arrears of rent due him he left to his wife Hannah for the benefit of herself and her children. Out of the rents she was to have ??300 yearly for life. He hoped at least some of his children would settle "in America where I leave them so good an Interest to be for their Inheritance from Generacon to Generacon. . . ." A codicil, dated 27 3m (May) 1712, in which he affirmed these provisions to have been his will and desire, was witnessed, among others, by Eliz: Penn and Tho: Penn, believed to have been Negro servants.

      Penn's will was offered for probate by his widow Hannah, whom he had named sole executrix, at Doctors' Commons 4 November 1718. A fortnight later she executed a "deed poll of appointment" in which she assigned half of Pennsylvania and the Lower Counties of Delaware to her eldest son John, and divided the other half of those lands among her three younger sons, Thomas, Richard and Dennis Penn. After the death in 1720 of the Founder's eldest son, . . . William Penn, Jr., Springett Penn, the latter's eldest son, attempted to claim the Proprietary right to the government of Pennsylvania as heir-at-law by right of primogeniture. As a result, on 23 October 1721, Hannah Penn began a suit in the Court of Exchequer to establish the validity of her husband's will and the bequests in it, but died before it was settled. She had survived her husband eight years, dying 20 10m (December) 1726, aged fifty-six, and was buried at Jordans.

      The suit was settled finally on 4 July 1727, in favor of the younger branch of the family, barring the elder branch from the government and limiting it to the specific bequests in the Founder's will. On 5 July following, a family deed sextipartite confirmed the deed poll of assignment made in 1718, except for certain parts no longer valid. It was agreed that a cash settlement and annuity was to he set up for Margaret Freame, Hannah's only surviving daughter, which was to be paid by John Penn, the eldest son. He was to retain the life interest in half of the Pennsylvania and Delaware lands, but since Dennis Penn had died, the other half was to be vested for life in Thomas and Richard Penn as tenants in cornmon. The three surviving sons were thereby confirmed as joint proprietors of the Province of Pennsylvania.

      Issue of . . . William Penn, the Founder, by his 2nd wife Hannah Callowhill:

      ix. A Child, unnamed, b. or d. 1697.

      x. JOHN PENN, the American, b., at Philadelphia 29 11m (January) 1699/1700; d. testate and unmarried at Hitcham, Bucks., 25 October 1746, bur. at Jordans. . . .

      xi. THOMAS PENN, b. at Bristol 9 1m (March) 1701/2; d. at London 21 March 1775. . . .

      xii. HANNAH MARGARITTA PENN, b. at Bristol 30 5m (July) 1703; d. at Bristol by 1m (March) 1707/8.

      xiii. MARGARET PENN, b. at Bristol 7 9m (November) 1704; bur. at Jordans 12 February 1750/51;. m. at London 6 5m (July) 1727, THOMAS FREAME, citizen and grocer of London, son of Robert Freame and his wife Alice Vice; d. ca. March, 1741. . . .

      xiv. RICHARD PENN, b. at Bristol 17 11m (January) 1705/6; d. testate 4 February 1771. . . .

      xv. DENNIS PENN, b. at Ealing, Essex, 26 12m (February) 1706/7; d. unmarried 6 11m (January) 1722/3, bur. at Jordans.

      xvi. HANNAH PENN, b. in Ludgate Parish, London, 5 7m (September) 1708; d. at Kensington, 24 11m (January) 1708/9, bur. at Tring, Herts.

      (3) Jenkins, Howard M., The Family of William Penn, Founder of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA & London, England: H.M. Jenkins, Headley Bros., 1899, pp. 30-46, 47-68, 69-88, 120-125:

      WILLIAM PENN: CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH.

      The Founder of Pennsylvania, the son of Captain, afterwards Admiral, William Penn, was born in London on the 14th of October, 1644.

      Captain Penn had just been appointed to the command of the "Fellowship," in the navy controlled by the Parliament. The extracts from his journal of his cruise in this ship, printed by Granville Penn in his "Memorials" of Admiral Penn, show that on Saturday, the 12th of October, he being on board, the ship, which had been lying in the Thames, left Deptford at six o'clock A.M. and dropped down the river. But the next entry is not made until the 4th of November, when she weighed anchor "and came into the Downs." The common, and no doubt a fair, presumption has been that she was delayed on her voyage to the Irish coast-where she subsequently took part in the operations against the royalists-by the stay of Captain Penn on shore, on account of the birth of his son, on the Monday following the start from Deptford.

      It has been assumed by biographers of Penn that Captain Penn, in October, 1644, at the time of the birth of his son, was living in the house described by the seaman Gibson (already cited) as the Admiral's residence in 1655, "upon Great Tower-hill." This may be correct, but there is narrow ground for the assumption. In the fourteen years that intervened Captain Penn was much of the time at sea, and his family were living elsewhere. That the same house would be occupied in 1644 and in 1655 is at least doubtful, and in the absence of fuller knowledge the assumption appears excessive.

      The biographical sketch of Penn prefixed to his "Select Works" says he "was born in the parish called St.
      Katherine's, near the Tower of London." The baptism register of the Church of Allhallows, Barking (London), contains this entry:

      "1644, October 23. William, son of William Penn, and Margarett his wife, of the Tower Liberty."

      Allhallows, Barking, is an interesting old church at the east end of Great Tower Street, in the ward of that name, dedicated to Allhallows and St. Mary, and said to be "the most complete medieval church remaining in London." Its distinguishing title, Barking (for there are several Allhallows churches in London), is derived from the fact that its vicarage originally belonged to that of Barking, outside the city, in Essex.

      The "Fellowship" having sailed, Margaret Penn presently went with her child to Wanstead, in Essex, in the suburbs of London, and that place, down to the time of the Admiral's death there in 1670, becomes prominent in the family history. In what house they stayed at Wanstead does not appear, but a misconception of Captain Penn's worldly condition has led some of the biographers of his son to say that they resided at Wanstead, in "one of the country seats" belonging to the captain. This is, of coarse, simply imaginative. Unless we are grossly misinformed concerning him, Captain Penn's circumstances at that time did not permit him the ownership of either town house or country-seat.

