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301 (1) "Bartholomew Austin of Virginia," Compiler: Liz Austin Carlin, Genealogy Content Copyright © 2011 Austin Families Association of America (genealogy may be freely distributed, but not sold in any form for profit):

Nancy Austin
Sex: F

Born: 1832 at NC

Father: Unknown _____ (____ - ____)
Mother: Jane Austin (20 SEP 1795 - 1882)

Polly Austin (1825 - ____)
Nancy Austin (1832 - ____)
Calvin Austin (1833 - ____) 
AUSTIN, Nancy (I26675)
302 (1) "Bartholomew Austin of Virginia," Compiler: Liz Austin Carlin, Genealogy Content Copyright © 2011 Austin Families Association of America (genealogy may be freely distributed, but not sold in any form for profit):

Polly Austin
Sex: F

Born: 1825 at NC

Husband: Eli Osborn (____ - ____)
Married: 11 NOV 1854 at Ashe Co., NC

Father: Unknown _____ (____ - ____)
Mother: Jane Austin (20 SEP 1795 - 1882)

Polly Austin (1825 - ____)
Nancy Austin (1832 - ____)
Calvin Austin (1833 - ____)


MARRIAGE: Marriage Records of Ashe Co., NC 1801-1872

CENSUS: 1850 NC, Ashe, p 238; 1860 NC, Alleghany, Gap Civil, p 181; 1870 NC, Alleghany, Prathers Creek, p 288; 1880 NC, Alleghany, Prathers Creek, p 235. 
AUSTIN, Polly (I26674)
303 (1) "Bartholomew Austin of Virginia," Compiler: Liz Austin Carlin, Genealogy Content Copyright © 2011 Austin Families Association of America (genealogy may be freely distributed, but not sold in any form for profit):

Robert "Bob" Austin
Sex: M

Father: Unknown Austin (____ - ____)

Bartholomew Austin (Abt 1768 - Abt 1841)
Andrew Austin (____ - ____)
Robert "Bob" Austin (____ - ____)


SIBLINGS: "Some Recollections of David Washington Austin 1849-1939", submitted by Dollie Countiss. published in "The Southwest Virginian", Vol. III, # 18, December 1980.

This is an extensive article and should be read by every descendant of Bartholomew and Anne. Copy in AFAOA Virginia Notebook B, pages 217+. "To begin with on my Father's side, there was Bartholomew Austin, my grandfather. Bartholomew with two brothers, Andrew and Bob, came to this country from England when they were young men. Of the other two brothers, I know very little, but Bartholomew settled in what is now Grayson Co., Virginia. . . ."

LAND: Deed, Ashe Co., NC, 1 Jun 1822. Robert Austin from Peter Haet, witness B. Austin. Prater's Creek of New River.; Deed, Ashe Co., NC, 16 May 1837, Robert Austin to Jesse Austin , witnesses John and Jackson Austin. 
AUSTIN, Robert (I26431)
304 (1) "Bartholomew Austin of Virginia," Compiler: Liz Austin Carlin, Genealogy Content Copyright © 2011 Austin Families Association of America (genealogy may be freely distributed, but not sold in any form for profit):

Unknown Austin
Sex: M

Born: at England

Bartholomew Austin (Abt 1768 - Abt 1841)
Andrew Austin (____ - ____)
Robert "Bob" Austin (____ - ____)


Some sources say William. 
AUSTIN, --- (I26428)
305 (1) "Bartholomew Austin of Virginia," Compiler: Liz Austin Carlin, Genealogy Content Copyright © 2011 Austin Families Association of America (genealogy may be freely distributed, but not sold in any form for profit):

William Austin
Sex: M

Born: 17 MAR 1792 at Grayson Co., VA

Wife: Isabella Parsons (1806 - ____)
Married: 22 JAN 1827 at Grayson Co., VA

Father: Bartholomew Austin (Abt 1768 - Abt 1841)
Mother: Anna Reeves (12 JAN 1775 - 18 FEB 1870)

William Austin (17 MAR 1792 - ____)
Isaiah Austin (4 OCT 1793 - Aft 1870)
Jane Austin (20 SEP 1795 - 1882)
Jessee Austin (5 JAN 1797 - 19 JUN 1890)
Andrew Austin (30 JUL 1799 - 18 SEP 1888)
Lucinda Austin (Abt 1802 - ____)
David Austin (Abt 1804 - Abt 1865)
John Austin (25 FEB 1806 - 1865/1866)
George Austin (13 JUL 1808 - 20 JUN 1852)
Robert Austin (10 NOV 1811 - FEB 1879)
Prudence "Prudy" Austin (10 FEB 1813 - ____)
Jackson Austin (26 FEB 1815 - ____)
Edwin Austin (22 DEC 1817 - ____)


BIRTH: "Virginia Genealogist," October-December 1961 edition, p 150, in an article entitled "Southside Virginia Austins," by Janet Austin Curtis.

CENSUS: 1840 NC, Ashe Co., p 1.

SPOUSE-MARRIAGE: Annette Potter Family Genealogy. 
AUSTIN, William (I26432)
306 (1) "Bartholomew Austin of Virginia," Compiler: Liz Austin Carlin, Genealogy Content Copyright © 2011 Austin Families Association of America (genealogy may be freely distributed, but not sold in any form for profit):

William Austin
Sex: M

Born: 17 MAR 1792 at Grayson Co., VA

Wife: Isabella Parsons (1806 - ____)
Married: 22 JAN 1827 at Grayson Co., VA

Father: Bartholomew Austin (Abt 1768 - Abt 1841)
Mother: Anna Reeves (12 JAN 1775 - 18 FEB 1870)

William Austin (17 MAR 1792 - ____)
Isaiah Austin (4 OCT 1793 - Aft 1870)
Jane Austin (20 SEP 1795 - 1882)
Jessee Austin (5 JAN 1797 - 19 JUN 1890)
Andrew Austin (30 JUL 1799 - 18 SEP 1888)
Lucinda Austin (Abt 1802 - ____)
David Austin (Abt 1804 - Abt 1865)
John Austin (25 FEB 1806 - 1865/1866)
George Austin (13 JUL 1808 - 20 JUN 1852)
Robert Austin (10 NOV 1811 - FEB 1879)
Prudence "Prudy" Austin (10 FEB 1813 - ____)
Jackson Austin (26 FEB 1815 - ____)
Edwin Austin (22 DEC 1817 - ____)


BIRTH: "Virginia Genealogist," October-December 1961 edition, p 150, in an article entitled "Southside Virginia Austins," by Janet Austin Curtis.

CENSUS: 1840 NC, Ashe Co., p 1.

SPOUSE-MARRIAGE: Annette Potter Family Genealogy. 
PARSONS, Isabella (I26662)
307 (1) "Bea Benaderet," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Early life

Benaderet was born in 1906 in Manhattan, although occasionally her year of birth was given as 1907 or 1909 in census records. Her father Samuel was a Turkish Jewish emigrant. Her mother, Margaret (née O'Keefe), was Irish-American. Her family moved to San Francisco, California, around 1910, where she attended St. Rose Academy, a private girls' school.

Radio career

Her debut on radio came when she was 12. She had performed in a children's production of The Beggar's Opera on KGO. Her first job in radio was at KFRC in San Francisco, California. Her responsibilities there included acting, singing, writing, and producing. Bea Benaderet was a member of the Mercury Theatre repertory company heard in Orson Welles's radio presentations including "Escape", "The Magnificent Ambersons," "The Hurricane," "A Christmas Carol," "Craig's Wife" and "June Moon." She first received notice for her radio work in the 1940s on Fibber McGee & Molly, The Jack Benny Program, My Favorite Husband, The Mel Blanc Show, The Great Gildersleeve, and Amos 'n Andy. She played Blanche Morton, the next-door neighbor to George Burns and Gracie Allen, on both the radio and television incarnations of The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show.


When Lucille Ball and husband Desi Arnaz decided to develop a program for CBS television called I Love Lucy, Benaderet, who had worked with Ball on My Favorite Husband, was the first choice to fill the role of Ethel Mertz, but was ultimately unavailable to accept it since she had already been cast for the fledgling television production of The Burns and Allen Show. While three different actors played her husband during the course of the series, but Benaderet co-starred on the show throughout its run on both radio and television, as Gracie's best friend and neighbor. Vivian Vance, a relatively unknown character actress and singer, was eventually cast in the Ethel Mertz part. Benaderet did eventually appear in a guest role on I Love Lucy on January 21, 1952, as "Miss Lewis", a love-starved spinster neighbor.

Benaderet was a cast member of the NBC sitcom series "Peter Loves Mary" starring Peter Lind Hayes and Mary Healy. Benederet played Wilma. "Peter Loves Mary" ran during the 1960-1961 season. She was twice nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Best Supporting Actress (1954, 1955) for her work on The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show. In addition to her more familiar comedic roles, Benaderet had a dramatic role in The Restless Gun in 1959.

Voice acting

Benaderet voiced numerous female characters in the Warner Bros. animated shorts of the 1940s, including "Granny," the sometimes dimwitted, sometimes assertive owner of Tweety. She performed the voice of Granny until 1955, when she was succeeded by June Foray. She also portrayed Little Red Riding Hood as a loud, obnoxious teenager in the 1944 Bugs Bunny cartoon Little Red Riding Rabbit. Bea Benaderet also voiced "The Flintstones" Betty Rubble from seasons one (1960) to four before resigning in 1964 due to the workload on Petticoat Junction.


Benaderet and her first husband, actor Jim Bannon had two children: Jack, an actor, and Maggie.

Later life and career

Benaderet was busy during the last decade of her life, starting with a voice role as Betty Rubble in the animated series The Flintstones, which debuted in 1960. The Flintstones reunited Benaderet with her 1940s co-workers Alan Reed (Fred Flintstone) and Mel Blanc (Barney Rubble and Dino). Benaderet received no on-screen credit for her many voice characterizations with Warner Bros., as the studio was bound by Blanc's contractual stipulation that no other voice actor receive credit while he was under contract to Warners.

Benaderet was considered for the role of Granny in The Beverly Hillbillies by producer Paul Henning, who felt she was too buxom and feminine for the character he envisioned as a frail but caustic spitfire; Irene Ryan was eventually cast. Henning cast Benaderet as middle-aged, widowed Cousin Pearl Bodine (Jethro's mother), and she appeared in the pilot, as well as a majority of episodes throughout the series' first season. Cousin Pearl and her daughter Jethrine (Max Baer, Jr. in drag with Linda Kaye Henning providing the voice) moved into the Clampett mansion in the first season. However, the female Bodines disappeared after Henning cast Benaderet in his next series Petticoat Junction, which premiered in September 1963. She starred as Kate Bradley owner/operator of the Shady Rest Hotel.

Petticoat Junction proved an enormous hit in its first season, and remained a top-25 program for several years. Benaderet had done a radio variation of Green Acres with Gale Gordon beginning in 1950 called Granby's Green Acres. Green Acres was a spinoff of Petticoat Junction, with Eva Gabor portraying Benaderet's original part, and Benaderet herself appearing in several episodes as her Petticoat Junction character, in order to establish the Hooterville setting. (Eddie Albert took Gale Gordon's role as the lawyer who moves to the country to become a farmer as Gordon was then occupied with his role as "Mr. Mooney" on The Lucy Show.)


Benaderet was diagnosed with cancer in 1967, which led to her departure from Petticoat Junction in what was hoped would be a temporary absence. On October 13, 1968, Benaderet died in Los Angeles, California, aged 62 at the Good Samaritan Hospital from lung cancer and pneumonia. She was survived by her second husband, and her two children. She was entombed in Valhalla Memorial Park Cemetery in North Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. Her second husband, Eugene Twombly, suffered a heart attack and died on the day of her funeral, just four days after her death. He was interred beside her. Twombly had been a sound-effects artist for a number of radio and television shows.

Walk of Fame

Benaderet was inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame February 8, 1960, as a star of television. Her star is at 1611 Vine Street.

(2) California, Death Index, 1940-1997 [database online], Provo, UT: Operations Inc, 2000

Name: Beatrice Twombly
Social Security #: 564-14-6852
Gender: Female
Birth Date: 4 Apr 1906
Death Date: 13 Oct 1968
Death Place: Los Angeles
Mother's Maiden Name: Okeefe


Bea Benaderet
Birth: Apr. 4, 1906, New York, New York County (Manhattan), New York, USA
Death: Oct. 13, 1968, Studio City, Los Angeles County, California, USA

Actress. Born in New York City and raised in San Francisco, California, she had a remarkable career in radio and television. She launched her network radio career in 1936, appearing as a regular on The Campbell Playhouse", "The Jack Benny Show", "The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet", "The Great Gildersleeve" and "Fibber McGee and Molly". For television, she is best remebered as the voice of Betty Rubble on the "Flintstones" and as Kate Bradley on "Petticoat Junction". She also played the role of Blanche Morton on "The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show" and was a regular on the "The Beverly Hillbillies". She died in Studio City, California. (bio by: John "J-Cat" Griffith)

Family links: Parents: Samuel David Benaderet (1884 - 1954), Margaret O' Keefe Benaderet (1888 - 1936); Spouses: Jim Bannon (1911 - 1984), Eugene Tracy Twombly (1914 - 1968)

Cause of death: Lung Cancer

Burial: Pierce Brothers Valhalla Memorial Park, North Hollywood, Los Angeles County, California, USA
Plot: Mausoleum of Hope, Row C, Crypt 34
GPS (lat/lon): 34.18778, -118.3632

Maintained by: Find A Grave
Record added: Jan 01, 2001
Find A Grave Memorial# 2357 
BENADARET, Beatrice (I41504)
308 (1) "Benedict Arnold," Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010, ??2010 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.:

Benedict Arnold, (b. January 14, 1741, Norwich, Connecticut [U.S.] - d. June 14, 1801, London, England), patriot officer who served the cause of the American Revolution until 1779, when he shifted his allegiance to the British; thereafter his name became an epithet for traitor in the United States.

Upon the outbreak of hostilities at Lexington, Massachusetts (April 1775), Arnold volunteered for service and participated with Ethan Allen in the successful colonial attack on British-held Fort Ticonderoga, New York, the following month. That autumn he was appointed by General George Washington to command an expedition to capture Quebec. He marched with 700 men by way of the Maine wilderness, a remarkable feat of woodsmanship and endurance, and, reinforced by General Richard Montgomery, attacked the well-fortified city. The combined assault (December 31, 1775) failed, Montgomery was killed, and Arnold was severely wounded.

Promoted to the rank of brigadier general, Arnold constructed a flotilla on Lake Champlain and inflicted severe losses on a greatly superior enemy fleet near Valcour Island, New York (October 11, 1776). He returned a hero, but his rash courage and impatient energy had aroused the enmity of several officers. When in February 1777 Congress created five new major generalships, Arnold was passed over in favour of his juniors. Arnold resented this affront, and only Washington???s personal persuasion kept him from resigning.

Two months later he repelled a British attack on Danbury, Connecticut, and was made a major general, but his seniority was not restored and Arnold felt his honour impugned. Again he tried to resign, but in July he accepted a government order to help stem the British advance into upper New York. He won a victory at Fort Stanwix (now Rome) in August 1777 and commanded advance battalions at the Battle of Saratoga that autumn, fighting brilliantly until seriously wounded. For his services he was restored to his proper relative rank.

Crippled from his wounds, Arnold was placed in command of Philadelphia (June 1778), where he socialized with families of loyalist sympathies and lived extravagantly. To raise money, he violated several state and military regulations, arousing the suspicions and, finally, the denunciations of Pennsylvania???s supreme executive council. These charges were then referred to Congress, and Arnold asked for an immediate court-martial to clear himself.

Meanwhile, in April 1779, Arnold married Margaret (Peggy) Shippen, a young woman of loyalist sympathies. Early in May he made secret overtures to British headquarters, and a year later he informed the British of a proposed American invasion of Canada. He later revealed that he expected to obtain the command of West Point, New York, and asked the British for ??20,000 for betraying this post. When his British contact, Major John Andr??, was captured by the Americans, Arnold escaped on a British ship, leaving Andr?? to be hanged as a spy. The sacrifice of Andr?? made Arnold odious to loyalists, and his reputation was further tarnished among his former neighbours when he led a raid on New London, Connecticut, in September 1781.

At the end of 1781 Arnold went to England, where he remained, inactive, ostracized, and ailing, for the rest of his life.