      Wanstead is close by Chigwell. At the latter place there were free schools, founded in 1629 by Harsnet, Archbishop of York. To these young William Penn was sent. One of them was for instruction in English, the other a Latin school. The quaint and strictly framed rules of the archbishop's foundation give us a clue to the boy's education. Those of the school "for teaching the Greek and Latin tongues" required that the master should be "a good poet; of a sound religion, neither papal nor puritan; of a grave behavior; of a sober and honest conversation; no tipler or haunter of alehouses; no puffer of tobacco; and above all, apt to teach, and severe in his government." Waiving controversy upon the religious clause, it cannot be said but that these exacting specifications were likely to give a pronounced character to the school, and probably secure a teacher of some ability. It was directed also by the archbishop that the text-books in the higher school should be "Lilly's Latin and Cleonard's Greek grammar," that, for "phrase and style," the scholars should read "no other than Tully and Terence," that for poetry they should have "the ancient Greek and Latin, no novelties, nor conceited modern writers." As to the teacher of the English school, it was required that he write "fair secretary and Roman hands," " that he be skillful in ciphering and casting of accounts, and that he teach his scholars the same faculty."

      These schools at Chigwell the lad attended, it is said, until he was twelve years old. That he acquired a good knowledge of Latin there is fairly certain, and as to Greek, the foundation of his acquaintance with it may also have been laid in this period. His writings in later time show him to have been a fair Greek scholar, and his copy of the Greek Testament was sold at auction in London in 1872.

      Without intending to speak minutely of any part of Penn's life, it seems proper to dwell a moment at this point on the surroundings of these early years, while living at Wanstead and attending the Chigwell schools. Dr. Stoughton devotes some pages to an intelligent and suggestive sketch of them, pointing out that this part of Essex in those years "was steeped in Puritanism," and that the conditions of the boy's life there may well have influenced his subsequent career. Dr. Emanuel Utey, vicar of Chigwell, had been ejected from his place for alleged ritualistic practices in church in 1641, and in 1650 it was reported by commissioners that there had been no settled minister there since his departure. The disputes in the church at Wanstead, also, between Presbyterianism and Episcopacy began about 1642, and ran high. A number of the people drew up and signed a celebrated "Protest" against all "innovations" which, as they considered, would lead away from "the true reformed Protestant religion."

      His years in the country, in the midst of a community of strenuously earnest advocates of religious change, attending a small and strictly administered school, hearing the anxious discussion of great and serious events going on in England, must have left their deep impression on William Penn. Adjacent to Wanstead and Chigwell there lay -until 1851, when it was disafforested-the woods known as Hainault Forest, and in these, it may reasonably be supposed, the active, spirited boy rambled and played, acquiring that love for nature and that acquaintance with it by which his subsequent career was marked. The region is still "very picturesque in parts, abounds in nightingales, and can show some fine trees, although none so large nor so celebrated as the Fairlop oak, which stood not far from Chigwell."

      Returning to London about 1655 or 1656, it is said that Admiral Penn had a private tutor for the lad at the house on Tower Hill. But this could have been only for a brief period, if the account given by Granville Penn can be confidently followed at this point. He says that the Admiral, after his release from the Tower, in 1655, took his family to Ireland, and indicates that they practically remained there until 1660, when Charles II. returned from Holland and the monarchy was restored. It may thus be assumed that, until he went to the University, Penn's education had been received at Chigwell and at the hands of private tutors,-the latter for a short time in London, and for a longer period at Macromp, in Ireland. In 1660, in October, he went to Oxford, and on the 26th of that month was entered as a "gentleman commoner" at Christ Church College.

      Who his tutors were, or what the circumstances of his life in Ireland, is not disclosed by the biographies; but it seems quite plain that the lad of 1660 arrived at Oxford very much of a Puritan in his religious temper, and that his subsequent tribulations there were a not unnatural consequence of this disposition. In his own account of his second tour in Germany, 1677, he summarizes the narrative which he gave to Anna Maria von Schurmann, and the Somerdykes, in their house at Wiewerd, at the morning interview on the 13th of September, and unless we could take the view that he was a deceiving or self-deceived man, its pregnant sentences must command our attention. He says, "Here I began to let them know how, and when, the Lord first appeared unto me, which was about the twelfth year of my age, anno 1656. How at times betwixt that and the fifteenth, the Lord visited me, and the Divine impressions he gave me of himself; of my persecution at Oxford, and how the Lord sustained me in the midst of that hellish darkness and debauchery; of my being banished the college; the bitter usage I underwent when I returned to my father; whipping, beating, and turning out of doors in 1662. Of the Lord's dealings with me in France, and in the time of the Great Plague in London. In fine, the deep sense he gave me of the vanity of this world; of the Irreligiousness of the religions of it."

      The biographic value of this passage is important. Granville Penn, with scant sympathy for the Quaker, but more for the Admiral, in his memorial of the latter minimizes the breach between father and son at the time of the Oxford troubles, but it is evident that he does so unduly; the impressive details above are too plain to be set aside.

      Dr. Stoughton, pointing out the manner-not at all unfavorable-in which Anthony Wood, the minute and caustic annalist of Oxford University, describes Penn's stay there, questions the accuracy of the stories that he joined in tearing off the gowns of the students, etc., and even suggests a doubt whether he was expelled by the authorities. But as to the latter point his own expression above, "my being banished the college," appears conclusive. Anthony Wood describes the young man at some length, "enumerates a number of his works, and treats him with considerable civility."

      Paragraphs in Pepys, at this period, throw light on the situation. The following are of interest:

      "Nov. 1, 1661.-At my house, Sir William sent for his son, Mr. William Pen, lately come from Oxford."

      "Jan. 1, 1661-2.- . . . Home again, and sent to young Mr. Pen and his sister to go anon with my wife and I to the theatre. That done, Mr. Pen came to me, and he and I walked out . . . so home again to dinner, and by and by came the two young Pens, and after we had eat a barrel of oysters, we went by coach to the play ["The Spanish Curate."]. . . . From thence home, and they sat with us till late at night, at cards very merry, but the jest was Mr. Pen had left his sword in the coach, and so my boy and he run out after the coach, and by very great chance did at the Exchange meet with the coach, and got his sword again."

      "Jan. 25, 1661-2.-At home. . . . Walking in the garden. . . . Sir W. Pen came to me, and did break a business to me about removing his son from Oxford to Cambridge to some private college. I proposed Magdalene, but cannot name a tutor at present; but I shall think and write about it."

      "Feb. 1.-I and Sir William Pen walked in the garden, talking about his business of putting his son to Cambridge; and to that end I intend to write to-night to Fairebrother, to give me an account of Mr. Burton of Magdalene."

      "March 16.-Walking in the garden with Sir W. Pen: his son William is at home, not well. But all things, I fear, do not go well with them-they both look discontentedly, but I know not what ails them."

      "April 28, 166.-[At Portsmouth] Sir W. Pen much troubled upon letters came last night. Showed me one of Dr. Owen's to his son, whereby it appears his son is much perverted in his opinion by him; which I now perceive is one thing that hath put Sir William so long off the hookes."

      With Penn's stay at Oxford the Pennsylvania undertaking is in some degree connected. Twenty years later, his letter, -dated at Westminster, 12th of Second Month (April), 1681, just after the grant had been made him by the King,- addressed to Robert Turner, Anthony Sharp, and Roger Roberts, at Dublin, contained a passage which has been repeatedly noted:

      "For many are drawn forth to be concerned with me [in Pennsylvania], and perhaps this way of satisfaction [for losses which he had previously mentioned, due to his being a Quaker] has more of the hand of God in it than a downright payment: this I can say that I had an opening of joy, as to these parts, in the year 1661, at Oxford, twenty years since; and as my understanding and inclinations have been much directed to observe and reprove mischiefs in government, so it is now put in my power to settle one."

      What is signified in the expression "an opening of joy," etc., is somewhat uncertain, but Dr. F. D. Stone has pointed out, in connection with it, that as early as 1660, George Fox was thinking of forming a colony of Friends in the region subsequently granted to Penn, and corresponded with Josiah Coale, who was then in Maryland, on the subject.

      Following upon his departure from Oxford, and a brief stay in London, came the tour in France, the studies under Moses Amyraut, the Protestant theologian, at Saumur, and the excursion into Italy. Penn returned from Turin in the summer of 1664, being recalled by his father, who now expected active employment in the naval war with the Dutch. Pepys has these two allusions:

      "Aug. 26, 1664.-Mr. Pen, Sir William's son, is come back from France, and come to visit my wife; a most modish person, grown, she says, a fine gentleman."

      "30th.-Comes Mr. Pen to visit me. I perceive something of learning he hath got, but a great deal, if not too much, of the vanity of the French garb, and affected manner of speech and gait. I fear all real profit he hath made of his travel will signify little."'

      Upon which it may be remarked simply that Mr. Pepys had little prevision of the future, so far as young "Mr. Pen" was concerned.

      "Sept. 5, 1665.-Home pretty betimes, and there found W. Pen, and he staid supper with us and mighty merry talking of his travells, and the French humours, etc., and so parted and to bed."

      The events following the return from Italy down to the writing of "The Sandy Foundation Shaken," and his imprisonment in the Tower in 1668, are all interesting, but must be passed over without much detail. He began the study of law at Lincoln's Inn (February 7, 1664-65), was presented at court, attended upon his father, was on board the fleet, and brought despatches to the King. Letters sent to his father at this time are worth reproduction, as showing the filial attitude of the writer. They are in Granville Penn's "Memorials," Vol. II. p. 318, and are also reproduced by Janney:

      "FROM HARWICH, 23d Aril, 1665.

      "HONOURED FATHER,-We could not arrive here sooner than this day, about twelve of the clock, by reason of the continued cross winds, and, as I thought, foul weather. I pray God, after all the foul weather and dangers you are exposed to, and shall be, that you come home as secure. And I bless God, my heart does not in any way fail, but firmly believe that if God has called you out to battle, he will cover your head in that smoky day. And, as I never knew what a father was till I had wisdom enough to prize him, so I can safely say, that now, of all times, your concerns are most dear to me. It's hard, meantime, to lose both a father and a friend. . . .

      "W. P."

      * * *

      "Navy OFFICE, 6th May, 1665.

      "At my arrival at Harwich, (which was about one of the clock on the Sabbath day, and where I staid till three), I took post for London, and was at London the next morning by almost daylight. I hasted to Whitehall, where, not finding the King up, I presented myself to my Lord of Arlington and Colonel Ashburnham.

      "At his majesty's knocking, he was informed there was an express from the Duke; at which, earnestly skipping out of his bed, he came only in his gown and slippers; who, when he saw me, 'Oh! is't you? how is Sir William?'

      "He asked how you did at three several times. He was glad to hear your message about Ka. [?] After interrogating me above half an hour, he bid me go about your business and mine too. As to the Duchess, he was pleased to ask several questions, and so dismissed me.

      "I delivered all the letters given me. My mother was to see my Lady Lawson, and she was here.

      "I pray God be with you, and be your armor in the day of controversy! May that power be your salvation, for his name's sake. And so will he wish and pray, that is with all true veneration, honored father,

      "Your obedient son and servant,

      "WILLIAM PENN."

      The naval battle with the Dutch, in which Admiral Penn was "Great Captain Commander," and in which he won a signal success, occurred June 3, 1665, and soon after the frightful increase of the plague in London drove Penn to the country. In the autumn of that year his father sent him to Ireland. There he remained for the most of two years. In this period occurred the episode of his military service, under Lord Arran (second son of the Duke of Ormond), at the siege of Carrickfergus, and about the time of this affair-May, 1666-there was painted the "portrait in armor," of which the Historical Society of Pennsylvania possesses a copy, presented by Granville Penn in 1833. This is a half-length; the artist is unknown. It is doubtless the only portrait extant of William Penn painted from life, unless it be considered that, the Blackwell Grange picture is really his, and not that of the Admiral. The original of the portrait in armor is at Pennsylvania Castle, in the Isle of Portland, formerly the property of the Penns, now owned by J. Merrick Head, Esq.; another copy belongs to Captain William Dugald Stewart, of Tempsford Hall, in Bedfordshire.