Description: Will of Benedict Arnold, Brigadier General of City of London
Date [proved]:18 July 1801
Catalogue reference: PROB 11/1360
Dept: Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury
Series: Prerogative Court of Canterbury and related Probate Jurisdictions: Will Registers
Piece: Name of Register: Abercrombie Quire Numbers: 438 - 491
Image contains 1 will of many for the catalogue reference


Benedict Arnold [V]
Birth: Jan. 14, 1741, Norwich, New London County, Connecticut, USA
Death: Jun. 14, 1801, London, Greater London, England

Revolutionary War Continental Major General, Reknown Traitor. The son of Benedict Arnold and Hannah Waterman King, Benedict Jr was schooled in Canterbury, Connecticut. Financial problems at home forced his return to Connecticut, and eventually he established an Apothecary business after serving an apprenticeship with his cousins, Daniel and Joshua Lathrop. He established an Apothecary in New Haven, Connecticut, with his sister, Hannah. In 1767, he married Margaret Mansfield, and together they had 3 sons; she died in 1775. In 1775, he was a Captain in the Governor's Second Company of Guards, and he immediately took them to capture Fort Ticonderoga. His small unit met up with Colonel Ethan Allen and joined forces to capture Fort Ticonderoga. Initially, he billed the Continental Congress for his expenses, and it took nearly 2 years to pay him. In the meantime, George Washington had promoted him to Colonel, and he was given command of an expedition to sieze Canada from British control. This expedition failed at Montreal, however, Arnold's superior leadership was noted. Despite the failure of the Canada Expedition, Washington had Arnold promoted to Brigadier General. His hot temper caused many arguments with fellow officers, and even though he routed the British Army at Danbury, CT, winning promotion to Major General, his disenchantment with the American Revolution was growing. In 1777, he sided with General Schuyler in a dispute between Schuyler and General Horatio Gates. Two months later, at the American victory at Saratoga, General Gates ignored Arnold's accomplishments to help win the victory. Arnold broke his leg at Freeman's Farm during the battle, and Gates' intense dislike of him almost caused him to resign. Washington had him recalled, to be with him at Valley Forge, and when Philadelphia was recaptured, Arnold was named Commandant of the city. While in Philadelphia, Arnold met and married Peggy Shippen, a young 19 year old Loyalist; they later had 5 children. She put her husband in contact with Major John Andre, chief of intelligence for British General Henry Clinton. In correspondence, Arnold offered Clinton the strategic fort of West Point, along with 20,000 American soldiers, in exchange for a British commission and 10,000 pounds. When Major John Andre was captured and this was reported to Arnold, he realized that his treason would soon be discovered, and he immediately defected to the British. The British gave Arnold the 10,000 pounds, a commission as a Brigadier General, a pension when he retired, and land in Canada. Even though Arnold served the British Army well, they never trusted him. After the war, he moved to London, but could find no job. He entered the shipping business in Canada, but the Tories there disliked him, so he returned to London, where he died in 1801, virtually unknown, and penniless. (bio by: Kit and Morgan Benson)

Family links: Parents: Benedict Arnold [III] (1683 - 1761), Hannah Waterman Arnold (1708 - 1759); Children: James Robertson Arnold (____ - 1854), Richard Arnold, Benedict Arnold (1768 - 1795), Henry Arnold (1772 - 1826), Edward Shippen Arnold (1780 - 1813), Sophia Matilda Arnold Phipps (1785 - 1828), George Arnold (1787 - 1828), William Fitch Arnold (1794 - ____); Spouses: Margaret Mansfield Arnold (1745 - 1775), Margaret Shippen Arnold (1760 - 1804).

Burial: St Mary Churchyard, Battersea, Greater London, England
Plot: Crypt in the Basement

Maintained by: Find A Grave
Record added: Sep 21, 1998
Find A Grave Memorial# 3595 
ARNOLD, Gen. Benedict V (I24023)
309 (1) "Benjamin Lewis Goodman (abt. 1732 - 1781)" :

Benjamin Lewis Goodman

Born about 1732 in Hanover County, Colony of Virginia

Son of Samuel Goodman and Elizabeth (Horsley) Goodman

Brother of William Goodman, Unknown (Goodman) Crawford, Robert Goodman, Samuel Goodman, Charles Goodman, Joseph Goodman, Timothy Goodman and Female Goodman

Husband of Marya Marie (Williams) Goodman - married before 23 Oct 1754 in Louisa County, Virginia

Father of Daniel Goodman, James Goodman, William M. Goodman, Joseph Goodman, Samuel Goodman, Charles Goodman, Rhoda C. Goodman, Timothy Goodman, Claiborne Goodman and Ursula Goodman

Died 19 Nov 1781 in Hayes Station, South Carolina, USA

Profile managers: Judy Wardlow and Melanie Redd private message

Profile last modified 4 Dec 2018 | Created 5 May 2011


Benjamin was born about 1732 in Hanover County, Virginia, the first child of Samuel Goodman and Maria Williams. Not much is known about his youth but it would be natural to assume that he helped his planter father manage his lands. In addition his father gave him 150 acres of land in 1750. He married Maria Williams sometime before 23 October 1754.

Both Benjamin's father, Samuel Goodman and Maria's family were both quite well to do in both lands and slaves. Maria's great grandfather was Raleigh Croshaw, an ancient planter made wealthy through his association with the London company that founded Jamestown, VA. Through him the family had inherited a great deal of land and wealth.

On 19 December 1761, Maria's widowed mother married Joseph Read. Benjamin served as the groom's best man.

On 21 Aug 1761 Benjamin gave the 150 acres he had received from his father to his brother Joseph. This is likely because he had decided to move his family from Granville, North Carolina, to Laurens County, South Carolina, which he did in 1767, according to Goodman family researcher, Howard O. Pollan. However, showed up again on the Granville County 1769 Tax List and was taxed for "1 white, 3 blacks". There is additional information from Granville County Deed Books that indicate that, although Benjamin moved his family to South Carolina, he maintained a presence in Granville County.

Before his death Benjamin Lewis and Maria had 10 children.

(2) "Hayes Station Battle Memorial" :

Battle of Hayes Station (AKA: Battle of Edgehill Plantation) is where on 19 Nov 1781, during the American Revolutionary War, Major William "Bloody Bill" Cunningham and a large force of Loyalist militia attacked a group of Patriot militia (detachment of Little River District Militia Regiment) that were resting in the home of their commander, Colonel Joseph Hayes. The Patriots surrendered when the home was set on fire. "Bloody Bill" then lived up to his name by killing many of the prisoners in cold blood. Hayes Station, Laurens County, South Carolina (known as Ninety-Six District at that time).


Just one month earlier the British Army had surrendered at Yorktown, and it looks like the Revolutionary War had been one [won]. In South Carolina that were many British Loyalists that went on a rampage of terror, specifically targeting homes of patriot leaders across the state. One of these major attacks was led by Major Cunningham in a month long raid in the South Carolina back country that came to be known as the Bloody Scout.

On November 19, 1781, Cunningham crossed the Saluda River and headed to Hayes Station. The station was at Edgehill Plantation and was commanded by Col. Joseph Hayes. Hayes had been warned of the presence of Cunningham's force, but after a scouting expedition returned with no evidence of Loyalist activity, he refused to heed any warning.

Joseph Hayes owned a tavern adjacent to Edgehill Station, a stop along the local stage coach line. He and about two dozen of his men were sitting down to a nice meal when a colleague, Captain John Owens, rode up and informed the men that smoke was coming out of the nearby plantation house of the late Brigadier General James Williams' widow. Williams was the former commander of this regiment (killed at the Battle of Kings Mountain) and two of his sons were with Hayes at the station. Also, in 1778, Cunningham's brother, Robert (another Loyalist leader) had defeated Williams in the election for the local seat for the South Carolina Assembly.

Hayes and his men jumped up from their meal and followed Owens out of the tavern and up a small hill to gather at an old Cherokee War Block House - to see what was going on at the neighbor's home. They were instantly surrounded by Cunningham with about 300 Loyalists. Hayes and his men ran into the small block house, but it was soon torched, so they threw down their arms and surrendered.

Cunningham warned Hayes that if any shots were fired at his men that all of the station's defenders would be killed. As the Loyalists approached the station, several shots were fired at them. Cunningham sent in a flag of truce and stated that if the post surrendered, he would spare the defenders. Hayes refused to surrender, thinking that reinforcements would be arriving soon. The fight continued for several hours until the post's roof was set on fire by flaming arrows. Choking from the fire's smoke, Hayes surrendered.

Only 2 of the 16 Patriots were killed during the fight. Each man was forced to back out of the small block house to have their hands tied behind them then affixed to a long rope, ostensibly to be marched to another location. However, as soon as the last man was attached to the long rope, Cunningham strarted hanging them, and then his men dismembered fourteen of them, with Cunningham killing 4 Patriots with his sword. Cunningham then rode off, leaving the body parts scattered.

Battlefield Massacre Memorial

The Daughters of the American Revolution have placed a monument that stands today over the common grave of those patriot warriors killed at this battle.

Top Half

To the memory of

Col. Joseph Hayes,
Capt. Daniel Williams,
Lieut. Christopher Hardy,
Lieut. John Keel,
Clement Hancock,
Joseph Williams,
Joseph Irby, Sr.,
Joseph Irby, Jr.,
John Ilven,
James Feris,
John Cook,
Greaf Irby,
Benjamin Goodman,
Yancy Saxon.

Bottom Half

In 1781 during the struggle for National Independence these fourteen gallant defenders of Liberty surrendered as prisoners of war and were massacred by Major William Cunningham and his band of Tories at Hayes Station. Erected by the hand of . . . DAR . . .

Known Participants

Little River District Regiment

Little River District Regiment of Militia detachment led by Col. Joseph Hayes (killed), with the following known men:

• Col Joseph Hayes (killed)
• Major Daniel Williams (killed)
• Capt. Laughlin Leonard (killed) (per pension affadavit of John Mangum)
• Capt. John Owens (killed)
• Capt. Charles Saxon (killed)
• Lt. Clement Hancock (killed)
• Lt. Christopher Hardy (killed)
• Lt. John Neel (killed)
• Lt. James Tinsley (escaped) - ("I then continued on as a volunteer until and was present at the murder of Capt D. Williams, Col. Hayes and others by William Cunningham at the place (spelled 'palce') formerly known by the name of Egehill [sic, Edgehill] Station [or Hayes Station] where I was taken prisoner in November 1781. On the night after the same day on which I was taken prisoner, I made my escape and then entered on the expedition against the Cherokee Indians. . . .") His Pension application.
• Sgt. Yancy Saxon (killed)
• William Blakely (POW for one day) - ("I volunteered again in 1782 [sic, the events described by the veteran place this service in 1781] Captain Saxon and performed duty through the upper part of the State and was at Hays[sic, Hayes] station [November 19, 1781] at the time Colonel Hayes [Joseph Hayes] & others were murdered & was there taken prisoner& kept all night by the Tories commanded by Wm Cunningham [William "Bloody Bill" Cunningham] & released next day.") (pension application made at age 72).
• John Cook (killed)
• James Ferris (killed)
• Benjamin Goodman (killed)
• Grief Irby (killed)
• Joseph Irby, Sr. (killed)
• Joseph Irby, Jr. (killed)
• William Irby (1760-1828) - escaped - was at a nearby spring fetching water when the detachment rode off into battle.
• John Melvin (or Milven) (killed)
• James Williams ? (killed)
• Reuben Golding- (survivor saved by a friend)
• Joseph Williams (1767-1781) (killed)
• John Mangum (1763-1843) - (survivor) was among the captives, this 18-year-old was spared his life after Bloody Bill recognize him as the younger brother of prominent Loyalist preacher in the neighborhood. His family records and military pension application have several of the original accounts of this battle.

Williams Family

Women and children of the Williams family were spared, but their home was burned. But the two oldest brothers above were killed.

• Mary Wallace Clark Williams (1743-1804) (widow)
• Elizabeth Williams (1758-1838)
• John Williams (1769-1782)
• Mary Williams (1769-1815)
• James Williams (1770-1825)
• Washington Williams (1771-1829)
• Sarah Elizabeth Williams (1774-1860) 
GOODMAN, 19 Nov 1781 Benjamin Lewis (I46057)
310 (1) "Betty Ford," Encyclopædia Brittanica, 2010, © 2010 Encyclopædia Brittanica, Inc.:

Betty Ford, née Elizabeth Anne Bloomer (b. April 8, 1918, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.), American first lady (1974-77), the wife of Gerald Ford, 38th president of the United States, and founder of the Betty Ford Center, a facility dedicated to helping people recover from drug and alcohol dependence. She was noted for her strong opinions on public issues and her candour regarding intimate matters.

Betty Bloomer was the only daughter of William Bloomer, a salesman, and Hortense Neahr Bloomer. When she was two years old, the family, including her two older brothers, moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan, where she attended public schools. At age eight she started dance lessons, reflecting an interest that she would maintain throughout her life. To earn spending money, she taught dance to other children. After graduating from high school in 1936, she spent two summers pursuing a dance career on the East Coast.

She studied at Bennington College in Vermont, where she came under the influence of the legendary modern dancer, teacher, and choreographer Martha Graham. As Betty later wrote, Graham "more than anyone else . . . shaped my life." When Graham accepted her into her New York City troupe, Betty moved to Manhattan's West Side. To augment her meager earnings as a dancer, she modeled with the John Robert Powers agency. Although she never became a principal dancer, Betty performed as one of Graham's auxiliaries and delighted in the modern dance technique that had become Graham's trademark.

At her mother's insistence, Betty left the Graham troupe and returned to live in Grand Rapids, where she worked as a fashion consultant and taught dance to handicapped children. In 1942 she met and married William Warren. Details of the marriage are hazy, as Betty later insisted that she could remember very little about it. After five years, she divorced him.

Soon after her divorce Betty met Gerald R. Ford, a local lawyer and partner in the law firm of Butterfield, Keeney, and Amberg. Gerald and Betty became engaged in February 1948, but they delayed the ceremony so that he could devote more time to his campaign for a seat in the House of Representatives. He arrived for the wedding on October 15, 1948, after a morning of greeting voters. His victory in November sent the young couple to Washington, D.C., where they lived for the next three decades. From 1950 to 1957 Betty gave birth to four children, three sons and one daughter.

Because Gerald was away campaigning or speaking to Republican groups much of the time, the responsibilities of parenting fell mostly to Betty. She sometimes joked that the family car went to the emergency room so often that it could make the trip on its own. In the mid-1960s, when she developed a pinched nerve and spinal arthritis, doctors prescribed pain medicine, to which she became addicted, as she later admitted. Her own physical discomfort, combined with the stress of raising young children, prompted her to seek psychiatric treatment, which she later described as enormously helpful.

Her life as the inconspicuous wife of a congressman ended in October 1973 when Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned and President Richard Nixon named Gerald Ford to the job, the first time that the 25th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which permitted the president to fill a vacancy in the office of vice president (subject to confirmation by a majority vote of both houses of Congress), was invoked. After Nixon was forced to resign over his involvement in the Watergate affair on August 9, 1974, Gerald became the first president who had never been elected president or vice president.

Betty always had a reputation for candour, but she later said that the circumstances under which she became first lady underscored that predilection. She understood that, in the wake of Watergate, Americans demanded more honesty from their public officials. Her commitment to openness was soon tested. On September 28, 1974, just weeks after she moved into the White House, her doctors performed a mastectomy, removing her cancerous right breast. Previous president's wives had concealed their illnesses, especially those peculiar to women, but she and her husband decided to disclose the facts. Moved by her example, women all across the nation went to their physicians for examinations; Betty said it was then that she recognized the first lady's enormous power to make a difference. Although chemotherapy followed, she continued to perform her duties as first lady.

Betty sometimes said that she admired Bess Truman for her down-to-earth style and Eleanor Roosevelt for her independence, and she sought to emulate both. Only days after moving into the White House she met with reporters and surprised them by announcing that some of her views, including her support for Roe v. Wade - the Supreme Court decision that legalized abortion - resembled those of liberal Republicans more than those of her husband. She also vigorously supported the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), then up for ratification in several state legislatures, lobbying wavering representatives in phone calls and meetings. The amendment failed, however, when the requisite number of states failed to ratify it in the time allotted. Her critics objected that she should not have intervened, though her supporters praised her involvement.

Betty gained national attention for her appearance on the television news program 60 Minutes in August 1975. When asked about her views on premarital sex, she said that she would not be surprised to learn that her 18-year-old daughter had had an affair. She said that, as a mother, she would counsel her daughter and try to find out something about the "young man." When the program aired, the print media quoted her out of context, making her sound quite different than she did in the interview. Gerald said that, when he viewed the program, he calculated that it would cost him 10 million votes, but, when he read the printed version, he doubled the damage. His pessimism was unwarranted, however. Betty's popularity soared, and Time magazine later named her Woman of the Year. Although she gave no support to such efforts, buttons appeared promoting her candidacy for national office.

After Gerald Ford narrowly lost the election of 1976 to Jimmy Carter, the Fords retired to Rancho Mirage, California, where Betty's dependence on prescription drugs continued. In early 1978, under pressure from her family, she agreed to enter a treatment centre in Long Beach. After her successful treatment there, she cofounded the Betty Ford Center in 1982 to help treat others with similar addictions and chaired the board of directors until 2005. The centre became popular and attracted clients from all walks of life. In 1991 she was awarded a Presidential Medal of Freedom by U.S. President George H.W. Bush for her efforts to promote public awareness and treatment of alcohol and drug addiction; she and Gerald Ford received a Congressional Gold Medal in 1999.

Her life was chronicled in the 1987 made-for-television movie The Betty Ford Story. She published two books, Betty: A Glad Awakening (1987) and Healing and Hope: Six Women from the Betty Ford Center Share Their Powerful Journeys of Addiction and Recovery (2003). Although much about her life was traditional, Betty Ford compiled a remarkably independent record as first lady, and she became enormously popular for her honesty and candour.

Betty Boyd Caroli

(2) NBC, and news services:

Former first lady Betty Ford dies at 93

Acknowledgement of addiction to alcohol, pain pills was groundbreaking

Betty Ford, the former first lady whose triumph over drug and alcohol addiction became a beacon of hope for addicts and the inspiration for her Betty Ford Center in California, died at age 93, a family friend said late Friday.

Her death Friday was confirmed to The Associated Press by Marty Allen, chairman emeritus of the Ford Foundation. Family spokeswoman Barbara Lewandrowski said later that the former first lady died at the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage. Other details of her death were not immediately available.

"She was a wonderful wife and mother; a great friend; and a courageous First Lady," former President George H.W. Bush said in a statement on Friday. "No one confronted life's struggles with more fortitude or honesty, and as a result, we all learned from the challenges she faced."

In a joint statement, President Bill Clinton and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said they were "deeply saddened" her death, NBC News reported.

"As a staunch advocate for women's and equal rights, Betty paved the way for generations of women to follow," the statement said.

"Her courage, compassion, and commitment to helping our nation deal with drug and alcohol abuse and addiction helped thousands of people to a successful recovery and in the process she helped to save countless families," it added.

They said Ford was "a remarkable woman whose legacy will live on in people around the country whose lives are longer and better because of her work."

Refreshing openness

While her husband served as president, Ford's comments weren't the kind of genteel, innocuous talk expected from a first lady, and a Republican one no less. Her unscripted comments sparked tempests in the press and dismayed President Gerald Ford's advisers, who were trying to soothe the national psyche after Watergate. But to the scandal-scarred, Vietnam-wearied, hippie-rattled nation, Mrs. Ford's openness was refreshing.

And 1970s America loved her for it.

According to Mrs. Ford, her young adult children probably had smoked marijuana - and if she were their age, she'd try it, too. She told "60 Minutes" she wouldn't be surprised to learn that her youngest, 18-year-old Susan, was in a sexual relationship (an embarrassed Susan issued a denial).

She mused that living together before marriage might be wise, thought women should be drafted into the military if men were, and spoke up unapologetically for abortion rights, taking a position contrary to the president's. "Having babies is a blessing, not a duty," Mrs. Ford said.

"Mother's love, candor, devotion, and laughter enriched our lives and the lives of the millions she touched throughout this great nation," her family said in a statement released late Friday. "To be in her presence was to know the warmth of a truly great lady."

Candor worked for Betty Ford, again and again. She would build an enduring legacy by opening up the toughest times of her life as public example.

In an era when cancer was discussed in hushed tones and mastectomy was still a taboo subject, the first lady shared the specifics of her breast cancer surgery. The publicity helped bring the disease into the open and inspired countless women to seek breast examinations.

Her most painful revelation came 15 months after leaving the White House, when Mrs. Ford announced that she was entering treatment for a longtime addiction to painkillers and alcohol. It turned out the famously forthcoming first lady had been keeping a secret, even from herself.

She used the unvarnished story of her own descent and recovery to crusade for better addiction treatment, especially for women. She co-founded the nonprofit Betty Ford Center near the Fords' home in Rancho Mirage, Calif., in 1982. Mrs. Ford raised millions of dollars for the center, kept close watch over its operations, and regularly welcomed groups of new patients with a speech that started, "Hello, my name's Betty Ford, and I'm an alcoholic and drug addict."

Although most famous for a string of celebrity patients over the years - from Elizabeth Taylor and Johnny Cash to Lindsay Lohan - the center keeps its rates relatively affordable and has served more than 90,000 people.

In a statement Friday, President Barack Obama said the Betty Ford Center would honor Mrs. Ford's legacy "by giving countless Americans a new lease on life."

"As our nation's First Lady, she was a powerful advocate for women's health and women's rights," the president said. "After leaving the White House, Mrs. Ford helped reduce the social stigma surrounding addiction and inspired thousands to seek much-needed treatment."

Early studies as a dancer

Mrs. Ford was a free spirit from the start. Elizabeth Bloomer, born April 8, 1918, fell in love with dance as a girl in Grand Rapids, Mich., and decided it would be her life. At 20, despite her mother's misgivings, she moved to New York to learn from her idol Martha Graham. She lived in Greenwich Village, worked as a model, and performed at Carnegie Hall in Graham's modern dance ensemble. "I thought I had arrived," she later recalled.

But her mother coaxed her back to Grand Rapids, where Betty worked as a dance teacher and store fashion coordinator and married William Warren, a friend from school days. He was a salesman who traveled frequently; she was unhappy. They lasted five years.

While waiting for her divorce to become final, she met and began dating, as she put it in her memoir, "probably the most eligible bachelor in Grand Rapids" - former college football star, Navy veteran and lawyer Jerry Ford. They would be married for 58 years, until his death in December 2006.

Two weeks after their October 1948 wedding, her husband was elected to his first term in the House. He would serve 25 years, rising to minority leader.

While her husband campaigned for weeks at a time or worked late on Capitol Hill, she raised their four children: Michael, Jack, Steven and Susan. She arranged luncheons for congressional wives, helped with her husband's campaigns, became a Cub Scout den mother, taught Sunday school.

A pinched nerve in her neck in 1964, followed by the onset of severe osteoarthritis, led her to an assortment of prescription drugs that never fully relieved the pain. For years she had been what she later called "a controlled drinker, no binges." Now she began mixing pills and alcohol. Feeling overwhelmed and underappreciated, she suffered an emotional breakdown that led to weekly visits with a psychiatrist.

The psychiatrist didn't take note of her drinking but instead tried to build her self-esteem: "He said I had to start thinking I was valuable, not just as a wife and mother, but as myself."

The White House would give her that gift.

In 1973, as Mrs. Ford was happily anticipating her husband's retirement from politics, Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced out of office over bribery charges. President Richard Nixon turned to Gerald Ford to fill the office.

Less than a year later, his presidency consumed by the Watergate scandal, Nixon resigned. On Aug. 9, 1974, Gerald Ford was sworn in as the only chief executive in American history who hadn't been elected either president or vice president.

Mrs. Ford wrote of her sudden ascent to first lady: "It was like going to a party you're terrified of, and finding out to your amazement that you're having a good time."

She was 56 when she moved into the White House, and looked more matronly than mod. Ever gracious, her chestnut hair carefully coifed into a soft bouffant, she tended to speak softly and slowly, even when taking a feminist stand.

Her breast cancer diagnosis, coming less than two months after President Ford was whisked into office, may have helped disarm the clergymen, conservative activists and Southern politicians who were most inflamed by her loose comments. She was photographed recovering at Bethesda Naval Hospital, looking frail in her robe, and won praise for grace and courage.

"She seems to have just what it takes to make people feel at home in the world again," media critic Marshall McLuhan observed at the time. "Something about her makes us feel rooted and secure - a feeling we haven't had in a while. And her cancer has been a catharsis for everybody."

The public outpouring of support helped her embrace the power of her position. "I was somebody, the first lady," she wrote later. "When I spoke, people listened."

She used her newfound influence to lobby aggressively for the Equal Rights Amendment, which failed nonetheless, and to speak against child abuse, raise money for handicapped children, and champion the performing arts.

After losing in '76, a descent

It's debatable whether Mrs. Ford's frank nature helped or hurt her husband's 1976 campaign to win a full term as president. Polls showed she was widely admired. By taking positions more liberal than the president's, she helped broaden his appeal beyond traditional Republican voters. But she also outraged some conservatives, leaving the president more vulnerable to a strong GOP primary challenge by Ronald Reagan. That battle weakened Ford going into the general election against Democrat Jimmy Carter.

Carter won by a slim margin. The president had lost his voice in the campaign's final days, and it was Mrs. Ford who read his concession speech to the nation.

The Fords retired to a Rancho Mirage golf community, but he spent much of his time away, giving speeches and playing in golf tournaments. Home alone, deprived of her exciting and purposeful life in the White House, Mrs. Ford drank.

By 1978 her secret was obvious to those closest to her.

"As I got sicker," she recalled, "I gradually stopped going to lunch. I wouldn't see friends. I was putting everyone out of my life." Her children recalled her living in a stupor, shuffling around in her bathrobe, refusing meals in favor of a drink.

Her family finally confronted her and insisted she seek treatment.

"I was stunned at what they were trying to tell me about how I disappointed them and let them down," she said in a 1994 Associated Press interview. "I was terribly hurt - after I had spent all those years trying to be the best mother, wife I could be. . . . Luckily, I was able to hear them saying that I needed help and they cared too much about me to let it go on."

She credited their "intervention" with saving her life.

Mrs. Ford entered Long Beach Naval Hospital and, alongside alcoholic young sailors and officers, underwent a grim detoxification that became the model for therapy at the Betty Ford Center. In her book "A Glad Awakening," she described her recovery as a second chance at life.

And in that second chance, she found a new purpose.

"There is joy in recovery," she wrote, "and in helping others discover that joy."

Family spokeswoman Lewandrowski the family expects to organize a service in Palm Springs over the next couple days. Ford's body will be sent to Michigan for burial alongside former President Gerald Ford, who is buried at his namesake museum in Grand Rapids.

* * *

Key dates in the life of Betty Ford:

• April 8, 1918: Elizabeth "Betty" Bloomer born in Chicago.

• 1920: Family moves to Grand Rapids, Mich.

• 1936: Graduates from Central High School in Grand Rapids; spends next years studying dance, working for a time in New York with famed choreographer Martha Graham.

• 1942: Marries salesman William Warren in Grand Rapids; the union ends in divorce.

• Oct. 15, 1948: Marries Gerald Ford.

• Nov. 2, 1948: Gerald Ford elected to U.S. House of Representatives. In Congress for nearly 25 years, including stint as House minority leader.

• March 14, 1950: Birth of first child, Michael Gerald. The Fords' other children are John Gardner, born in 1952; Steven Meigs, 1956; and Susan Elizabeth, 1957.

• Dec. 6, 1973: Gerald Ford confirmed as vice president after resignation of Spiro Agnew.

• Aug. 9, 1974: Gerald Ford becomes president after resignation of Richard Nixon.

• Sept. 28, 1974: Betty Ford undergoes mastectomy after being diagnosed with breast cancer. Her openness about the disease helped encourage other women to get tested.

• September 1975: Two attempts on President Gerald Ford's life, both unsuccessful, in California.

• Nov. 2, 1976: Ford defeated by Jimmy Carter in quest for a full term as president.

• Jan. 20, 1977: Carter is inaugurated; Fords leave the White House.

• April 1978: The former president and their children persuade Betty Ford to seek treatment for abuse of medication, alcohol. ("I didn't say a word, just listened and cried," she wrote later.)

• November 1978: Betty Ford publishes memoir, "The Times of My Life."

• 1982: Betty Ford Center opens at Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, Calif.

• 1987: Her book, "A Glad Awakening," about her recovery from substance abuse, is published; ABC-TV broadcasts "The Betty Ford Story," starring Gena Rowlands.

• 1991: Betty Ford is awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor.

• 1999: Gerald and Betty Ford both presented with Congressional Gold Medals.

• August 2000: Gerald Ford suffers small stroke while attending the Republican National Convention in Philadelphia.

• 2005: Betty Ford steps down as chairman of the Betty Ford Center board.

• Dec. 26, 2006: Gerald Ford dies at age 93.

• April 2007: Betty Ford undergoes surgery for an undisclosed ailment.

• Aug. 31, 2007: Attends ceremony in California for issuance of postage stamp honoring her husband.

This article contains reporting from NBC News, staff, The Associated Press and Reuters. 
BLOOMER, Elizabeth Anne (I23632)
311 (1) "Bezaleel Rice" :

Bezaleel Rice was born on 19 May 1721 in Framingham, MA. He was the son of Bezaleel Rice and Sarah Buckminster. Bezaleel Rice married 1st Susanna Jennings, daughter of Stephen Jennings and Susanna Bigelow, on 2 December 1742 in Framingham, MA. Bezaleel Rice married Sarah Bent, daughter of David Bent and Mary Drury, on 13 March 1751 in Framingham, MA. Bezaleel Rice died on 13 March 1806 in Framingham, MA (not found in the published records).

He resided after 1800 with daughter-in-law Huldah and family. He left a will on 18 December 1801, proved 18 June 1806. The will mentioned son Hezekiah; daughters Susannah Twichell and Sarah Brewer; daughter-in-law Huldah, widow of my son Samuel, and to his children Hannah, Cynthia, Samuel, Elizabeth, Martin, and Jonathan Edmands Rice. Thomas Rice of Framingham, Executor. Thomas declined the trust, and Jonathan Edmands, father of Huldah, widow of Samuel Rice, was appointed Administrator, with the will annexed.

Father: Bezaleel Rice
Mother: Sarah Buckminster

Children of Bezaleel Rice and Susanna Jennings:

• Bezaleel Rice
• Hezekiah Rice
• Susanna Rice
• Sarah Rice

Children of Bezaleel Rice and Sarah Bent:

• Bezaleel Rice
• John Rice
• Nathan Rice
• Mary Rice
• Capt. Samuel Rice

© Copyright 2002, 2019 by the Edmund Rice (1638) Association. 
RICE, Bezaleel (I46687)
312 (1) "Bezaleel Rice" :

Bezaleel Rice was born circa 1697. He was the son of Deacon David Rice and Hannah Walker. Bezaleel Rice married Sarah Buckminster, daughter of Col Joseph Buckminster and Martha Sharp, on 23 June 1720 in Framingham, MA.

Bezaleel Rice resided in 1725 in Framingham, MA. He was in the military in 1725 in Framingham, MA, Clark's Company. He was a Physician and Selectman before 1742 in Framingham, MA.

Father: Deacon David Rice
Mother: Hannah Walker

Children of Bezaleel Rice and Sarah Buckminster:

• Bezaleel Rice
• David Rice
• Sarah Rice
• Zerviah Rice
• Josiah Rice
• Martha Rice

© Copyright 2002, 2019 by the Edmund Rice (1638) Association. 
RICE, Bezaleel (I46685)
313 (1) "Black Hawk War," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

The Black Hawk War was a brief conflict between the United States and Native Americans led by Black Hawk, a Sauk leader. The war erupted soon after Black Hawk and a group of Sauks, Meskwakis, and Kickapoos, known as the "British Band", crossed the Mississippi River, into the U.S. state of Illinois, from Iowa Indian Territory in April 1832. Black Hawk's motives were ambiguous, but he was apparently hoping to avoid bloodshed while resettling on tribal land that had been colonized by the United States in the disputed 1804 Treaty of St. Louis.

(2) Illinois Black Hawk War Veterans :

Rank: PVT
Company: J JONES
Place of Enrollment: COLES CO
Regiment: 1
Brigade: 2

Rank: PVT
Company: T ROSS
Place of Enrollment: COLES CO
Regiment: 1
Brigade: 2


Henry Frost
Birth: 26 Dec 1811
Death: 11 Sep 1837 (aged 25)
Burial: Mound Cemetery, Charleston, Coles County, Illinois, USA

Family Members: Parents: William Frost (1788-1870), Sarah Frost (1789-1855); Siblings: John J Frost (1814-1850), Jonathan Frost (1817-1870)

Inscription: HENRY FROST, BORN Dec. 26, 1811, DIED: Sept. 11, 1837.

Created by: Steven Lawyer
Added: 22 May 2017
Find a Grave Memorial: 179604856 
FROST, Henry (I46995)
314 (1) "Brigham Young," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 - August 29, 1877) was an American religious leader, politician, and settler. He was the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 until his death in 1877. He founded Salt Lake City and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory. Young also led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University.

Young had many nicknames, among the most popular being "American Moses" (alternatively, the "Modern Moses" or "Mormon Moses"), because, like the biblical figure, Young led his followers, the Mormon pioneers, in an exodus through a desert, to what they saw as a promised land. Young was dubbed by his followers the "Lion of the Lord" for his bold personality and commonly was called "Brother Brigham" by Latter-day Saints. A polygamist, Young had 55 wives. He instituted a church ban against conferring the priesthood on men of black African descent, and also led the church during the Utah War against the United States.

Early life

Young was born the eighth child of John Young and Abigail "Nabby" Howe, a farming family in Whitingham, Vermont. When he was three his family moved to upstate New York settling in Sherburne, New York. At age 12 he moved with his parents to Aurelius, New York close to Cayuga Lake. When he was 14 his mother died of tuberculosis. After that he moved with his father to Tyrone, New York.

At age 16, Young's father made him leave home. He first worked odd jobs and then became an apprentice to a John C. Jeffries in Auburn, New York. He worked as a carpenter, joined, glazer and painter. One home Young helped paint in Auburn was that of Elijah Miller, which later became the residence of William Seward. It is now a local museum. . . . It is also claimed by locals that the fireplace mantle of this house was created by Young. With the onset of the depression of 1819 Jeffries dismissed Young from his apprenticeship and Young moved to Port Byron, New York.

Young had converted to the Reformed Methodist Church in 1824. This was after a period of deep reading of the Bible. He insisted when joining the Methodists on being baptized by immersion instead of their normal practice of sprinkling.

Young was first married in 1824 to Miriam Angeline Works, whom he had met in Port Byron. They first lived in a small unpainted house adjacent to the pail factory which was at the time Young's main place of employment. Also in Port Byron, Young joined a debating society. Shortly after the birth of their first daughter the family moved to Oswego, New York on the shores of Lake Ontario. Later on in 1828 they moved to Mendon, New York. Most of Young's siblings had already moved to Mendon, or did so shortly after he moved there. It was here he first became friends with Heber C. Kimball. Here he worked as a carpenter and joined and built a saw mill that he operated. In 1832, Mariam died and Young and his two young daughters moved into the household of Kimball and his wife, Vilate.

By this point Young had for all intents and purposes left the Reformed Methodist, becoming a Christian seeker, unconvinced that he had found a church with the true authority of Jesus Christ. As early as 1830, Young was introduced to the Book of Mormon by way of a copy his brother, Phineas H., had obtained from Samuel H. Smith. In 1831, five missionaries of the Latter Day Saint movement (Eleazer Miller, Elial Strong, Alpheus Gifford, Enos Curtis, and Daniel Bowen) came from the branch of the church in Columbia, Pennsylvania to preach in Mendon. A key attraction of the teachings of this group to Young was their practicing of spiritual gifts. This was partly experienced when Young traveled with his wife and Kimball to visit the branch of the church in Columbia, Pennsylvania.

Young was drawn to the new church after reading the Book of Mormon. He officially joined the Church of Christ on April 14, 1832, being baptized by Eleazer Miller. A branch of the church was organized in Mendon, and Young was one of the regular preachers to the branch. He quickly expanded his area of sharing the gospel of Jesus Christ, traveling southwest to Warsaw, New York and southeast to various towns along Lake Canandaigua. Shortly after this, Young saw Alpheus Gifford speak in tongues and in response Young also spoke in an unknown language. In November 1832, Young travelled with Kimball to Kirtland, Ohio and visited Joseph Smith. During this trip Young spoke in a tongue that was identified by Smith as the "Adamic language".

In December 1832, Young left his daughters with the Kimballs and set out on a mission with his brother, Joseph, to Upper Canada, primarily to what is now Kingston, Ontario. Later they extended their preaching to various towns along the north shore of Lake Erie. In February 1833, they returned to Mendon. A few months later Young again set out on a mission with his brother, Joseph, this time traveling into the north of New York and then on into modern Ontario.