      The incident of the attendance by Penn on Thomas Loe's preaching at Cork, his further and renewed convincement of the views of the Friends, and his arrest by officers at a Friends' meeting in that city now followed,-the arrest being upon September 3, 1667. He returned soon after that to London, then became openly and actively identified with the Friends, and presently began to write and speak in their behalf. In 1668 he published "The Sandy Foundation Shaken," and on the 12th of December of that year he was committed to the Tower on account of it. He had been, as he himself tells in the manuscript fragments of an "Apology," twice to court earlier in the year, once in company with George Whitehead, Josiah Coale, and Thomas Loe, and next time with Whitehead and Coale, to urge a relaxation of the persecution of the Friends. Their sufferings by "Stocks, Whips, Gaols, Dungeons, Pr??munires, Fines, Sequestrations, and Banishment," compelled his deep sympathy, and they were entitled, he thought, to better treatment. "Accordingly," he says, "I had formed a scheme to myself for that purpose. But it so fell out that, towards the close of that year, I was made incapable of prosecuting the resolution I had taken, and the plan I had layd of this affair, by a long and close imprisonment in the Tower for a book I writ, called [etc.]. . . I was committed the beginning of December, and was not discharged till the Fall of the Leaf following; wanting about fourteen days of nine months. . . . Within six weeks after my enlargement I was sent by my Father to settle his Estate in Ireland," etc.

      In the Tower he had written "No Cross, No Crown," which must be considered, no doubt, the most important of his numerous religious writings. The subject-a crown of reward for the cross of suffering-sprang naturally from his own situation. Hepworth Dixon says that, "considering the shortness of time, and other untoward circumstances under which it was produced, the reader is struck with the grasp of thought, the power of reasoning, the lucid arrangement of subject, and the extent of research displayed. Had the style been more condensed, it would have been well entitled to claim a high place in literature."

      His release from the Tower must have been, from his own account, near the end of August, 1669. On the 15th of September he left London, and on the 24th of October he sailed from Bristol for Cork, where he arrived on the 26th, to resume his charge of the Irish property. He found, as he tells us in his fragmentary "Apology," the Friends under "general persecution, and those of the City of Cork almost all in prison," so that he promptly "adjourned all private affairs," and hastened to Dublin to the authorities to intercede in their behalf. Rutty's "History of Friends in Ireland" says that "William Penn, who was here this year, did frequently visit his friends in prison, and hold meetings with them, omitting no opportunity he had with those in authority to solicit on their behalf; and as the Ninth month [November] national meeting was this year held at his lodgings in Dublin, an account of Friends' sufferings was then drawn up by way of address, which he presented to the Lord Lieutenant, (John, Lord Berkeley, Baron Stratton), whereupon an order of Council was obtained for the release of those that were imprisoned."

      Penn remained in Ireland until the summer of 1670. He resided at Cork and at Dublin, preached at the Friends' meetings, wrote religious pamphlets, appealed not only to the Lord Lieutenant, but to Lord Arran, the Lord Chancellor, and others, in behalf of the Friends, and attended meantime to the care of his father's property. In April, 1670, the Admiral wrote to him, "I wish you had well done all your business there, for I find myself to decline." Penn, therefore, presently returned to England, and joined his father at Wanstead. Margaret, as we have seen, was married, and was living with her husband in Yorkshire; while Richard, in June, as appears from Captain Poole's letter, already cited, was in Italy. The Admiral's career was nearly closed. His son-in-law Lowther had written to him in April, recommending for his purchase an estate near his own in Yorkshire, but the time for that was past.

      Penn, however, was to undergo one more remarkable experience before he parted from his father. On August 14, 1670, it being the first day of the week, he went with William Mead to the meeting of Friends in White Hart Court, Gracechurch Street. William Mead, a country gentleman of some estate in Essex, had been a captain in the Parliamentary service, and for a time, like John Gilpin, a "linen-draper bold" in the city. He was now one of those recently converted to the views of George Fox, and active in spreading "the Truth," as the Friends held it. The meeting-house in Gracechurch Street had been, like the others in London, for some weeks closed under the operation of the "Conventicle Act," and guarded by soldiers against use by the Friends, and on each Sabbath since the law took effect (May 10) there had been some of them arrested and imprisoned or fined. On May 15, George Fox was taken, in front of the meeting, but the informer failed to appear against him, and he was released; later John Burnyeat, George Whitehead, and others had fallen victims to the sharp enforcement of the law by the lord mayor, Sir Samuel Starling. On this 14th of August the Friends had repaired to their meeting-house (Gracechurch Street), but had found it closed and guarded as before. A group had remained outside in the street, and Penn, removing his hat, had begun to address them, when in a moment constables appeared, with a warrant from the lord mayor, and arrested him and Mead; and being thereupon haled before Sir Samuel in short order, and duly reviled by him, they were committed for trial. Penn's letter to his father, dated next day, the 15th, from "the sign of the Black Dog, in Newgate Market,"-"a wretched sponging- house," Hepworth Dixon calls it, informed the sick Admiral at Wanstead what had happened.

      The trial of Penn and Mead is a tempting theme. It forms an episode in English history at once dramatic and diverting. In its historical and legal aspects it is important, and as a picture of manners in London under Charles II. it has elements which Shakespeare would have made immortal. As to the chief actor, Penn, nothing in his extended life and varied activities better discloses his qualities.

      The trial began September 1, and was continued on the 3d, 4th, and 5th. Ten magistrates were upon the bench: the mayor, Sir Samuel Starling; the recorder, Sir John Howell; five aldermen, among them Sir John Robinson, the oppressive and persecuting lieutenant of the Tower; and three sheriffs. The browbeating and bullying from the court, especially from the recorder, the spirit, readiness, and wit of Penn's defence (and Mead, it must in justice be said, bore himself equally well), the courage and endurance of the jury, the ridiculous break-down of the whole proceeding,-though the court indulged its spitefulness to cover its mortification at the end,-make up a chapter which every biographer of Penn is irresistibly led to cite as fully as possible. Penn's promptly issued account of it, "The People's Ancient and Just Liberties Asserted," has been many times reprinted, and its simple and graphic details make it worthy of a place beside classics of Defoe or Bunyan.