In the summer of 1833, Young moved to Kirtland, Ohio. Here he met Mary Ann Angell and they were married on February 18, 1834. In Kirtland, Young continued to preach the gospel, in fact Mary Ann first encountered him through hearing him preach. Young also resumed work on building houses. In May 1834, Young became a member of Zion's Camp. He traveled to Missouri and was part of it until it disbanded on July 3, 1834. After his return to Kirtland, Young focused his carpentry work on the Kirtland Temple and also prepared for the birth of his third child, his first son, Joseph A. Young. Mary Ann had largely provided for Young's two daughters on her own while pregnant with her first child while Young was away with Zion's Camp. In Kirtland, Young was involved in adult education including studying in a Hebrew language class under Joshua Sexias.

Church service

Young was ordained a member of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in May 1835. Later that month, Young left with the other members of the Quorum of the Twelve on a proselytizing mission to New York state and New England. In August 1835, Young and the rest of the Quorum of the Twelve issued a testimony in support of the divine origin of the Doctrine and Covenants. He was then involved in the dedication of the Kirtland Temple in 1836. Shortly after this Young went on another mission with his brother, Joseph, to New York and New England. On this mission he visited the family of his aunt, Rhoda Howe Richards. They converted to the church, including his cousin Willard Richards. He then returned to Kirtland where he remained until events related to anger over the failure of the Kirtland Safety Society forced him to flee the community in December 1837. He then stayed for a short time in Dublin, Indiana with his brother, Lorenzo, and then moved on to Caldwell County, Missouri.

Young became the quorum president in March 1839. Under his direction, the quorum served a mission to the United Kingdom and organized the exodus of Latter Day Saints from Missouri in 1838.

In 1844, while in jail awaiting trial for treason charges, the church's president, Joseph Smith was killed by an armed mob. Several claimants to the role of church president emerged during the succession crisis that ensued. Before a large meeting convened to discuss the succession in Nauvoo, Illinois, Sidney Rigdon, the senior surviving member of the church's First Presidency, argued there could be no successor to the deceased prophet and that he should be made the "Protector" of the church. Young opposed this reasoning and motion. Smith had earlier recorded a revelation which stated the Quorum of the Twelve was "equal in authority and power" to the First Presidency, so Young claimed that the leadership of the church fell to the Twelve Apostles. The majority in attendance were persuaded that the Quorum of the Twelve was to lead the church, with Young as the quorum's president. Many of Young's followers would later reminisce that while Young spoke to the congregation, he looked or sounded exactly like Smith, which they attributed to the power of God. Young was ordained President of the Church in December 1847, three and a half years after Smith's death. Rigdon became the president of a separate church organization based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and other potential successors emerged to lead what became other denominations of the movement.

Migration west . . .

Repeated conflict led Young to relocate his group of Latter-day Saints to the Salt Lake Valley, which was then part of Mexico. Young organized the journey that would take the Mormon pioneers to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846, then to the Salt Lake Valley. By the time Young arrived at the final destination, it had come under American control as a result of war with Mexico, although U.S. sovereignty would not be confirmed until 1848. Young arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847, a date now recognized as Pioneer Day in Utah. Young's expedition was one of the largest and one of the best organized westward treks. On August 22, 29 days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Young organized the Mormon Tabernacle Choir.

After three years of leading the church as the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Young reorganized a new First Presidency and was sustained as the second president of the church on December 27, 1847.

Governor of Utah Territory

As colonizer and founder of Salt Lake City, Young was appointed the territory's first governor and superintendent of American Indian affairs by President Millard Fillmore on February 3, 1851. During his time as prophet, Young directed the establishment of settlements throughout present-day Utah, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, California and parts of southern Colorado and northern Mexico. Under his direction, the Mormons built roads and bridges, forts, irrigation projects; established public welfare; organized a militia; issued an extermination order against the Timpanogos and after a series of wars eventually made peace with the Native Americans. Young was also one of the first to subscribe to Union Pacific stock, for the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. Young organized the first legislature and established Fillmore as the territory's first capital.

Young organized a board of regents to establish a university in the Salt Lake Valley. It was established on February 28, 1850, as the University of Deseret; its name was eventually changed to the University of Utah.

In 1851, Young and several federal officials, including territorial Secretary Broughton Harris, became unable to work cooperatively. Harris and the others departed Utah without replacements being named, and these individuals later became known as the Runaway Officials of 1851.

Young supported slavery and its expansion into Utah, and led the efforts to legalize and regulate slavery in the 1852 Act in Relation to Service, based on his beliefs on slavery.

In 1856, Young organized an efficient mail service. In 1858, following the events of the Utah War, he stepped down to his successor, Alfred Cumming.

LDS Church president

Young was the longest-serving president of the LDS Church in history, having served for 29 years.

Educational endeavors

On October 16, 1875, Young deeded buildings and land in Provo, Utah to a board of trustees for establishing an institution of learning, ostensibly as part of the University of Deseret. Young said, "I hope to see an Academy established in Provo . . . at which the children of the Latter-day Saints can receive a good education unmixed with the pernicious atheistic influences that are found in so many of the higher schools of the country." The school broke off from the University of Deseret and became Brigham Young Academy, the precursor to Brigham Young University.

Within the church, Young reorganized the Relief Society for women in 1867, and he created organizations for young women in 1869 and young men in 1875.
Temple building

Young was involved in temple building throughout his membership in the LDS Church, making it a priority of his church presidency. Under Smith's leadership, Young participated in the building of the Kirtland and Nauvoo temples. Just four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Young designated the location for the Salt Lake Temple; he presided over its groundbreaking on April 6, 1853. During his tenure, Young oversaw construction of the Salt Lake Tabernacle and he announced plans to build the St. George (1871), Manti (1875), and Logan (1877) temples. He also provisioned the building of the Endowment House, a "temporary temple" which began to be used in 1855 to provide temple ordinances to church members while the Salt Lake Temple was under construction.


The majority of Young's teachings are contained in the 19 volumes of transcribed and edited sermons in the Journal of Discourses. The LDS Church's Doctrine and Covenants contains one section from Young that has been canonized as scripture, adding the section in 1876.

Though polygamy was practiced by Young's predecessor Joseph Smith, the practice is often associated with Young. Some Latter Day Saint denominations, such as the Community of Christ, consider Young the "Father of Mormon Polygamy". In 1853, Young made the church's first official statement on the subject since the church had arrived in Utah. Young acknowledged the suffering the doctrine created for women, but stated its necessity for creating large families, proclaiming: "But the first wife will say, 'It is hard, for I have lived with my husband twenty years, or thirty, and have raised a family of children for him, and it is a great trial to me for him to have more women;' then I say it is time that you gave him up to other women who will bear children."

One of the more controversial teachings of Young was the Adam-God doctrine. According to Young, he was taught by Smith that Adam is "our Father and our God, and the only God with whom we have to do". According to the doctrine, Adam was once a mortal man who became resurrected and exalted. From another planet, Adam brought Eve, one of his wives, with him to the earth, where they became mortal by eating the fruit of the Garden of Eden. After bearing mortal children and establishing the human race, Adam and Eve returned to their heavenly thrones where Adam acts as the god of this world. Later, as Young is generally understood to have taught, Adam returned to the earth to become the biological father of Jesus. The LDS Church has since repudiated the Adam-God doctrine.

Young is generally considered to have instituted a church ban against conferring the priesthood on men of black African descent, who had been treated equally in this respect under Smith's presidency. After settling in Utah in 1848, Young announced the ban, which also forbade blacks from participating in Mormon temple rites such as the endowment or sealings. On many occasions, Young taught that blacks were denied the priesthood because they were "the seed of Cain", but also stated that they would eventually receive the priesthood after "all the other children of Adam have the privilege of receiving the Priesthood, and of coming into the kingdom of God, and of being redeemed from the four-quarters of the earth, and have received their resurrection from the dead, then it will be time enough to remove the curse from Cain and his posterity." These racial restrictions remained in place until 1978, when the policy was rescinded by LDS Church president Spencer W. Kimball, and the LDS Church subsequently "disavow[ed] theories advanced in the past" to explain this ban, thereby "plac[ing] the origins of black priesthood denial blame squarely on Brigham Young."

In 1863, Young stated: "Shall I tell you the law of God in regard to the African race? If the white man who belongs to the chosen seed mixes his blood with the seed of Cain, the penalty, under the law of God, is death on the spot. This will always be so."

Young was a vocal opponent of theories of human polygenesis, being a firm voice for stating that all humans were the product of one creation.


Shortly after the arrival of Young's pioneers, the new Mormon colonies were incorporated into the United States through the Mexican Cession. Young petitioned the U.S. Congress to create the State of Deseret. The Compromise of 1850 instead carved out Utah Territory and Young was installed as governor. As governor and church president, Young directed both religious and economic matters. He encouraged independence and self-sufficiency. Many cities and towns in Utah, and some in neighboring states, were founded under Young's direction. Young's leadership style has been viewed as autocratic. When federal officials received reports of widespread and systematic obstruction of federal officials in Utah (most notably judges), U.S. President James Buchanan decided to install a non-Mormon governor. Buchanan accepted the reports of the judges without any further investigation, and the new non-sectarian governor was accompanied by troops sent to garrison forts in the new territory. When Young received word that federal troops were headed to Utah with his replacement, he called out his militia to ambush the federal force. During the defense of Utah, now called the Utah War, Young held the U.S. Army at bay for a winter by taking their cattle and burning supply wagons. The Mormon forces were largely successful thanks to Lot Smith. Young eventually relented and agreed to step down as governor. He later received a pardon from Buchanan. Relations between Young and future governors and U.S. Presidents were mixed.

The degree of Young's involvement in the Mountain Meadows massacre, which took place in Washington County in 1857, is disputed. Leonard J. Arrington reports that Young received a rider at his office on the day of the massacre, and that when he learned of the contemplated attack by the members of the LDS Church in Parowan and Cedar City, he sent back a letter directing that the Fancher party be allowed to pass through the territory unmolested. Young's letter reportedly arrived on September 13, 1857, two days after the massacre. As governor, Young had promised the federal government he would protect immigrants passing through Utah Territory, but over 120 men, women and children were killed in this incident. There is no debate concerning the involvement of individual Mormons from the surrounding communities by scholars. Only children under the age of seven, who were cared for by local Mormon families, survived, and the murdered members of the wagon train were left unburied. The remains of about 40 people were later found and buried, and Union Army officer James Henry Carleton had a large cross made from local trees, the transverse beam bearing the engraving, "Vengeance Is Mine, Saith The Lord: I Will Repay" and erected a cairn of rocks at the site. A large slab of granite was put up on which he had the following words engraved: "Here 120 men, women and children were massacred in cold blood early in September, 1857. They were from Arkansas." For two years, the monument stood as a memorial to those travelling the Spanish Trail through Mountain Meadow. Some claim that, in 1861, Young brought an entourage to Mountain Meadows and had the cairn and cross destroyed, while exclaiming, "Vengeance is mine and I have taken a little".


Before his death in Salt Lake City on August 29, 1877, Young was suffering from cholera morbus and inflammation of the bowels. It is believed that he died of peritonitis from a ruptured appendix. His last words were "Joseph! Joseph! Joseph!", invoking the name of the late Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon faith. On September 2, 1877, Young's funeral was held in the Tabernacle with an estimated 12,000 to 15,000 people in attendance. He is buried on the grounds of the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Monument in the heart of Salt Lake City. A bronze marker was placed at the grave site June 10, 1938, by members of the Young Men and Young Women organizations, which he founded.



A century after his death, one writer stated that

["]Joseph Smith] was succeeded by one of the outstanding organizers of the 19th century, Brigham Young. If the circumstances of his life had worked out differently [he] might have become a captain of industry - an Andrew Carnegie or John D. Rockefeller or a railroad builder. Instead, this able, energetic, earthy man became the absolute ruler and the revered, genuinely loved father figure of all Mormons everywhere.["]

He credited Young's leadership with helping to settle much of the American West:

["]During the 30 years between the Mormons' arrival in Utah in 1847 and [his death in] 1877, Young directed the founding of 350 towns in the Southwest. Thereby the Mormons became the most important single agency in colonizing that vast arid West between the Rockies and the Sierra Nevada.["]

Memorials to Young include a bronze statue in front of the Abraham O. Smoot Administration Building, Brigham Young University; a marble statue in the National Statuary Hall Collection at the United States Capitol, donated by the State of Utah in 1950; and a statue atop the This is the Place Monument in Salt Lake City.

Young's teachings were the 1998-99 course of study in the LDS Church's Sunday Relief Society and Melchizedek priesthood classes.

Family and descendants . . .

Young was a polygamist, marrying a total of 55 wives, 54 of them after he converted to Mormonism. The policy was difficult for many in the church. Young stated that upon being taught about plural marriage, "It was the first time in my life that I desired the grave." By the time of his death, Young had 56 children by 16 of his wives; 46 of his children reached adulthood.

Sources have varied on the number of Young's wives, due to differences in what scholars have considered to be a "wife". There were 55 women who Young was sealed to during his lifetime. While the majority of the sealings were "for eternity", some were "for time only". Researchers believe that not all of the 55 marriages were conjugal. Young did not live with a number of his wives or publicly hold them out as wives, which has led to confusion on the number and their identities. This is in part due to the complexity of how wives were identified in the Mormon society at the time.

Of Young's 55 wives, 21 had never been married before; 16 were widows; six were divorced; six had living husbands and the marital status of six others is unknown. In 1856, Young built the Lion House to accommodate his sizable family. This building remains a Salt Lake City landmark, together with the Beehive House, another Young family home. A contemporary of Young wrote: "It was amusing to walk by Brigham Young's big house, a long rambling building with innumerable doors. Each wife has an establishment of her own, consisting of parlor, bedroom, and a front door, the key of which she keeps in her pocket." At the time of Young's death, 19 of his wives had predeceased him; he was divorced from ten, and 23 survived him. The status of four was unknown. One of his wives, Zina Huntington Young, served as the third president of the Relief Society. In his will, Young shared his estate with the 16 surviving wives who had lived with him; the six surviving non-conjugal wives were not mentioned in the will. 
YOUNG, Brigham (I46646)
315 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I27338)
316 (1) "Bushfield" History :

John Augustine and Hannah [WASHINGTON] became parents to six children, the oldest two children were daughters who were born at Mt. Vernon where John Augustine was estate manager for his brother George. Shortly after George Washington married in 1759, John Augustine and Hannah moved to Bushfield. John Bushrod died the following year, and Hannah inherited the land, 35 slaves, all the livestock and furnishings. Bushfield was the birthplace of their first son, Bushrod Washington, jurist of the U. S. Supreme Court, who later inherited Mt. Vernon. He was given the family name of a maternal grandfather. A brother was born in 1765 was named Corbin after his maternal grandmother. The other children were Mary, Jenny, William and Mildred.

In the year 1776, while living at Bushfield, John Augustine Washington, along with 114 other patriots, pledged life and fortune in the celebrated protest against the famous Stamp Act by signing the Leedstown Resolutions.

John Augustine's older brother and our first President, George Washington, was known to be a guest at Bushfield on many occasions while visiting his brother.

Bushfield is also central to a modern-day controversy over whether or not West Ford was the son of George Washington and a slave. The Mount Vernon Lady's Association has indicated they do not believe that he was, but the resemblance is striking for this slave who was freed in 1806 by Hannah. You can learn more by visiting here.

Bushfield was sold after the death of Hannah Washington in 1801 to Samuel Lewis, nephew to George and John Augustine Washington. It was shelled by the British in the year of 1814 along with many other estates and churches on the Nomini. Tax records indicate building improvements in 1843 under the ownership of Landon Berkeley and his wife Sarah Ann Campbell. It again saw renovations to the Italianate style in 1857 by owner Ferdinand Blackwell.

Under the ownership of the Willing family of Chicago, Bushfield mansion underwent a turn-of-the century renovation by the well known architect Waddy Butler Wood of Washington, D. C. when the Flemish-bond house was more than doubled in size. Symmetrical flank wings exhibit Colonial Revival details, such as rounded arch windows. The interior features Classical fireplace surrounds and plaster cornices and walls. There have been very few changes to Bushfield since that time.

A very old graveyard exists on the grounds of Bushfield. Known residents and dates of their death include John Bushrod (1719) and his wife Hannah Keene Bushrod (1739), their son Thomas Bushrod (1719) who died at age 17, and Dr. John Cooper, third husband of Hannah Keene Bushrod. Also buried at Bushfield are John Augustine Washington (1787) and wife Hannah Bushrod Washington (1801), their son Corbin Washington (1799) and his wife Hannah Lee Washington (1799) daughter of Richard Henry Lee. Thought to be buried at Bushfield are John Bushrod (Jr.,) and his wives Jenny Corbin and Mildred Seaton.

Bushfield served as the country club for the Miller Glen golf course which was owned by the Miller family. Gene and Judith Conner had the foresight to purchase the property even while the country club was using the pool and other buildings next to the house. Over the years the Conners patiently reassembled the adjacent parcels and turned Bushfield into a Bed & Breakfast and updated many of systems in the min house. Several smaller outbuildings (including the golf pro shop and some small houses) were moved. The Conners also moved the driveway to come around and to the "front" of the house (riverside) to the "back" of the house and added a portico to serve as the entrance most guests see. The land was also gently sloped to the water to give Bushfield its modern day look and green lawn.

Bushfield was purchased in 2007 by Dan and Bobbie Elam who have been fortunate enough to live in three properties on the National Register including historic Rosegill plantation on the Rappahannock River and Richmond's Monument Ave.

Bushfield has been listed with the NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES & VIRGINIA LANDMARK REGISTER. . . . Bushfield has also appeared in Chesapeake Bay Magazine and Bay Splash. 
BUSHROD, Hannah (I17793)
317 (1) "Caleb Pusey House," in Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Caleb Pusey, formally Caleb Bartholomew alias Pusey, (c. 1650-1727) was a Quaker lastmaker (a maker of wooden foot molds for cobblers) and a friend and business partner of William Penn, the founder of the colony of Pennsylvania. Pusey came to the colony from England in 1682, having been born in the parish of Lambourn, to manage Chester Mills for Penn. Situated on Chester Creek west of Philadelphia, they were the first Proprietary grist mill and sawmill in the colony. From 1701, Pusey served as a justice of the provincial supreme court. Pusey became involved with the local Quaker community, as well as local government. He wrote a number of pamphlets, several in defense of William Penn.

(2) In 1693, Caleb PUSEY became the master of Alexander ROSS, a boy who was then 11 years of age, and who had been shipped from Scotland without an indenture.

* * *

Austin, Angela, Forgotten Children: Scotland's Colonial Child Servants, 1680 - 1760 , submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Masters of Philosophy in Scottish History, School of Humanities, College of Arts, University of Glasgow, 10 January, 2017, p. 33:

[T]he Trents were clearly actively employed in the selling of child servants shipped from Scotland without indentures. October 3, 1693, Maurice Trent appeared in Chester County Court of Quarter Sessions in Chester County, Pennsylvania with Scottish boys Alexander Ross, Daniel MacDaniel, James Hercules, George Leacy, Alex Mecany, Magnis Simson, James Canide, and James Driver in order to have their ages and terms of indenture determined, since they lacked proper documentation. The boys ranged in age from 8 to 14.

* * *

Lapp, Dorothy B. Lapp, Records of the Courts of Chester County, Pennsylvania 1681-1697, Vol. 1, Philadelphia, PA: Patterson & White Company, 1910, p. 300:

The boyes that Mauris Trent Brought In to this Country were Called to be Judged by Court Caleb Pusyes boy Alexsander Ross A Judged by the Court to be Eleven years of Age and to serve tell the Age of one and Twenty and to have the Custom of the Country and be Discharged from his serviitude by the said Caleb Pusye. . . .

* * *

Dobson, David, Scottish Quakers and Early America, 1650-1700 [Reprint], Baltimore, MD: Clearfield Company, Inc., 2000, p. 23:

ROSS, ALEXANDER, born 1682, shipped to Philadelphia by Maurice Trent, indentured for 10 years in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 3.10.1693, a Quaker convert. [SG.29/1.11]

* * *

Bryan, Jr., Charles W., "Morgan Bryan, Pioneer on the Opequon and Yadkin," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 70, No. 2 (Apr., 1962), pp. 154-164:

On October 28,1730, Morgan Bryan and Alexander Ross appeared before Governor William Gooch and the Council of Virginia and presented their application for one hundred thousand acres "lying on the west & North Side of the River Opeckan & extending thence to a Mountain called the North Mountain & along the River Cohongaruton & on any part of the River Sherando not already granted to any other person." . . .

Bryan and Ross received assurance that they might take up the one hundred thousand acres requested, with the stipulation that land patents would be granted within two years for one hundred families in such division as was agreeable to them. In the meantime, the Council ordered that the said lands were to be held free from the entry of any other persons. On April 23, 1735, this order in council was continued and many grants were made under it citing that each recipient was one of seventy families brought in by Bryan and Ross under such order.

[Note by compiler: One of the members of the "70 Families" described above was John FROST (b. abt. 1790; d. bef. 02 Sep 1766, SC), listed elsewhere in this database.]

(3) Cadbury, Henry J., ed., "Caleb Pusey's Account of Pennsylvania," in Quaker History, Vol. 64, No. 1 (Spring 1975), pp. 37-57:

The oldest printed histories of Pennsylvania report that from the early days of that province the Quakers had provided for written records to be compiled and augmented. And they indicate what individuals in successive generations had the custody of the accumulated materials. Robert Proud in The History of Pennsylvania, printed in 1797 but "written principally between the years 1776 and 1780," says in his preface:

Among the first collectors of these materials appears to have been Caleb Pusey, one of the early settlers of Pennsylvania from about London in 1682. He lived many years; was well acquainted with the public affairs and saw great improvements in the province. His papers after his decease, in 1725, were delivered to David Lloyd and Isaac Norris; and afterwards to James Logan about the year 1732. From these persons, who made such additions as came within their observation, they afterwards passed to John Kinsey, who, in conjunction with several others his friends revised them; and they remained in his possession till his death in the year 1750. . . .

But the person who took the most pains to adjust and reduce these materials into such order as might be proper for the public view before that of the present publication, was Samuel Smith of Burlington, New Jersey, author of the history of that province; whose manuscript (which contained only the space of about forty years) after his decease, in 1776, being thought by diverse sensible and judicious persons, among his friends to be capable of further improvement and useful alterations or additions, the present history therefore is published not only in a form, different from that of S. Smith's manuscript, but also diverse particulars therein art here much abbreviated . . . and considerable additions are made. . . .

In spite of the apparent disappearance of the material as organized by Samuel Smith and all his predecessors back to Caleb Pusey, it has long been known that many years after Proud's publication, the MS history of Pennsylvania by Samuel Smith was partially printed in installments in Samuel Hazard's Register of Pennsylvania, beginning in September 1830.

Herewith is published for the first time one of the earliest of the lost several contributions to the history of Pennsylvania as indicated in the summary given above. This document has been long extant in the manuscript papers stored in Philadelphia in the Yearly Meeting archives. It is without title or author's name but is in the handwriting of Caleb Pusey, the associate of William Penn. According to the records of the Yearly Meeting, some of Caleb Pusey's manuscripts were transferred to the care of that meeting after his death in 1725.

The minutes of the Yearly Meeting held at Burlington in 7th month 1728 make the following reference;

"The papers brought into this meeting last year, left by our deceased Friend, Caleb Pusey, came under consideration being an essay or preparation for a history of the first settlement of Friends in these countries, and many Friends appearing desirous to have such a history carried on, this meeting orders the papers to be delivered to David Lloyd who offered himself to that service, who with Isaac Norris are deserved to view and consider th[e]m and make what progerss [sic] they can therein. Friends who have any memorials or collections to the purpose are desired to furnish those Friends therewith as expeditiously as may be."

The document here printed suits the description just quoted. Its emphasis in detail on the Keithian division was suitable to the role which Caleb Pusey played in that controversy. Some of its allusions to individual Friends although anonymous exactly suit him as author, and indeed, Robert Proud in telling the report of an Indian alarm, found in this manuscript, says that a member of the Council from Chester County there referred to is supposed to be Caleb Pusey.

The date of composition or at least of its final completion is evidently not long before Pusey's death in late 1725. The last stages of George Keith's career are reported. He died in 1716. From the year 1721 the document quotes a friendly conference of the Governor Sir William Keith "lately" with Seneca Indians at Conestoga and a revision of the form of Quaker oath in England in the later part of the same year. Here and elsewhere he quotes from William Sewel's History of the Quakers with page references to the first edition in English (London 1722).

On the other hand his reference to certain other documents that were not printed until long afterwards do not suggest by page numbers the printed form, though they were in existence in manuscript. The collecting into a book of earlier testimonies of Friends at Yearly Meeting was approved in 1722 and circulated, and in the year 1723 revised and printed with the title The Ancient Testimony of the People Called Quakers Revised. This is already known to the writer of this paper.

A more exact dating of the writing of Caleb Pusey is suggested by his quotation from a preface written by William Penn for Robert Barclay's works "above 30 years ago". The page reference is given as page 15 and the quotation fits the edition of Barclay's Works, called Truth Triumphant, printed in London in folio in 1692, and extends from page xv to xviii. The preface there is given no other dating, nor indeed is its authorship attributed to William Penn.

The present document, as will he observed, contains much that is parallel to the printed histories of S. Smith and R. Proud, and only small matters of history not included in these successors. Some of its quotations are fuller than those included in the later histories. Yet it appears to be carefully compiled and enables us to compare its viewpoint with that of the two later versions. For this reason it has seemed worthwhile at this late day to give it currency in print. Its minor additions of information can be noted, as well as its precedents for some of the viewpoints of the later historians.

The ancient manuscript has here and there acquired sundry obscurities due to wear or fading. It has seemed best to leave such longer or shorter passages blank. In the main the deciphering has been more successful than was first anticipated, and the blank spaces are not so long or frequent as to prevent us from getting the main tenor of the author's composition. Since recent years have witnessed the restoration of his ancient home near Chester, it is appropriate to restore as far as possible an historical composition of which the same Caleb Pusey is the author.

The narrative was probably hastily written, only slightly revised, and certainly not intended for publication in its present form. The first two-thirds of the Account provide details about the founding of the colony and emphasize the role of William Penn, religious toleration, and Indian affairs. Several themes which later become prominent in the Quaker version of the establishment of Pennsylvania are clearly expressed here. First is the attitude of pride in William Penn. Penn emerges as a benevolent proprietor devoted to the welfare of Friends, Indians, and the colonists. Pusey was a member of the Assembly and Council and undoubtedly could have provided an insider's story of the factionalism and divisiveness which marked the early history of the colony. While making mention of the dispute over the power of the assembly, Pusey clearly subordinates any quarrels while he focuses on the piety of men like Thomas Lloyd. The temporary loss of government by Penn after the Glorious Revolution, opposition of the settlers to Penn and his deputy governors, the separation of Delaware from Pennsylvania, and Penn's attempt to sell his rights of government to the Crown are ignored. Pusey does not mention the French-English wars and their effects on Pennsylvania, the proprietor's struggle to collect quitrents, or the difficulty of halting squatting on land before adequate maps were available.

Pusey's silence on political and economic issues contrasts strongly with his emphasis in the last third of the manuscript on the Keithian controversy. By the 1720's it was safe to discuss George Keith, for the so-called Christian Quakers had either returned to the meeting or joined the Baptists or Anglicans. By the time Pusey wrote his account Quakers began to face their minority status but still had not united politically. Whether consciously intended or not, Pusey provided a glorified picture of the early settlements which could be used to unify Friends.

Similarly, religious toleration provided a common political platform for Quakers to use against Anglicans. It could also be used to influence newly arriving Germans to support Quaker politicians. Religious liberty served to make the development of Pennsylvania significant in world history, for here was a land founded for freedom of conscience yet it did not lead to dissipation or irreligion. Pusey stressed that Friends' espousal of religious freedom had no relation to immorality among the general population or anarchy among Friends. Quakers continued to insist upon adherence to their distinctive tenets. Religious liberty meant that no one was forced to join a church, but the legislature continued to enact and enforce moral laws.

Another theme in Pusey's Account was good relations with the Indians. William Penn began the policy of esteeming the Indians as brothers and treating them as equals. The government ever since had observed treaty rights, dealt justly in purchasing lands, forbidden the sale of rum, and restrained the fur traders. As a member of the Council, Pusey had participated in negotiations with the Indians and witnessed their respect for William Penn. He viewed the peace between the settlers of Pennsylvania and the Indians as proof that the Quaker testimony against war was sound policy.

Most of our interest in the contents of this manuscript comes from the fact that Pusey provides a vivid description of life in early Pennsylvania. Indian threats, the lack of roads, homes in caves, and the first building in Philadelphia, show America when Chester was still the frontier. Pusey contrasts the hardships of the early colonists with the rapidly increasing prosperity of the colony. The Account is permeated by Pusey's pride that the early Quaker settlers, like the children of Israel, have created a garden in the wilderness.


Some historical account of first settling and continuance of the Christian people called Quakers in the provinces of Pennsylvania, West and East Jersey, which began about the year 1675, with a relation of several matters that have occurred among them from their first settling there to this day.

It having pleased Almighty God after a long night of apostasy to visit our native country of Great Bri tain with the blessed visitation of his love in the manifestation of his precious truth in the inward parts as professed by us in scorn called Quakers, which as it had in the main been a mystery hid from ages and generations before the coming of our blessed Saviour in the flesh but was then by him made manifest, to wit, Christ the light of the world the true light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world and that man's condemnation was because light was come into the world but men loved darkness rather than light because their deeds were evil, and that he that doth Truth cometh to the light that his deeds may be made manifest that they are wrought in God. And the apostle Paul told the Colossians that Christ in them was the mystery that was hid from ages and generations but was then made manifest, whom (said he) we preach, warning and teaching every man in all wisdom that we may present every (sic) perfect in Christ Jesus. And as it had been hid long before the coming of Christ in the flesh from the wise and prudent of this world, so also it hath again been greatly obscured through ages and generations in the dark night of apostasy in which time great has been the superstition, the error and ignorance that had overspread not only the minds of Turkes and infidels but a great part also of that called Christendom, who though under great profession of Christ and Christianity, yet had their understandings darkened and their minds much alienated from the life of Christianity and from the light of truth that was in them (and indeed in all men) which light we find in history that Paul directed (?) his persecutors which were gentiles to, bidding them return the eyes of their minds to the eternal and true light that lay hid in them, and from the way and worship which the father seeks . . . not at the Samaritan Mountain nor at Jerusalem but in spirit and in truth at which time of ignorance as of superstition the man made worships and ministry and their forced maintenance yet (?) with the corrupt conversations that the people lay and to . . . still lay and to every. . . is clearly shown in the writings of our Friends from time to which we refer.

Now after the Lord had been thus pleased to manifest his Truth it was gladly received by some of most professions and testified to both by preaching and printing by many of his faithful ministers and servants (though through great sufferings and cruel hardships which they patiently endured for the truth's sake) which was again made manifest not only in England, Scotland, Ireland, Germany, and Holland but also in most parts of the King's dominions in America and embraced in the love of it by many 1000's of people in a litle time, and though it was about the years from 1652 to 1656 that abundance were convinced in our native country &c and soon after or thenabouts were many in Barbadoes, Jamaica and other the Sumer Islands as also in Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, New York government, Rhode Island and New England, &c yet scarce a family of Friends were settled in this river till about the year 1675, it being first settled by a colony of Dutch especially the Western shore, so long ago as some years before the Lord Baltimore's grant for Maryland and taken with other adjacent places from the Dutch in time of war by Charles II King of England in the year 1664 and retaken by them in 1673 and afterwards in a treaty of peace surrendered to the English by the Dutch who had Surinam rendered to them in lieu thereof the said King Charles having granted on the East Side of Delaware River and bay as far as Hudson's river as also New York government to his brother James then Duke of York who disposed of one half of the lands from the said Delaware to the said Hudson's river, to wit that half that lay next Hudson's river to Sir George Carthrite [Carteret] the other half to wit to the East side of Delaware river and bay to the Lord Barclay [Berkeley]. How those two disposed of their respective shares and to whom will be spoken to before we conclude this. However, divers elderly and other Friends of England and Scotland became purchasers there many of whom about the year 1675 and after transported themselves and families and settled there, some down the river at a place they named Salem and some at Alloways Creek, afterwards some settled at or about Newtown Creek and built a Meeting house, some higher up at a commodious place for sea trade and called it Burlington, and soon built a large meeting house and had an yearly meeting there; others of them settled farther in the woods and built meeting houses and lately another meeting house at Burlington for the conveniency of the yearly meeting. They had care also that quarterly and monthly meetings might be settled and was settled among them, that Gospel order might be put in practice which they had known to be blessed with success in their native country to the honor of God, maintaining the reputation of his truth and to the benefit and comfort of his people. Now albeit there was from about the year 1675 to the year 1681 several families of Friends and meetings settled as above said in the Jerseys, yet till about the 1681 there was scarce ten families of Friends settled in this province of Pensilvania and most of them first intended for the Jerseys but fixt in Pensilvania, some about Chichester then called Marcus Hook, some about Chester then called Uplands, some higher up the river most of them were either of former inhabitants the native Indians of whom possibly no man has so much as the least knowledge from whence they came or of their first coming into America, the other former inhabitants was most of the Dutch, Swedes and Finns, and settled by or near the riverside several miles below and above as well as the Dutch and some English at New Castle town.

Now as to the first settling of Friends as a body of people in Pensilvania so it was that some few years after the Dutch had surrendered this river to the crown of England which was largely indebted to our worthy Friend, able minister and writer W. P. for divers services done by his father Sir W. P. for the crown did by his royal charter dated the 4th day of [First] month 1680/81 grant to our said Friend this province and called it Pensilvania and declared therein that it should from thenceforth be so called, in which royal grant the King gave the said W. P. full power to erect a new colony here and to sell lands, create magistrates and officers and make laws with the consent of the people's delegates not contrary to but as near as conveniently may be agreeable to the laws of England, make ports, pardon all crimes except wilful and malicious murder and in those cases power to reprieve till the King's pleasure be known. The said W. P. being now made proprietor and Governor of Pensilvania the same year publisht in print an account thereof in which print he laid down his terms of disposing his land here to such as were free to purchase of him, the terms to the purchasers was at 40s sterling per hundred and one shill. sterling per year forever instead of all duties and services. Abundance of Friends and some others soon after purchased of him, many were in a little time for transporting themselves and families hither upon which our proprietor and governor in the foresaid print concluded with a Christian and friendly caution to them which we here insert as followeth: To conclude I desire all my dear country folks who may be inclined to go into those parts to consider serious the premises as well the present inconveniency as future ease and plenty that so none may move rashly or from a fickle but solid mind, having above all things an eye to the providence of God in the disposing of themselves and I would further advise all such at least to have to have (sic) the permission if not the good liking of their near relations for that is both natural and a duty incumbent upon all and by this means will natural affection be preserved and a friendly profitable correspondence between them in all which I beseech almighty God to direct us, that his blessing may attend our honest endeavours and then the consequences of all our undertakings will turn to the glory of his great name and all true happiness of us and our posterity. Amen. W.P.