      The sequel of the trial, too,-the imprisonment of the jury in default of payment of forty marks fine for refusing to find a verdict of guilty, their release upon habeas corpus in a suit against the lord mayor and recorder for illegal imprisonment, the trial of the suit in the Court of Common Pleas before a bench of twelve judges, the elaborate argument of the question by distinguished counsel, the unanimous decision that a jury is to judge of the facts and that it cannot be coerced,-that the court may try "to open the eyes of the jurors, but not to lead them by the nose,"-and the ultimate triumphant discharge in open court of Edward Bushel and his eleven resolute companions,-is set down in the law reports of England as a famous case. "It established a truth," says Hepworth Dixon, "which William Penn never ceased to inculcate-that unjust laws are powerless weapons, when used against an upright people."

      Penn, with Mead, had been recommitted to Newgate September 5, in default of the payment of fines for "contempt of court" in declining to remove their hats during the trial. Some one, however, paid their fines two days later, and they were released.

      The Admiral, at Wanstead, was now within a few days of his close. Penn's discharge from Newgate took place on the 7th of September, and it was but nine days later, the 16th, that his father died. . . .

      WILLIAM PENN'S FIRST MARRIAGE.

      WILLIAM PENN, by the death of his father, "came into the possession of a very handsome estate, supposed to be worth at that time not less than fifteen hundred pounds per annum; so that he became, in point of circumstances, not only an independent, but a rich man."

      This statement, made by Clarkson, has been followed by successive biographers; Janney, Dixon, and probably others repeat it. The property which the son received was substantially that in Ireland, the Shangarry and adjoining estates; if there was any other of importance that came into his possession from his father I have seen no account of it.

      Penn's first marriage followed about a year and a half after the death of the Admiral. In the mean time he had been again imprisoned six months (1670-71), at first in the Tower, and then in Newgate, for being at the Friends' meeting in Wheeler Street, London, and for refusing to take the oath of allegiance (tendered as a "snare" to the Friends, who would take no oaths); had written several more political and religious pamphlets; and had made his first religious visit to Holland and Germany.

      The years of his courtship and of his first marriage-as late, at least, as his first return from Pennsylvania-form the halcyon period of Penn's career. There is about these years an air of hopeful and buoyant cheerfulness. The accounts given of the Springetts by Mary Penington, and of the Peningtons by Thomas Ellwood, are at once romantic and idyllic. Upon these details it will always be pleasant, in the study of the Founder's varied experiences of sunshine and cloud, to linger.

      Early in 1668, it is said, William Penn first met Gulielma Maria Springett. She was then living in the family of her stepfather, Isaac Penington, with her mother, Mary Penington,-previously the wife of Sir William Springett, her (Gulielma's) father,-at Bury House, near Amersham, in Buckinghamshire. Isaac Penington was the son of Alderman Isaac Penington, of London, sometime lieutenant of the Tower, Lord Mayor of London, and one of the judges who condemned Charles I. to death. In 1654, Isaac, the son, had married the widow, Mary Springett, and somewhat later both had joined the religious movement of which George Fox was the leader. In 1658 they had settled at the Grange, at Chalfont St. Peter's, in Bucks, which had been assigned as a residence (not conveyed) to Isaac by his father, and they continued to live in that part of the country, amid many vicissitudes, until their death and burial in the Friends' ground at Jordans, near Chalfont, where also William Penn and most of his family are buried.

      Gulielma Maria Springett was the only child of Sir William Springett, Knight, who was a native of Sussex, born about 1620, and who died February 3, 1643/4, of a fever contracted at the siege of Arundel Castle, in Sussex, where he was commanding as a colonel in the Parliamentary army. His wife, Mary, afterwards Mary Penington, was the daughter of Sir John Proude, Knight, and was born about 1624. She died at Worminghurst, in Sussex, September 18, 1682, a little more than a fortnight after the sailing of the "Welcome" for Pennsylvania (and a few months later than the death of William Penn's mother, the widow of the Admiral). Her daughter, Gulielma Maria, whose name thus represented those of both parents, was a posthumous child. She was born "a few weeks after the death of her father," Maria Webb says, and as this occurred, as already said, February 3, 1643/4, her birth may have been either in the closing days of 1643, old style, or the beginning of 1644. Maria Webb says, " it may be presumed she was born in 1644, but we have no exact record of the date." She was thus some six or seven months older than William Penn.

      The Peningtons continued to live at Chalfont Grange until 1666. The property had been confiscated in 1660, as belonging to the regicide alderman, but they had remained there six years, apparently on sufferance by the Crown. To whom it went, on their ejectment in 1666, is not definitely stated; some of the alderman's town property was obtained by the Bishop of Worcester, and some in the country by the Duke of Grafton, illegitimate son of Charles II. by his mistress, the Duchess of Cleveland. The Peningtons were repeatedly visited, while they remained at the Grange, by Thomas Ellwood, and for a time he resided there as tutor to their children. His description of them in his autobiography includes several references to the young girl, Gulielma, with whom, it was suggested, he had fallen in love, and whom, as his ill wishers suggested, he might carry off. He had, however, no such schemes; he admired her, but at a respectful distance. Of a visit to the Peningtons, at the Grange, about 1659, Ellwood says,-

      "I mentioned before, that during my father's abode in London, in the time of the civil wars, he contracted a friendship with the Lady Springett, then a widow, and afterwards married to Isaac Penington, Esq., to continue which he sometimes visited them at their country lodgings, as at Datchet, and at Causham Lodge, near Reading. And having heard that they were come to live upon their own estate at Chalfont, in Buckinghamshire, about fifteen miles from Crowell [the home of the Ellwoods], he went one day to visit them there, and to return at night, taking me with him.

      "But very much surprised we were when, being come hither, we first heard, then found, they were become Quakers; a people we had no knowledge of and a name we had till then scarce heard of.