Again in or about the year 1682 the said King Charles did grant to his said brother James and him to our said proprietor the land which now under him is called the territories of Pensilvania but upon our proprietor and governor's obtaining a grant for this province he sent before his coming his cousin William Markham over to be his deputy governor, and after in the year 1682 did transport himself unto this province, and in order thereunto did in the 6 month in the said year set sail from Deal in the ship Welcome of about 300 ton burden, one Robert Greenaway a Friend being master, with whom did divers Friends and some others with their families transport themselves who did mostly settle in Pensilvania except some who died on the voyage. The number that came on board was above 100 people, the greatest part from the County of Sussex which was then our proprietor's place of residence and that day six weeks they lost sight of England they saw the land of America supposed to be about Edge [sic] harbour, and it was observed that in the years 1682, 1683 and 1684 there arrived ships with passengers from London, Bristol, Ireland, Wales, Cheshire, Lancershire [sic], Derbyshire, Holland and Germany &c the number of about 50 sail. The free passengers (for most of them brought servants with them) their masters being most of them persons being of reputation and credit bringing with them something to subsist and live on both for food and rai[n]ment till with care and industry with the blessing of God they could raise out of this wilderness land the like subsistence, also they mostly brought with them necessary household goods and implements, husbandmen for husbandry and tradesmen for their trades, and as meet of the free passengers was of our Friends called Quakers, so many of them were of the antient stock or of very early convincement, among whom also were many antient brethren of the ministry and the Friends of Wales having early purchased of our proprietor in England 40,000 acres of land many of them came very early in and took up so much of their purchased land to the westward of Schoolkill [sic] river as made the 3 townships of Merion, Haverford and Radnor, in each of which they very early settled a meeting and built for each a meeting house, but since they are very substantially built upon more of their land they have settled 3 townships more (viz.) Newtown, Goshen and Youghland in each of which there is also a settled meeting of Friends and to each of which is also a meeting house built . . . and in all the meetings of Friends within the limits of our yearly meeting have meeting houses built for them to meet in and worship the Lord our God in spirit and in truth for such worshippers our blessed Saviour said the Father seeks to worship him as aforementioned. Now divers of the townships were by the . . . of the . . . respective courts named from the places where most of the Friends that settled there come from as Chester from Cheshire, Darby from Derbyshire, and Haverford from Haverford in South Wales &c. Now doubtless some can think but that the coming in of so many people in 2 or 3 years' time considering the fewness of the inhabitants that were before here settled which were mostly Indians, Dutch, Swedes and Finns and considering the small quantities of corn they raised for themselves which was not much and the little house room they had but that those first comers coming into such a wilderness country must needs be put to straights and difficulties both for house room and after what they brought in with them was spent (which cannot be supposed did last long) for food. Also but the passengers soon got warrants and took up so much of their land that was sufficient for their first settling and getting their goods on shore those that could crowded them into some house or outhouse for a little while, and others took them directly into the woods where their land was laid out but without any path or road to it for here was scarce a path in them days to be found 2 miles from the water side or any sign of any European having been there tho so very little way back in the woods. As for the Indians they seldom regarding such regular steps in their business which was mostly hunting or from one town to another except the near as that they could be followed by any footsteps they made but were rather like a way of a ship in the sea which cannot be followed that they leave behind them or by any path or track that they leave behind them, so that all farther back from the said 2 miles, except the Indians mostly movable settlements, was a perfect waste wilderness, the earth producing naturally to sustain the life of man no sort of grain nor fruit trees (except chestnuts) the lodgings of some at the first were in the woods under the oaks or other trees though many times late in the fall or winter when many first arrived and then getting what weeds or grass they could get to lay under their beds got out their bed clothes to cover them with a good fire by their bedsides where they went in a very little time they either digged caves in the ground and cut down some of the trees split them into blocks (?) and soon made them better coverings but timber being plenty they also soon got up better houses but notwithstanding those above and many more difficulties they had and saw before them as giants to discourage them, yet like the good spies of old they seeing that the soil was good and fertile, the air mostly clear and healthy, streams of water sweet and plentiful and wood for fire and timber for building in abundance, and believing that the Lord had not inclined the hearts of so many sober people fearing his name to come over here and perish for want of food, they kept to their meetings both on first and weekly meeting days and on working days went cheerfully to falling trees, rooting up the roots of small shrubs, burning up what they had no occasion otherwise for and so to make way for a crop of Indian com to be planted the next spring and till after a little time they got to ploughing and sowing of wheat of which we purpose to speak more of in the Sequel.

They would be and still are often speaking one to another of the good hand of Providence over them for good and by way of thankfully acknowledging the same and which they experienced when under many difficulties and exercises divers ways of which a little may be said in relation to food when many families were in distress some times for want the poor Indians would often be helping them to some corn but especially to venison at reasonable rates, neither was the Dutch, Swedes nor Finns backward in friendly dealing with us for wheat, rye or Indian corn as they could spare it as also to cattle and swine besides they were supplied with cattle and horses . . . cows and mares for breeding from the people of the territories, Maryland and Long Island and though in as much as at the beginning of our settling here it was seen needful to impose and make a law imposing a fine upon any that should kill a cow calf yet through the blessing of God stocks increased that that law in a little time was obsolete or repealed.

Another singular instance of the goodness of God to us we think ought not to be forgotten, for after we had been settled here some few years and corn happening to be exceeding scarce and the harvest not come, that many families were just ready to suffer for want of bread, some living some weeks upon fish and herbs, and in their distress on a sudden came in a vessel from New England loaded with corn so that those that wanted were providentially at once supplied and in a few years after we had such plenty of wheat of our own that we had enough and to spare in bread and flour to the Sumer Islands as Barbadoes, Jamaica &c and some time after abundance was sent from hence to the Madeiras and to Lisbon in Portugal and also to New England and flax and sheep growing and thriving well we soon entered upon making and now do make much of our common linen and woolen cloth, fulling mills as well as com mills being plenty among us.

But to return, the forementioned passengers having before they came over purchased land of our proprietor as before is hinted and soon after their arrival with warrants from him had their lands laid out and generally to content. He also laid out the plot for Philadelphia to be built on, which before the proprietor's grant for the province was only a commodious piece of woodland not a house on it which land from some claim some Swedes alleged they had to it he exchanged with them for a greater quantity near Schcolkill. He also laid out and regulated the streets of the said city as they now are and set out to the first purchasers their city lots proportionable to their purchase. A great part of the length of the said city by the side of Delaware was a famous dry high bank of fast land, no marshes nor low land but a bold shore before it, on the edge of which bank stood a fine row of pine trees facing the said river and in which bank several at their first arrival digged large holes and some set up a sort of booths to keep them from the sun, the cold and the storms till they could a little look about them and provide otherwise for themselves, some of whom went in a little time to settle their land in the woods and others began to settle to their trades in the city. The first house that was there built was not finished at the Proprietor's arrival. It was a framed timber house built by one George Geust who began and kept ordinary there whose sign was the blew ankor. It stood near the dock where a row of brick houses is since built, commonly called Bud's row. But again soon after the Proprietor's first arrival he divided so much of the province as was then needful into 3 counties (viz.) Chester, Philadelphia and Bucks and also the territories into 3 more (viz.) New Castle, Kent and Sussex.

In the 10th month after his first arrival he called an assembly which was the first in the province consisting of equal numbers for the province and territories, for both acted several years in legislation together, but as the province charter was first granted and made a government by itself so it was thought most satisfactory and pursuant to the grant as also most easy for the people of the territories in respect to traveling time and charges to act in legislation apart and therefore about the year 1702 it was requested of the then deputy governor Andrew Hamilton that it might be so for the future, who knowing the proprietor's mind as signified in a provincial charter he left the people at his last going from us he accordingly did grant it.

But to return, - our Proprietor appointed the first assembly above mentioned to meet and sit at Chester then called Upland where he passed several laws adapted to the circumstances of the people and nature of a wilderness country as near as they then could, and as our worthy Friends in England upon often occasions that offered did nobly assert the reasonableness and justice of liberty of conscience for all professing and living godly and honestly and peaceably in the government among whom our worthy proprietor both by speech and pen in England had nobly performed his part and when he came here a governor his care was so steady in that matter that the first law that he passed here was that for liberty of conscience but for for [sic] a word or 2 not so well gaurded [sic] as might have been. When sent home for the royal assent it was repealed and the reason for it sent over here which reason was by the then deputy governor Colonel John Evans laid before the Assembly and was by them amended accordingly and then sent home and had the royal assent and was and is called the law for liberty of conscience. And inasmuch as liberty of conscience among Christians is such a great branch of privilege without which all temporal privileges are little available it's thought not amiss to transcribe the substance of it here and is as followeth:

["] Almighty God being only lord of conscience, author of all divine knowledge, faith and worship who can only enlighten the minds and convince the understanding of people in due reverence to his sovereignty over the souls of mankind and the better to unite the Queen's Christian subjcts in interest and affection be it granted etc. that no person now or at any time hereafter residing within this province who shall profess faith in God the Father and in Jesus Christ his only son, and in the Holy Spirit, one God blessed for ever more, and shall acknowledge the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be given by divine inspiration and when lawfully required shall profess and declare that they will live peaceably under the civil government shall in any case be molested or prejudiced for his or her conscientious persuasion nor shall he or she be at any time compelled to frequent or maintain any religious worship, place or ministry whatever contrary to his or her mind, but shall freely and fully enjoy his or her Christian liberty in all respects without molestation or interruption, and as our Friends here (for the Assembly or delegates was and to this day is much the majority) were so early careful to settle liberty of conscience so they were as early careful to make laws against looseness and debauchery, and inasmuch as our known principle hath been not to swear at all but to keep to yea and nay in all our promises and engagements there was no such thing as an oath imposed upon us but when we were called by authority to give evidence or make any other engagements it was done by our solemnly promising to speak the truth (or do the truth as the case required) the whole truth and nothing but the truth, etc. And as we were obliged so have we. We were freely willing in case of wilfully falsifying our words to suffer as great punishment as is required by the laws of Great Britain to be inflicted on persons guilty of wilful and corrupt perjury this was what was generally practiced here without any prejudice etc. Ever . . . to any one either in person or estate for above 20 years and till an order from Queen Ann in 1703 was procured to put the form of affirmation which some years before had been made for the Quakers in England by Act of Parliament which from then was [I, A. B. do declare in the presence of Almighty God the witness of the truth of what I say] which form could not be complied with (because of the use of the sacred name) by many of our Friends not only in England, Ireland and Scotland but it was also so here and in many other places where any body of Friends are settled, but now the form by law being made entirely easy we shall conclude this with observing upon it in the words of our antient Friend William Sewell in his General History of the Quakers wherever speaking of the former affirmation being made perpetual he observes and says but seeing from the first grant of an affirmation instead of an oath the form then was not so entirely such as desired, and many was uneasy therewith, they several times applied to the Parliament for a more easy form which at length through the merciful providence of God and favor of King George and the Parliament was obtained in in [sic] the later end of the year 1721 the form now being [I, A.B., do solemnly sincerely and truly declare and affirm]. See the said history page 712.

Again soon after our proprietor's first arrival here he had an amicable and friendly conference with the native Indians of whom he purchased land and he also concluded a firm peace with them that we might (live?) together as brethren without doing the least wrong to each other. According to his engagement to the first purchasers and considerably more than is yet settled he had many other amicable conferences with them both the first and last time he was here to whom his spirit was so sweetly tempered, his justice so well seen and his counsel to them so well received that so greatly engaged their love and nearness to him as that his memory will not easily be forgotten by them an instance for which we so lately had as in the year 1721 upon friendly conference our present governor Sir Will Keith and council had then at Conestoga with them, particularly with the ambassadors of the 5 nations of the Seneca Indians to whom our Indians are tributary. Almost at the beginning of the conference their chief speaker with countenance of great respect spake and said they should never forget the counsel that W. P. gave them and that they could not write as we could yet they could keep in memory what was said in their counsels thus our proprietor's justice and kind regards to them and the generosity of the people's peaceable and just carriage toward them with the blessing of our gracious God and his protecting arm over us has been attended with such success as that now about 40 years an Indian have rarely if over been known (if not overloaded with drink) to do so much injury as to lift up an hand in anger to any one of us. But all praises for this and all other blessings is to be given to God alone who is worthy for ever more.

Though a few years after so many people settling in their new plantations as afore mentioned we we [sic] were tried with an amazing alarm about them occasioned as 'twas said by 2 Indian women of West Jersey telling an ancient inhabitant, a Dutch man near Chester, that the Indians would rise the next 4th day and cut off all the English, but Friends knowing their innocency toward them and their real good will to them was not much concerned, especially at the first about it. But so it happened when the next 4th day came, about the 10th hour at night there came out of the woods one riding down to the town of Chester to tell the people that 3 families about nine miles back in the woods (naming their names) was all cut off by the Indians, this fresh alarm coming in the dead of the night to the ears of one that lived about a mile from the said Chester having pondersly (?) weighed the matter he proposed to two young men in his house that if they would get up the horses and goe with him he would ride to the very houses where it was said that fatal shock was made, that if true and they should see any of the Indians [he might treat with them to know the cause for their so doing] if false they might be instrumental to quiet the people so away they went unarmed (?). When they came to the 3 houses they found no one person there yet no sign of murder for the people there having received the alarm was gone down in a fright to their father's at Ridley Creek about a mile from their houses, the occasion of their fright was for that the master of one of the families being that 4th day at work some distance from his house there came a certain person and told him that the Indians were 500 of them got together at Naaman's Creek and that they intended to kill all the English and he going in haste towards his house he hearing a lad of his cry, he thought he heard him say "What shall I do? My dame is killed." Away he immediately went without going home to see how it was (considering what he had heard just before) intending to go to acquaint the governor at Philadelphia of the matter and alarmed the people as he went, which was the occasion of the person before mentioned his riding to alarm the town of Chester, but before the other person was got to Philadelphia he was persuaded by prudent antient friend (understanding his motive for going there) to go no farther. However, the news soon had reached the city, and by order of the governor a boat was sent down to Marcus Hook near the said Naaman's Creek and that he might expeditiously bring word if it was as reported and when come back he said It was at Brandywine where the Indian town was that the said 500 was together as he was told and that they having a lame king they had carried him away and all their women and children. This had a show of an ill omen and brought the people under some exercise. The governor and council was then sitting, upon which a Friend then in town proposed that if the governor would name 6 sober men to go to the very place where 'twas reported the Indians was so circumstanced together, provided they went with wagons he would be one which was soon done, the 6 got their horses and with an interpreter went to the place - only one dropped them by the way they knew not how - when they came to the place they found the king contrary to the said report laying with his lame foot along on the ground with his head on a sort of pillow and the women hard at work in the field the children playing together. Then we got off our horses and the king presently asked very mildly what we all came for. We told him what report the 2 Indian women had reported, at which he seemed so much displeased that he said they ought to be burned to death. The messengers asked him if they had aught against the English. He said, No. It's true, said he, there is £15 yet behind of our pay for the land thereabouts that W. P. had purchased of them but added inasmuch as they were still on it and improving it to their own use they were not in haste for their pay, but when English came to sell it they should expect it, which they all thought was very reasonable.

Then a Friend of the company willing a little to inculcate something into his mind of the great God that made the world (of which they seem to have some remote notion) and all things therein led him to this purpose that it was so and that he made all mankind and so both Indian and English and as he made us all so was his love to them and us which was plainly showed by his causing the rains and the dews to fall on their and our ground alike that it might bring forth which they as well as we and we as well as they sowed or planted therein for the sustenance of our lives and also causing his sun to shine on us all to comfort and nourish us and so that seeing the great God that made us all extended his love to us all we sh(ould) therefore (?) love one another. The King answered what we had said was true and as God had given us corn he would advise us to get it in, it being harvest time for they intend no hurt to us, and so they parted very friendly and as we had been so before and then was so we have continued to this day. All praise be given to God for his unspeakable goodness to us. Query, whether anything should be said here about the Indian lately killed, seeing these nations desired it might never be mentioned nor remembered more.

Again some time after Friends had been here settled a commiserating compassion came upon them concerning the poor dark people who can hardly be persuaded that drunkenness is a sin which together with the great love they have to rum and other strong liquors being by custom so inured to it as that they will part with almost anything they have for it and when they have it seldom fait of being drunken with it tho to the hurt of their souls and many times the consequences have been to the wounding and destroying one another. Therefore not long after the Yearly Meetings were settled here and Friends having had an understanding of this greedy practice that some among us used in trading with them for rum, etc. they did at the Yearly Meeting 1687 in compassion to them that we might be examples of piety and charity toward them in a denying of ourselves of what worldly advantage might be gained in so trading with them did advise in writing directed to all our quarterly and monthly meetings that none among us do either directly or indirectly sell any rum or other strong liquors to the Indians. There have also been early care in the governors love (?) making an Act cf Assembly against it and since other Acts to strengthen it. Likewise our Yearly Meetings have many times since advised our quarterly and monthly meetings to take due care and to deal with such as are found offends (?) them all which care have had a good effect from time to time among us tho it is not improbable but that some among so great a body of people and trading with them being many far back in the vast wilderness or else in the crowded city may in a clandestine or indirect way not regarding their brothers' Christian care or the law of the government either but will break through it all for worldly interest sake, but all faithful Friends and we hope many other of our sober neighbors will keep clear in this matter and be examples of self denial and godliness which with content will at last be found to be great gain. Besides if traders happen (?) to be drunk when trading with them and a quarrel should so ensue as that either the trader or Indian should be killed, such a quarrel might follow that might cause our peace and amity to be broken that have long been so mutually preserved between us and that this suggestion is not groundless a late instance where far back in the woods in a supposed drunken (?) bout an Indian was killed by the traders plainly manifest and indeed the consternation it put the inhabitants under least our peace should be now deem'd by the Indians to be broken by us together with the great charge that business put this province to will not easily be forgotten by the inhabitants of these parts, and we would gladly hope that every man among us would from henceforth take such caution by what has happened as that they will no more use such unlawful trading with them least a worse thing happen, which through the goodness of God and the industrious care of the governor and government together with the Indians being so sensible of the innocency of both our government and people in that matter and of the great sorrow the inhabitants were under that the Indians had thus lost their friend and also doubtless considering the easy way they have among themselves of punishing those that happen in drinking quarrel and without premeditated motive to be killed, that at a treaty with the governor and 4 of his counsel had by foreappointment with them, some of the chief of the 5 nation Indians (for the killed Indian had been when living one of them) at Albany they declared that they would not have the men suffer that did the offence but might be at liberty and that they did in the name of all the 5 Nations forgive the offence and desired our governor also to forgive it and then taking notice of what the governor had said to them about Will Penn's first making a league and friendship with them said, Brother Onas [which in their language signifies a pen, by which name they call the governors of Pensilvania since it was first settled by W. P.] we are glad to hear the former treaties we have made with William Penn repeated to us again and renewed by you and we esteem and love you as if you were William Penn himself. We are glad you have wiped away and covered the blood of our dead friend and brother and we desire the same maybe forgotten so as it may never more be mention[e]d or remembered. The whole of this treaty is worth reading but too tedious to be inserted here. We shall only add a little of the governor's speech then made to them in relation to the confirming again the covenant chain and so to confirm the amity between us and something of their answer. The governor told them he desired that this visit and the covenant chain which is hereby brightened may be recorded in everlasting remembrance to be sent down to your and our children and to our children's children to last as long as the mountains and rivers, the sun and moon endures. Their conclusive answer was: We desire that peace and tranquillity that is now established between us may be as clear as the sun shining in its light without any cloud or darkness and that the same may continue forever, and at parting took leave of each other very friendly and our former peace and friendship solemnly continued. Note: Some years ago our Friends at the Yearly Meeting advised that no Friend should by any Indian slain.

Another concern fell long ago upon Friends here concerning they [sic] buying of Negroes slaves and to be made so for ever, upon which the Yearly Meeting advised that all Friends who were merchants should send to their correspondents not to send them any more, but that not having the effect proposed because the traders would either send or bring them themselves, the Yearly Meeting some years after cautioned that Friends should buy no more that should be then after imported.

But now we shall return to about the time of so many of our Friends coming first into this province (viz.). Soon after their coming in, many meetings for the worship of God was [sic] settled in the respective counties thereof and some in the lower counties, the land there being much of it settled before the proprietor's grant by those who were not Friends, there is [sic] but few meetings there, and though in this province there was but few Friends before the proprietor's arrival, yet their care was such that they had settled a meeting for worship once a week one first day at Chester, the other at Chichester. They had also a monthly meeting among them before the proprietor's arrival which was the first monthly meeting in this province. But as there had been divers good Friends, elders and others settled in the Jerseys some years before the flowing in so many into Pensilvania and had several meetings for worship as well as a Yearly Meeting and quarterly and monthly meetings for worship and business settled among them so upon the early coming in of Friends into Pensilvania as aforesaid, it was soon agreed by the brethren of the 3 provinces, etc., that for the mutual comfort one of another in our Lord Jesus Christ and for the edifying one another in the faith that is in him which works by love unto good works, as also for our mutual assistance in the service of the Lord required of us and for keeping up the gospel order and discipline and government of Christ in those churches under their respective cares in order that all who profess the holy truth with us may be stirred up and provoked from time to time to walk as they would be owned by us as becomes our profession in all faithfulness, godliness and honesty and according to the testimony of truth as first received in the several counties thereof, the said Friends did therefore mutually agree to have the Yearly Meeting to consist of the Friends inhabiting in all the above places and to be held alternative at Burleton and Philadelphia. Quarterly, monthly and ministering [sic] meetings have been also early settled in Pensilvania (viz.) a quarterly meeting in each of the counties (viz.) Chester, Philadelphia and Bucks but by reason of the few Friends in the territories or lower counties Chester quarterly meeting laying contiguous takes in all the Friends there but they have a monthly meeting among them at Duck Creek which takes in Georges Creek, Little Creek, Motherkill and Cold Spring meetings.

And though Haverford and Radnor make one monthly meeting and is in Chester County, yet at first desiring to belong to Philladelphia Quarterly Meeting it was then agreed to and so continues, and there are at this day within the limits of this Yearly Meeting about 60 meetings for worship, 20 Monthly Meetings and 6 Quarterly Meetings. Also to most of the Monthly Meetings there are Preparative Meetings settled.

Having before given a hint of the first and last time of the proprietor and governor's being here, it may be convenient to show the principle [sic] cause of his going both times from us, first for that the Lord Baltimore proprietory (?) and governor of Maryland (and the present Lord's grandfather) his agent did in the [year] 1683 petition King Charles the 2nd that no grant of the land in the territory of Pensilvania might pass in favour of Mr. Penn until his Lordship should be heard upon his pretension of right thereto, which petition was referred to the Lords Committee for trade and plantations who, after many attendances and divers hearings of both parties by their counsel for above 2 years made their report thereon to King James (for he was then on the throne) who was pleased thereupon to make the following order of council (viz.).

At the Court at Whitehall this 13 day of November 1685 present the King's most excellent majesty &c the following report from the right honorable the Lords of the Committee for trade and foreign plantations being this day read at the board etc. the substance of said report was found that the said land intended to be granted by the Lord Baltimore's patent was only uncultivated and inhabited by savages and that the tract then in dispute was inhabited and planted by Christians at and before the date of the Lord Baltimore's patent as it had been ever since to that time and continued as a distinct colony from that of Maryland, so that the said Lords humbly offered it as their opinion that for avoiding further differences the tract of land lying between the river and bay of Delaware and the eastern sea on the one side be divided into two equal parts by a line from the latitude of Cape Henlopen to the 40th degree of north latitude and that one half thereof laying toward the bay of Delaware and the eastern sea be adjudged to belong to his Majesty and that the other half remain (?) to the Lord Baltimore as comprised in his charter. Upon this report and the King approving thereof ordered in council that the said lands should be forthwith divided accordingly this decision as the printed case tells us (?) the said Lord Baltimore and agents all avoided to comply with, but many years after he petitioned queen Anne's time for further hearing but the Queen after a full hearing ratified and confirmed the first order of council in 1685 in all its parts and ordered that it be put in execution without further delay, but to this day there is no . . . division made.

The proprietor's staying from us the first time was about 13 years, and though his going so long was much against his interest and inclination yet many occurrences happening or being in the way for the good of his Friends and others for which he had generally good service occasioned though at his own cost his so long absence from us of which liberty of conscience for some years was one great business occasioning and his which himself signified in a letter to a person of quality in England who had friendly writ[ten] to him that he might write something to clear himself from the evil (?) imputation some of his enemies had cast upon him, which he did in print, in which after he had notably spoken to what had been suggested against him, he adds and says, I am not without apprehension of the cause of this behaviour towards me, I mean my constant zeal for an impartial liberty of conscience, if that be it the cause, saith he, is too good to be in pain about it, and after adds til I saw my own friends with the Kingdom (?) delivered from the legal bondage which penal laws for religion had subjected them to, I could with no satisfaction think of leaving England, tho much to my prejudice beyond sea and at my great expense here, having in all this time neither had office or pension and always refusing the rewards or gratuities of those I have been able to oblige. Much now of this latter may be seen in page[s] 616 and 617 of William Sewel's General History of the Quakers.

Now as at the first, so the second time of his staying here was about 2 years then coming advices from persons of note in England who had friendly writ[ten] to him that some there not being . . . friends to proprietary governments proposed the taking them away by a law and desired his haste over which he did and as he writ [sic] himself to us was successful in that matter, but upon his going away he called an assembly and laying before them the necessity of his haste[n]ing home and that if they had anything to lay before him for the better governing them as to their privilege or property he should be ready to do what was reasonable. Upon this the Assembly after having thanked him for his kind offer they addressed him upon several articles of request. One was that he would please to order the circular division to be made between New Castle and Chester County according to the King's letters patent and deeds of feof[f]ment from the Duke of York, which he did and in a little time it was done accordingly, they also desired a new provincial charter, for the old one the Assembly the year before according to the terms therein specified had given up as not finding it so well to suit the circumstances of the people as when first granted which request he also so far as in him lay granted, in which charter among other things therein granted one article was that for liberty of conscience in which a clause was that solemnly promising to speak the truth &c was to be the qualification in all cases as asserted in a law at New Castle made in the the [sic] year 1700, and though any article of the said charter was liable to be altered by the governor and six parts of seven of the Council and Assembly except that for liberty of conscience. Every clause of which in the said charter is expressly declared is to be kept and remain without alteration inviolably forever. He also left Philadelphia a charter thereby making it a corporation with mayor, aidermen and common councilmen, etc. Likewise, he made by charter Chester into a borough etc. Again tho after the proprietor came to England 'twas not long before the business of seizing the proprietary governments worsen'd (?) yet new trouble arising, occasioned by a person whom he had long intrusted in his Pensilvania affairs and who as it's said wronged him of many 1000 pounds and the government here which together with in-Yearly fines (?) being expensive to him his estate was much exhausted so that he took up a large sum upon the security of the country, and some time after he was taken with a violent fit of an apoplexy which so deprived him of his memory that made him capable of little business. He retained the better part. In meetings for worship he would express himself in a few words very sensibly and in much [ten]derness of spirit. He died in the ____ year of his age at his own hired house near Reading in Berkshire.

It may not be amiss also to mention that when the governor left us the first time in the year 1684 he left his power of government in the hands of 5 commissioners of whom our worthy Friend Thomas Lloyd was president, who afterwards was several years deputy governor here. He was a younger brother of the family of the Lloyds of Dolobran in Montgomeryshire in Wales, came early over here with his religious wife and several religious children. He was a judicious wise man, a sound gospel minister among us and of a peaceable and sweet disposition, yet steady to his friends in opposing G.K.'s turbulent and inveterate behaviour among us and toward us (of which more in the sequel). He died in peace 1694, whose dying words being taken in writing it may be of service in stirring up the minds of others to imitate his faithfulness, There being several Friends about him he thus in a sensible frame (?) spoke to those Friends I love you all and am going from you and I die in unity with all faithful Friends. I have fought a good fight and have kept the faith which stands not in the wisdom of words but in the power of God. I have fought not for strife and contention but for the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the simplicity of the gospel I lay down my head in peace and desire you may all so do. Friends, farewell all and to Griffith Owen he said I said I desire thee to mind my love to Friends in Old England if thou livest to go over and see them. I have lived in unity with them and I desire the Lord to keep them faithful to the end in the simplicity of the Gospel.


Caleb Pusey
Birth: 1651, Berkshire, England
Death: 25 Feb 1727 (aged 75-76), Pennsylvania, USA
Burial: London Grove Friends Burial Ground, Chester County, Pennsylvania, USA

NOTE: On this memorial, as with all others that have been transferred to me, my intention is to respect the work of the original creator by making changes only where I can cite specific sources for the correct information.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONS/CORRECTIONS: On 4 June 2015, F.A.G. contributor smanastas suggested changing Caleb's date of death from 1727 to 1726 and adding Chester Co to the PA place of death.

In response to my iquiry about sources, smanstas replied:

"I had used 12/5/1725 from what I had noted on my tree as a source - the Friends of the Caleb Pusey House. We recently downsized and I don't have actual documents easily available, so I can't check. I tend to use the Friends since Caleb is near and dear to them. I did look at the copy of the MM meeting which looks like "12th mth 1725", which to me would be Feb 5, 1725 although it is hard to read. It almost looks like 1725/6 (but could be a flourish), but if the Quakers didn't convert from old style until after 1753, I don't see why that double notation would be there. I'll have to access my papers to double check my source. I see Futhey and Cope have 12,5,1725-6.

"I've never seen Sherrington as Ann's place of birth before, only Parndon, Essex, England, so I'd like to see that source. Just because one's father's title is a place isn't necessarily indicative that its where she was born. Again, I don't have the documents available right now from the Friends of the Caleb Pusey House, other than various on-line sites using Parndon. My correspondence with the London Friends didn't request that data. Swarthmore would be a likely source or the Friends of Caleb Pusey. . . ."

As will be seen below, there is ambiguity about the date of death and about the exact place of death, so I am leaving both as is until/unless definitive proof warrants a change. Any help on these matters would be much appreciated.

THE DATE OF DEATH: See, for example,

"The exact date of Caleb Pusey's death seems to be in doubt. Robert Proud is cited for the date 14 1st mo. 1726/7, but the New Garden Meeting memorial says he died 25 12th mo. 1726/7. Mrs. Patterson merely says his wife died in London Grove in 1725 and her husband about a year later."

Note also that 1727 is the year of death listed on the plaque pictured on this memorial.

PUSEY, Caleb (I47306)
318 (1) "Calvert Lineage," in Family History: Colonial Genealogies #1, 1607-1920, Colonial Families, Volume VI, Jackson Family, p. 287, © The Generations Network, February 20, 2009:

JOHN CALVERT, III, b. circa 1700; d. 1739, m. circa 1720, Elizabeth HARRISON, evidently a dau. of Benjamin HARRISON, III, b. 1673, d. 1710, and his wife, Elizabeth BURWELL of Virginia, whither he had moved and where he d., in Prince William County.


I. GEORGE, V., b. circa 1722. . . .

II. Cecilius.

III. William.

IV. Thomas (?). 
CALVERT, John (I18304)
319 (1) "Calvert Lineage," in Family History: Colonial Genealogies #1, 1607-1920, Colonial Families, Volume VI, Jackson Family, p. 287, © The Generations Network, February 20, 2009:

The first known ancestor of this famous family is John CALVERT of Danby Wiske, Yorkshire, England, temp. Henry VIII; he m., wife's name not given.


I. LEONARD, b. circa 1550. . . .

(2) Nicklin, John Bailey Calvert, "The Calvert Family," in Maryland Marriages and Genealogies, 1634-1820, Maryland Genealogies, Vol. 1, The Calvert Family, pp. 133-134, © The Generations Network, February 20, 2009:

The task confronting anyone who attempts to compile a genealogy of this distinguished family, whose history for a century and a half was that of Maryland, is almost forbidding, for doubt and mystery, tradition and myth have long concealed the facts and the truth of their lineage and history. And the legitimate male descendants of Governor the Honorable Leonard Calvert (1606-1647) have been ignored, while the descendants of Benedict Swingate (otherwise Calvert of "Mt. Airy") have received the attention of historians and. genealogists, having produced many noted men and women.

Even the origin of this family is wrapped in obscurity and the etymology of the name is scarcely pleasing, if enlightening, for it is said to have been derived from the calve-herd, i. e., a keeper of a herd of calves: The name appears as early as 1366 when Margaretta Calverd (sic) is found on the Durham Manorial Rolls, and it is evidently an old Yorkshire name and there is little to support the "tradition" that they were of Flanders, although Calvaert was a not unknown Flemish name. What was the origin of the Calvert Arms (viz. : paley of six, or and sable, a bend counterchanged) does not appear, but Richard St. George, the Norroy King-at-Arms, is responsible for the addition of the crest of the Flemish Calverts when he issued an exemplification of arms in 1622 to Sir George Calvert (1579-1632), Knight (afterwards the first Lord Baltimore).

The monumental inscription on the tomb of the first Baron mentioned his father Leonard (and his grandfather, John Calvert), who was a country gentleman of means, who lived, near Danby Wiske, at an estate called Kiplin, in the valley of the Swale, Yorkshire. This Leonard Calvert was born about 1550 and married, about 1575, Grace (more often called Alicia) Crossland, daughter of Thomas Crossland (who died Aug., 1587) and Joanna, his wife (who died July, 1575). The issue of this marriage is unknown save one son, George Calvert, the Founder of Maryland, but it is probably [probable ?] that Mary Calvert (who was born in 1586 and married, in 1606, Captain Isaac Chapline, R. N.) was a daughter of Leonard Calvert and Grace Crossland. (Two of their sons settled in America: John Chapline in Virginia and William Chapline in Maryland). In his will, the first Lord Baltimore refers to his "kindred" in the "North" (i.e., of England,-Yorkshire), but there is no record of any of them and he mentions none by name.


JOHN CALVERT, of Kiplin, near Danby Wiske, Yorkshire, temp, Henry VIII., m. _____.

ISSUE: . . .

i. LEONARD, b. c. 1550. . . . 
CALVERT, John (I18296)
320 (1) "Calvert Lineage," in Family History: Colonial Genealogies #1, 1607-1920, Colonial Families, Volume VI, Jackson Family, p. 289, © The Generations Network, February 20, 2009:

LEONARD CALVERT, II, b. 1606; d. 1647; he was Prothonotary and Keeper of the Writs in Connaught and Thomond, Ireland, in 1621, and was Governor of Maryland from 1633 to 1647, having been appointed by his brother, Cecilius, Lord Baltimore; he came with the Ark and the Dove in 1633 and in 1641 returned to England, so it must have been about this time that he was m. to Anne BRENT (who predeceased him), a dau. of Richard and Elizabeth (REED) BRENT of Larke Stoke and Admington, Gloucestershire, and a sister of "Mistress Margaret Brent," Mary, Giles and Fulke BRENT, who migrated to the Province.


I. WILLIAM, b. 1642. . . .

II. Anne, b. 1644; d. circa 1714; m. (firstly) 1664, Baker BROOKE, b. 1628, d. 1679; m. (secondly) circa 1680, her cousin, Henry BRENT, d. 1693; m. (thirdly) circa 1694, Richard MARSHAM, d. 1713; m. (fourthly) Judge TASEER. 
CALVERT, Leonard II (I18299)
321 (1) "Calvert Lineage," in Family History: Colonial Genealogies #1, 1607-1920, Colonial Families, Volume VI, Jackson Family, p. 289, © The Generations Network, February 20, 2009:

Philip, b. 1626; d. 1682; m. (firstly) Anne WOLSELEY; m. (secondly) Jane SEWELL, step-dau. of his uncle, Charles, Lord Baltimore.

(2) Nicklin, John Bailey Calvert, "The Calvert Family," in Maryland Marriages and Genealogies, 1634-1820, Maryland Genealogies, Vol. 1, The Calvert Family, p. 138, © The Generations Network, February 20, 2009:

Philip, b. 1626; d. 1682. He came to Maryland in 1660 and was long Chancellor; in 1669 he was Deputy Governor of the Province. Although twice married, he appears to have died issueless. He m. (1.) about 1658, Anne Wolseley (a first cousin of Jane Lowe Sewall, Lady Baltimore, q. v.), dau. of Sir Thomas Wolseley of Staffordshire, England; m. (2.) 1681, Jane Sewall, dau. of Jane (Lowe) Sewall, Lady Baltimore, by her first husband, Henry Sewall, M. D., of Maryland. Philip Calvert died shortly after his second marriage and his widow (Jane Sewall) married, secondly, John Paxton.