      "So great a change, from a free, debonair, and courtly sort of behavior, which we formerly had found them in, to so strict a gravity as they now received us with, did not a little amuse us, and disappoint our expectation of such a pleasant visit as we used to have, and now had promised ourselves. Nor could my father have any opportunity, by a private conference with them, to understand the ground or occasion of this change, there being some other strangers with them (related to Isaac Penington), who came that morning to visit them also.

      "For my part I sought and at length found means to cast myself into the company of the daughter, whom I found gathering some flowers in the garden, attended by her maid, who was also a Quaker. But when I addressed myself to her after my accustomed manner, with intent to engage her in some discourse which might introduce conversation on the footing of our former acquaintance, though she treated me with a courteous mien, yet, as young as she was, the gravity of her look and behaviour struck such an awe upon me, that I found myself not so much master of myself as to pursue any farther converse with her. Wherefore, asking pardon for my boldness for having intruded myself into her private walks, I withdrew, not without some disorder (as I thought at least) of mind."

      Penn's courtship, if begun so early as 1668, progressed without undue haste. He is particularly said to have visited Guli, in Bucks, after the death of his father, in 1670, and upon his release from Newgate, in 1671. His pamphlet, "A Seasonable Caveat against Popery," is dated at "Penn in Buckinghamshire," 23d of Eleventh month (February), 1670, a few months after his father's death, and as this was not far from the young lady's neighborhood, it may suggest calls upon her at that time.

      The time of the marriage has been left by the biographers quite obscure. Janney mentions it briefly, without assigning any date. Dixon says, "the marriage was performed in the early spring of 1672, six or seven months after his liberation from, Newgate." Maria Webb states that no family documents are forthcoming relative to this period in Penn's life. But Summers, in his more careful investigation of local sources, supplies from contemporary documents all the data that are needed to complete the account, and the marriage certificate itself has been found of record, and an abstract of it has been obtained for this work.

      In the Jordans Friends' Monthly Meeting Book, under date of 7th of Twelfth month, 1671 (February 7, 1671/2), there is this minute:

      "William Penn, of Walthamstow, in the County of Essex, and Gullelma Maria Springett, of Tiler's End Green, in the County of Backs, proposed their intention of taking each other in marriage. Whereupon it was referred to Daniel Zachary and Thomas Ellwood to inquire into the clearness of their proceedings and give an account to next meeting."

      These preliminary proceedings took place at a monthly meeting held at the house of Thomas Ellwood. He had married Mary Ellis in 1669, and had taken up his abode at Hunger Hill, or Ongar Hill, not far from Beaconsfield, in the Jordans and Chalfont region. In this house he lived until his death in 1713. His poetical "Directions to my Friend Inquiring the Way to My House" run thus:

      "Two miles from Beaconsfield, upon the road
      To Amersham, just where the way grows broad,
      A little spot there is called Larkin's Green,
      Where, on a bank, some fruit trees may be seen;
      In midst of which, on the sinister hand,
      A little cottage covertly doth stand;
      'Soho!' the people out, and then inquire
      For Hunger Hill; it lies a little higher,
      But if the people should from home be gone,
      Ride up the bank some twenty paces on,
      And at the orchard's end thou may'st perceive
      Two gates together hung. The nearest leave,
      The furthest take, and straight the hill ascend,
      That path leads to the house where dwells thy friend."

      At the next monthly meeting, March 6, 1671/2, the records show that "the consent and approbation of Friends" was given to the marriage, and it duly followed on the 4th of the following month, April, 1672. An old manuscript volume, kept in that time by Rebekah Butterfield, a Friend, at Stone Dean, a dwelling within sight of Jordans, is now preserved by Mr. Steevens, of High Wycombe, Bucks, and records thus:

      "4th of 2nd Mo. 1672. They [W. P. and G. M. S.] took each other in marriage at Charlewood, at a farmhouse called Kings, where Friends meeting was yn kept, being in ye parish of Rickmansworth, in ye county of Hertford."

      The certificate of marriage is as follows:

      Whereas, William Penn, of Walthamstow, in the County of Essex, and Gulielma Maria Springett, of Penn, in the County of Bucks, having first obtained the goodwill and consent of their nearest friends & Relations, did in two publick Monthly Meetings of the people of God called Quakers, declare their intention to take each other in Marriage, & upon serious and due consideration, were fully approved of the said Meetings, as by several weighty testimonies did appear.

      These are now to certifie al persons whom it doth or may concern that upon the fourth day of the second month in the year one thousand six hundred seventy two, the said WILLIAM PENN and GULIELMA MARIA SPRINGETT did, in a godly sort & manner (according to the good old Order and practise of the Church of Christ) in a publick Assembly of the People of the Lord at King's Charle-wood in the County of Hertford, solemnly and expressly take each other in marriage, mutually promising to be loving, true and faithful to each other in that Relation, so long as it shal please the Lord to continue their natural lives.

      In testimony whereof we then present, have hereunto subscribed our names, the day and year afore written.

      Margret Penn
      Rich. Penn
      Isaac Penington
      John Penington
      Mary Penington
      Mary Penington Jun
      Elizabeth Springett
      Alexander Parker
      George Whitehead
      Sam: Newton
      Wm Welch
      Geo: Roberts
      Tho: Zachary
      James Claypoole
      Tho: Rudyard
      Robt. Hodgson
      John Jenner
      Charles Harris
      Edward Man
      Sam: Hersent
      Rich: Clipsham
      Robt. Jones
      Tho: Ellwood
      Martin Mason
      Tho: Dell
      Edward Hoar
      John Puddivat
      John Jigger Sen
      Abraham Axtell
      John Costard
      Giles Child
      Stephen Pewsey
      John Harvey
      Elizabeth Walmsly
      Rebecca Zachary
      Mary Ellwood
      Jane Bullocke
      Mary Odingsells
      Elizabeth Murford
      Mary Newton
      ffrances Cadwell
      Helena Claypoole
      Sarah Mathew
      Sarah Welch
      Mary Welch
      Martha Blake

      [Certified to be an Extract from the Register or Record numbered 168 Bucks, and entitled a Register of Marriages formerly kept by the Society of Friends at the Monthly Meeting of Upper Side.] . . .