Philip Calvert (1626-1682), Consummate Public Servant and Keeper of the Conscience of Maryland

by Dr. Lois Green Carr, Historian, Historic St. Mary's City and Dr. Edward C. Papenfuse, Director, Maryland State Archives

When Philip Calvert died shortly after December 22, 1682, he was about fifty-six years old. Recently wed for a second time to a woman thirty-five years his junior, the proud possessor of the largest mansion built in 17th-century Maryland, and the owner of a magnificent library, he left no known surviving children. His legacy was his work of the previous twenty-six years as one of Maryland's most influential leaders.

Philip Calvert was the sixth son of George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore. Philip may have been born on his father's Irish estates where his father planned to establish a haven for English Catholics and to which he brought his family to escape religious persecution and the bubonic plague. By 1630, at the age of four, Philip was in London in the care of a waiting maid who barely escaped death from the plague. When his father died suddenly in 1632, Philip was left ??300 and placed in the charge of his half brother, Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore for his "education and maintenance."

Cecil Calvert kept residences in London, first in Drury Lane and then in Bloomsbury Square, and one in the country near Salisbury, called Hook House. How Philip was educated is not certain. Perhaps he was tutored at home. Possibly he attended a Jesuit College at St. Omer's in Douai, now in Northern France, as did at least three of his half brothers. From the surviving records in his own hand, he was trained well. His neat script, clear language, breadth of reading, and the care with which he implemented the many facets of government in Maryland, all point to a powerfully analytical and ordered mind.

Philip Calvert, with his wife Anne Wolsey, a devout Catholic, arrived in Maryland in 1657. He came as the family member selected by Cecil Calvert to oversee the re-establishment of Lord Baltimore's government, which radical Protestants, with the support of Virginia, had seized in 1654. The Virginians and Maryland radicals-usually called Puritans-doubtless expected that Cromwell's government would support their move, but they suffered a disagreeable surprise. At the insistence of English authorities, Lord Baltimore and the Governor of Virginia came to an agreement in 1657 that returned control of the Maryland Province to its proprietor.

When Lord Baltimore moved to re-establish his government, he dared not appoint a Catholic governor. Instead he selected Josias Fendall, who had been loyal to him during the years of Puritan rule. But he did appoint Philip as councilor, provincial court justice, principal secretary and judge of probate. In these roles Philip participated in all decisions and had control of all the records, even if he did have to swear in Fendall as governor.

Philip's presence in the Maryland government must have been of first importance as Fendall and he selected officials and re-established proprietary institutions. Philip was a trusted link between Lord Baltimore and his colony in a day when it took twelve weeks to communicate between London and the Chesapeake. His role became crucial in 1660, when Fendall proved disloyal and attempted a coup to establish an independent Maryland commonwealth. When the coup failed, Philip became governor, and skillfully restored proprietary authority, acting cautiously and deliberately to avoid bloodshed.

What followed must have seemed to Philip a poor reward. Late in 1661, Charles Calvert, Cecil's son and the future third Lord Baltimore, was appointed governor in Philip's stead, and brought with him a new principal secretary. Philip became his nephew's deputy and was made chancellor, a new position. He was second under the governor and remained so for the rest of his life. Perhaps he had always been aware that this was bound to be so. He was a younger son of an English nobleman, not an heir at law. Philip had been chosen to conduct a difficult transition, but it was inevitable that eventually Lord Baltimore would put his heir in charge of his Maryland palatinate, once some semblance of government was restored.

Working with his nephew was not easy for Philip. Charles distrusted his uncle. In 1664, in anticipation of a trip home he wrote his father:

["]My stay in England will be but short . . . & I have great cause to feare that I shall find much confusion my returne, for as yr Lopp was pleased to write that it were best to make my Uncle Goverr in my Absence on the side I know it to be very necessary & againe am very sensibel how much he has disgusted all in Generall & especially those that have been ever faithfull to you Lopps Interest here & such as have shewe me anything of Kindnesse since my Comeing into this Province. . . . What he has endeavored to doe is to draw the Affections of the people from me wch I doe not fear in the least for I have had as much testimony of their Kindnesse as could be expected by me from them.["]

In the end, Charles did not return that year to England, but his father must have suggested to both that they should try to get along better. There were no further complaints, and in later correspondence Charles acknowledged, if somewhat begrudgingly, that he owed his uncle deference.

Despite his differences with Charles, Philip made critical contributions to the institutional development and stability of government in Maryland. He was the chief legal officer in the colony. As chancellor he established a court of equity that closely followed English procedure. It was one of the few chancery courts that functioned in the American colonies. In the absence of the governor, he was always chief justice of the Provincial Court, and it is likely that he was a prime influence in keeping the court as much as possible in line with English precedent. This was a matter of importance to colonists who lived in a colony in which a proprietor had princely powers. From the beginning, anxiety over the transfer of English law was a political issue that had high priority.

As judge of probate, Philip Calvert established careful procedures in probate that protected both heirs and creditors and hence the intergenerational transmission of property. In the absence of ecclesiastical courts that had much of this jurisdiction in England, this took skillful adaptations. To keep control of procedure, he kept the probate court a central agency, with a happy result for historians. The records did not burn in county court house fires and they remain to us today. Furthermore, he personally saw to it that the Assembly passed carefully constructed laws protecting orphans' estates-a crucial problem in a society in which fathers usually died before their children were of age to control property.

Philip also had considerable diplomatic skills. He was prominent in negotiations with the Dutch over their settlements on the Delaware in 1659. He knew how to make himself agreeable in difficult circumstances, as can be seen in Augustine Herman's account of dinner at his house. Said Herman, the Dutch emissary, "after dinner [we] talked about his charts or maps of the country. . . . He wished to prove from them the extent of Lord Baltamore's boundaries, but we, on the contrary, showed and maintained that if Chesapeak Bay ran, above so crooked towards the northeast, they would come so far within our line. . . . But these and such like courses, running higher and higher, were left off; he said he had invited us as a welcome to the country, and thenceforward we conversed on other subjects, and parted from one another with expressions of friendship."

At a later stage in the negotiations, Herman reported fruitful conversations with Calvert about "establishing mutual trade and commerce ."

In 1668, Philip obtained recognition from Virginia of Maryland's claims to what is now Somerset County and actually participated in the survey of the dividing line between the two colonies with the Surveyor General of Virginia, Edmund Scarborough. At about the same time, he negotiated treaties with Lower Eastern Shore Indian tribes who were harassing English settlers. The terms of these treaties established rules of behavior in Indian-English relations that applied to whites as well as Indians, and on the whole, kept peace in the area thereafter.

Philip Calvert died a wealthy man. He possessed large grants of land (at least 3900 acres), an excellent income from fees, and must have lived well. Shortly after his arrival he purchased what was probably a modest house about a half-mile from the Governor's Field, where the village of St. Mary's (est. 1668) was soon to appear. But by the 1670s he was planning a brick mansion, which was as large as the Governor's Palace in Williamsburg built 25 years later. At the time Calvert's house must have been one of the most splendid in any colony. He moved into it in 1679. Unfortunately, we have no record of how it was furnished. His inventory lists a wonderful library, a well-stocked wine cellar, and a kitchen that contained signs of elaborate dining, but none of the other rooms of his house, except a small office, were inventoried. However, it seems likely that he was furnishing his house in a way commensurate with its splendor. He may have died well before he had finished.

Everything suggests that Philip Calvert was a cultivated man. His books show that he read Horace, poetry, natural history, books on religion, husbandry, astrology, and astronomy. He had an extensive legal and medical library. He may even have had a share in developing the baroque plan for St. Mary's City-of which he was the mayor-a plan that his Lordship's surveyor general, Jerome White, apparently laid out before his departure in 1671. Philip Calvert was a man of many parts. He may have found few people in Maryland that he considered his intellectual equal.

Philip's death in late 1682 or early 1683 left Charles Calvert, now the third Lord Baltimore, in a difficult position. He had to return to England to defend his boundaries from the claims of William Penn, who had received a grant for Pennsylvania, and to defend his charter, once more threatened by the English government. With Philip's death, there was no immediate member of the Calvert family to leave in charge. Lord Baltimore made his infant son, Benedict Leonard, his governor and made his councillors deputy governors, led by his first cousin George Talbot. The deputy governors proved incompetent to rule-Talbot actually murdered the royal customs collector and had to flee Maryland-and in 1689 a Protestant rebellion cost the proprietor governing powers in his province. If Philip had been alive, this outcome might have been avoided.

In all, Philip Calvert was a prime influence for stability in Maryland after the turmoil of the early years. He was not a swash-buckling warrior. He was an institution builder, an unglamorous role, but one that produced enduring results that long outlasted later disruptions. As chancellor and thus chief judge in equity, he was the consummate public servant, the keeper of the conscience of Maryland. This role perhaps characterizes him best and best describes the mark he made on the founding of Maryland. 
CALVERT, Philip (I18329)
322 (1) "Calvert Lineage," in Family History: Colonial Genealogies #1, 1607-1920, Colonial Families, Volume VI, Jackson Family, p. 290, © The Generations Network, February 20, 2009:

GEORGE CALVERT, III, b. 1672; m. circa 1695, Anne NOTTLEY, a member of a prominent family, one of whom was Thomas NOTTLEY, Governor of the Province of Maryland in 1679.


I. JOHN, b. circa, 1700. . . .

II. George IV.

III. Thomas. 
CALVERT, George III (I18303)
323 (1) "Calvert Lineage," in Family History: Colonial Genealogies #1, 1607-1920, Colonial Families, Volume VI, Jackson Family, p. 290, © The Generations Network, February 20, 2009:

GEORGE CALVERT, V, b. circa 1722; d. 1782; he lived at "Deep Hole Farm," Prince William County, Virginia, and in 1752, in Hamilton Parish, where he was a Member of the House of Burgesses; and late in life moved to Culpeper County, where he d. and was buried at Calvert's Mills; in 1781 he was appointed a Captain in the Culpeper Revolutionary Militia by Thomas JEFFERSON, then Governor of Virginia; he m. (firstly) circa 1740, Anne CRUPPER; m. (secondly) circa 1779, Mrs. Mary (STROTHER) DEATHERAGE, Widow of Robert DEATHERAGE, d. 1777, and dau. of Francis and Susannah (DABNEY) STROTHER of St. Mark's Parish (see STROTHER, "Colonial Families," Volume V). Mrs. Mary (STROTHER) DEATHERAGE-CALVERT was a great aunt of President Zachary TAYLOR, and a great-great-aunt of the first wife of President Jefferson DAVIS, Confederate States of America (see DAVIS, "Colonial Families," Volume III). 
CALVERT, George V (I18306)
324 (1) "Calvert Lineage," in Family History: Colonial Genealogies #1, 1607-1920, Colonial Families, Volume VI, Jackson Family, pp. 289-290, © The Generations Network, February 20, 2009:

WILLIAM CALVERT of "Calvert's Rest;" b. 1642; was a Member of the House of Burgesses; Deputy-Governor of the Province; Councillor, and Principal Secretary from 1669 to 1682, when he was drowned in the Wicomico River; in or about 1664, he m. Elizabeth STONE, who survived him, a dau. of Governor William STONE, b. 1603, d. 1695, and his wife Verlinda Sprigg COTTON.


I. Elizabeth, m. 1681, Capt. James NEALE, whose second wife was Elizabeth LORD.

II. Charles, b. 1666; d. 1733; living in Stafford County, Virginia, in 1705; m. (firstly) Mary HOWSON; m. (secondly) Barbara DOANE, who m. (secondly) Andrew FOY. . . .

III. Cecilius, untraced.

IV. GEORGE, III, b. 1672. . . .

V. Richard, d.s.p. before 1718. 
CALVERT, William (I18301)
325 (1) "Caroline Harrison," Encyclopædia Brittanica, 2010, © 2010 Encyclopædia Brittanica, Inc.:

Caroline Harrison, n??e Caroline Lavinia Scott (b. October 1, 1832, Oxford, Ohio, U.S. - d. October 25, 1892, Washington, D.C.), American first lady (1889-92), the wife of Benjamin Harrison, 23rd president of the United States. A history enthusiast, she was the first president general of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR).

Caroline Scott was the second daughter of five children born to John Scott, a college teacher and Presbyterian minister, and Mary Potts Neal Scott. Educated in the best schools of southern Ohio, she was an excellent student, showing special talent in painting and music. She met Benjamin Harrison while he was her father's student at a nearby college, and they were married on October 20, 1853. As her husband's legal and political career progressed, she cared for their two children, born in 1854 and 1858, and participated in community activities in Indianapolis, where they made their home until his election to the Senate (1881-86) took them to Washington, D.C. Wherever she lived, she continued to paint for recreation, and she became known as a model housewife.

Her husband's election to the presidency in 1888 brought Caroline enormous public attention. By that time, popular women's magazines regularly published lengthy articles on each president's family and home life, and they eagerly sought information about the many relatives the Harrisons brought with them to live in the White House, including their married children, their children's families, Caroline's father, and Caroline's niece, Mary Dimmick. Caroline laughingly concluded that other people knew more about the Harrisons than they knew themselves.

In order to make White House living more comfortable, Caroline Harrison worked with architect Fred D. Owen to draw up plans to expand the mansion. The plan she favoured would have retained the main structure and added wings on both sides, one for an art gallery and the other for offices. However, Congress rejected the plan, and Caroline had to make do with the same limited space her predecessors had, though she did oversee an extensive renovation, including the installation of electric lighting.

Eager to make the White House a showcase for American creativity and workmanship, Caroline designed new state china featuring goldenrod and sweet corn. Because she was dissatisfied with the quality of china produced in the United States, however, she had the dishes made in France. In addition to her organizational efforts for the Daughters of the American Revolution, she helped to raise funds to start a medical school at Johns Hopkins University. Although she was not an active supporter of women's rights, she agreed with many of the benefactors that the new school should admit women.

During her husband's campaign for reelection in 1892, Caroline contracted tuberculosis, and she died in the White House, the second president's wife (after Letitia Tyler) to die there. She was buried at the Crown Hill Cemetery in Indianapolis.

Four years later her husband married Mary Dimmick. Rumours circulated about when the romance had begun, and when Benjamin died in 1901 his children, who were never reconciled to the second marriage, buried him beside Caroline.

Betty Boyd Caroli 
SCOTT, Caroline Lavinia (I16058)
326 (1) "Catherine De Roet (1350-1403)," Familypedia :

Catherine De Roet was born 1350 to Payn De Roet (c1310-?) and Unknown (c1315-?) and died 10 May 1403 in Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom of unspecified causes. She married Hugh De Swynford (?-?) 13 January 1396 [1366?] in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom.

Offspring of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Catherine De Roet (1350-1403):

• John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (c1373-1410); [b.] 1371; [d.] 16 March 1409; [m.] Margaret Holland (1385-1439)

• Blanche Beaufort (Abt 1373-Bef 1397)

• Henry Cardinal Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester (1375-1447)

• Thomas Beaufort, 1st Duke of Exeter (1377-1426)

• Joan Beaufort (1379-1440); [b] 1379 Château de Beaufort, Haute-Loire, France; [d.] 13 November 1440 Howden, Yorkshire, England; [m] Robert, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Wemme (c1373-1396); [m.] Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland (c1364-1425)

(2) "Katherine Swynford," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster (also spelled Katharine or Catherine), was the third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a son of King Edward III. She had been the Duke's lover for many years before their marriage. The couple's children, born before the marriage, were later legitimated during the reign of the Duke's nephew, Richard II. When the Duke's son from his first marriage overthrew Richard, becoming Henry IV, he introduced a provision that neither they nor their descendants could ever claim the throne of England.

Their descendants were members of the Beaufort family, which played a major role in the Wars of the Roses. Henry VII, who became King of England in 1485, derived his claim to the throne from his mother Margaret Beaufort, who was a great-granddaughter of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford. His legal claim to the throne, however, was through a matrilineal and previously illegitimate line and Henry's first action was to declare himself king "by right of conquest" retroactively from 21 August 1485, the day before his army defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.


Katherine was the daughter of Paon de Roet, a herald, and later knight, who was "probably christened as Gilles". She had two sisters, Philippa and Isabel (also called Elizabeth) de Roet, and a brother, Walter. Isabel later became Canoness of the convent of St. Waudru's, Mons, c. 1366. Katherine is generally held to have been his youngest child. However, Alison Weir argues that Philippa was the junior and that both were children of a second marriage. Katherine's sister Philippa, a lady in the royal household of Philippa of Hainault, married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer.


She was probably born in Hainaut in 1349 or 1350. Katherine's birth date may have been 25 November, as that is the feast day of her patron, St. Catherine of Alexandria. The family returned to England in 1351, and it is likely that Katherine stayed there during her father's continued travels.

In about 1366, at St Clement Danes Church, Westminster, Katherine, aged sixteen or seventeen, contracted an advantageous marriage with "Hugh" Ottes Swynford, a knight from the manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire, the son of Thomas Swynford by his marriage to Nicole Druel. She had the following children by him: Blanche (born 1 May 1367), Thomas (21 September 1368 - 1432), and possibly Margaret Swynford (born about 1369), later recorded as a nun of the prestigious Barking Abbey nominated by command of King Richard II.

Katherine became attached to the household of John of Gaunt as governess to his daughters Philippa of Lancaster and Elizabeth of Lancaster. The ailing duchess Blanche had Katherine's daughter Blanche (her namesake) placed within her own daughters' chambers and afforded the same luxuries as her daughters; additionally, John of Gaunt stood as godfather to the child.

Some time after Blanche's death in 