      King's Farm, Chorley Wood, is still a well-known and readily identified place. Though in Hertfordshire, it is but half a mile from the Bucks line. The name of the place is said to be derived from its having once been a hunting-box of King John. "The present house," says Summers, "probably dates from the latter part of the fifteenth century. The front, which is timber framed, presents one feature of interest in a curious old window, and there is a large door of very similar style, which probably in Penn's time was the main entrance, but is now concealed from view by a modern structure used as a dairy. The back of the house, where the entrance door now is, seems rather newer than the front, but was probably built earlier than 1672. The large room to which the window just now mentioned belongs is probably the one in which the marriage took place, and presents an interesting farm-house interior. The house is very much hidden from view by an immense barn, solidly built, and strengthened by numerous buttresses. This is said to have been fortified by an outpost during the civil war, by which party does not appear, and the loop-holes then pierced in the wall, which were only bricked up a few years ago, are still distinctly visible from the interior. The old farm has not passed unnoticed by artists, but its historic interest seems to have hitherto been overlooked."

      Following the marriage, Penn and his young wife went to live at a house he had rented (probably), Basing House, Rickmansworth. It also is in Herts, but near the line of Bucks. Here they made their home for about five years, going in 1677 to Worminghurst, in Sussex, a property of his mother. Basing House is still standing, but much changed in appearance. Mr. Summers says (1895) it "is so shut in by a high wall with a row of trees behind it that little can be seen of it from the street, while what little is visible is so modernized by stucco and other alterations that there is some difficulty in picturing its original appearance. The garden front is less changed, but a fine avenue of trees and an extensive lawn have disappeared."

      At Rickmansworth three children were born, all of whom died in infancy, while a fourth, Springett Penn, born at Walthamstow, Essex, lived to grow up. Quoting again Mr. Summers: "Towards the end of 1672 Penn became the father of a little girl, who was named Gulielma Maria. She only lived a few weeks, and was buried at Jordans. Next year a boy was born, and called William. He lived about a year, and was then laid to rest beside his sister." (This statement is also made, though not exactly in these words, in Maria Webb's book, and may be derived from it.) Later, according to Mr. Summers, a third child was born (a girl), of whom Penn speaks in a letter to George Fox, December 10, 1674: "My wife is well, and child; only teeth, she has one cut." This child was named Mary or Margaret. She died not long after this letter to Fox, and was buried at Jordans with her brother and sister.

      These statements, substantially true, are not quite exact.

      The two children, William and Mary (or Margaret), were twins, and were born February 28, 1673/4. The record of the births of all the four, as made by the Friends' Monthly Meeting for the Upper Side of Bucks, is as follows:

      "1672, 11 mo. 23: Gulielma Maria Penn, daughter of William & Gulielma Maria Penn, born at Rickmansworth, Herts.

      "1673, 11 mo. 28: William & Mary Penn, twins, children of William & Gulielma Maria Penn, born at Rickmansworth.

      "1675, 11 mo. 25: Springett Penn, son of William and Gulielma Maria Penn, born at Walthamstow, Essex, parish of Rickmansworth."

      The registry of the deaths of these children appears in the record of Friends' Meeting for the Upper Side of Bucks, where the death of the first, Gulielma Maria, is stated to have occurred First month (March) 17, 1672; of William, Third month (May) 15, 1674; and of Margaret (Mary), Twelfth month (February) 24, 1674, this last being (" old style") nine months later than William's death, and not three months earlier, as it might appear at first glance.

      Three children had thus been born and had died before the birth of Springett Penn. It is Springett who is referred to in Penn's account of his return from his religious tour in Holland and the Rhine country, in 1677, when he says, "The 5th of the next week [November 1] I went to Worminghurst, my house in Sussex, where I found my dear wife, child, and family all well." Worminghurst was part of the inheritance of Guli from her father; she and her husband appear to have removed to it from Rickmansworth early in the year 1677, for in describing hi
    Person ID I18493  Frost, Gilchrist and Related Families
    Last Modified 19 Nov 2020 

    Father Admiral Sir William PENN,   b. Bef 23 Apr 1621, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Sep 1670, Wanstead, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age > 49 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Mother Margaret JASPER,   d. Bef 4 Mar 1682 
    Relationship natural 
    Married 6 Jan 1644  St. Martin Ludgate, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F8265  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Gulielma Maria SPRINGETT,   b. Between 1633 and 1634,   d. 23 Feb 1694, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 61 years) 
    Married 4 Apr 1672  King's Farm, Chorley Wood, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. William PENN, Jr.,   b. 14 Mar 1680, Warminghurst, Sussex,England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 23 Jun 1720, Li??ge, Li??ge, Wallonia, Belgium Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 40 years)  [natural]
     2. Letitia PENN,   b. 6 Mar 1679, Warminghurst, Sussex,England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 6 Apr 1746  (Age < 67 years)  [natural]
     3. Gulielma Maria PENN,   b. 17 Nov 1685, Warminghurst, Sussex,England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 20 Nov 1689, Hammersmith, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 4 years)  [natural]
     4. --- PENN,   b. Mar 1683, Warminghurst, Sussex,England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Infancy Find all individuals with events at this location  [natural]
     5. Maria Margaret PENN,   b. 28 Feb 1674, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Feb 1675, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 0 years)  [natural]
     6. Gulielma Maria PENN,   b. 23 Jan 1673, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 17 Mar 1673, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 0 years)  [natural]
     7. Springett PENN,   b. 25 Jan 1675, Walthamstow, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 10 Apr 1696, Lewes, Sussex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 21 years)  [natural]
     8. William PENN,   b. 28 Feb 1674, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 15 May 1674, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 0 years)  [natural]
    Last Modified 19 Nov 2020 
    Family ID F8258  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Hannah CALLOWHILL,   b. 18 Apr 1664, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 20 Dec 1726, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 62 years) 
    Married 5 Mar 1696  Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 

    • (1) Jenkins, Howard M., The Family of William Penn, Founder of Pennsylvania: Ancestry and Descendants, London, England: Headley Bros., 1899, pp. 67 et seq:

      WILLIAM PENN'S SECOND MARRIAGE.

      Two years after the death of his [first] wife, Penn married again. His second wife, Hannah Callowhill, was the daughter of Thomas Callowhill and the granddaughter of Dennis Hollister, both of Bristol, England, prosperous men of business and prominent Friends. (Clarkson describes them as "eminent merchants," and Janney follows this.) A deed of June 26, 1661, shows the marriage of Thomas Callowhill and Hannah Hollister as about occurring, and describes him as a "button-maker, sonn and heir of John Callowhill, late of said city [Bristol] gent, deceased." Later, in 1682 and 1711, other deeds describe Thomas Callowhill as "linen draper," and this, no doubt, was his occupation during most of his business life.

      Dennis Hollister was a grocer. He had four daughters, Hannah, Lydia, Mary, and Phebe. Hannah married Thomas Callowhill; Lydia married Thomas Jordan, a grocer; and Mary married Simon Clement, a merchant.

      Penn, of course, was well acquainted with families of Friends in all parts of England, and doubtless knew the Callowhills. His courtship of Hannah, as appears from letters preserved among the Penn papers of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, was warmly pursued in the later months of 1695. It is probable, but is not clear from these letters, that the engagement of marriage had then been made.

      The Bristol records of the Friends record the birth of Hannah Callowhill, daughter of Thomas and Annah (sic), of High Street, Bristol, Second month (April) 18, 1664. She was, therefore, nearly thirty-two years old at the time of her marriage. . . .

      The marriage proceedings were regularly conducted according to the Friends' order, which, newly set up in 1672 when Penn was first married, had now become well settled and recognized. The intention of marriage was declared to the "men's meeting," at Bristol, November 11, 1695, and the meeting gave leave to proceed, February 24, 1695/6. On the 5th of March following the marriage took place. The certificate of the marriage follows. I am not aware that it has heretofore been published. Penn's biographers generally refer to his second marriage, as to his first, quite indefinitely, most of them not giving the date:

      [The memorial or copie of the certificate of William Penn's and Hannah Callowhill's marriage the certificate itselfe being wrott on a pece of Parchment stampt with the five shillings stamp according to the statute.]

      Whereas it doth appeare by the Memorialls of the mens meeting of the people called Quakers in the Citty of Bristoll that William Penn of Warminghurst in the County of Sussex Esq and Hannah Callowhill daughter of Thomas Callowhill of the Citty of Bristoll Linen drap did on the eleaventh day of the ninth month 1695 manifest their intentions of marriage. And whereas such their intentions were on the foure and twentieth day of the eleaventh month in the yeare aforesaid published in the publique meeting house of the said People in the psence of many people there congregated. Now forasmuch as there appeares noe just cause wherefore a marriage betwixt the said William Penn and Hannah Callowhill should not be consumated. We therefore whose names are hereunto subscribed are witnesses that on the day of the date hereof the said William Penn taking the said Hannah by the hand did declare that he did take the said Hannah Callowhill to be his wife. And that the said Hannah holding the said William by the hand did declare that she did take the said William Penn to be her husband.

      And that also the said William Penn and Hannah Callowhill holding each other by the hand did mutually promise each to other to live together husband and wife in love & faithfullnes according to God's holy ordinance untill by death they shall be separated. And also the said William and Hannah as a further testimony of such their taking each other & of such their promise to each other have hereunto with us subscribed their names this fifth day of the first month in the yeare one thousand six hundred ninety & five.

      WILLIAM PENN
      HANNAH PENN.

      [Witnesses:]

      George Bowles
      Thomas Sturg
      Alexander Pyot
      Gilbert Thompson
      Thomas Bivin
      John Corke
      Henry Goldney
      Mary Russel
      Elizabeth Goldney
      Sarah Hersent
      Lydia Gregory
      Paul Moon
      Nicho Reist
      Tho: Speed
      Mary Speed
      Tho Lewis
      Alce Cooper
      Katherine Bound Joshua Mallet
      John Whiting
      John Clarke
      Nathaniel Wade
      James Stretter
      William Lickfold
      Thamazin Yeamans
      Thomas Jordan
      John Everard
      Abraham Jones
      John Harper
      Henr Dickinson
      J. Penington
      W. Penington
      Mary Wherly
      Sarah Jones
      Judith Dighton
      Elizabeth Cooke Rich Sneade
      Charles Harford
      Benja. Coole
      Richard Vickris
      John Field
      Rogr Haydock
      John Boulton
      John Vaughton
      John Tompkins
      D. Wherly
      Margt Duffeild
      Briget Haynes
      Eliz. Penington
      George Diton
      Robert Bound
      Tho Hicks
      John Clement
      James Millard Thomas Callowhill
      Anna Callowhill
      Sp: Penn
      Laetitia Penn
      Wm Penn Jur
      Thomas Harris
      Walter Duffeild
      Phebe Harris
      Mary Clement
      John Lloyd
      George Stephens
      Hump: Crosley

      [Certified to be an Extract from the Register or Record numbered 116, and entitled a Register of Marriages of the Society of Friends.]
    Children 
     1. Richard PENN,   b. 17 Jan 1706, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 4 Feb 1771, Stanwell, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 65 years)  [natural]
     2. Margaret PENN,   b. 7 Nov 1704, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 12 Feb 1751  (Age < 46 years)  [natural]
     3. Hannah PENN,   b. 5 Sep 1708, Ludgate, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Jan 1709, Kensington, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 0 years)  [natural]
     4. Dennis PENN,   b. 26 Feb 1707, Ealing, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Feb 1723  (Age 15 years)  [natural]
     5. John PENN,   b. 29 Jan 1700, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 25 Oct 1746, Hitcham, Buckinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 46 years)  [natural]
     6. -- PENN,   b. 1697,   d. 1697  (Age 0 years)  [natural]
     7. Hannah Margaritta PENN,   b. 30 Jul 1703, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Between Feb and Mar 1708  [natural]
     8. Thomas PENN,   b. 9 Mar 1702, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 21 Mar 1775, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 73 years)  [natural]
    Last Modified 19 Nov 2020 
    Family ID F8262  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart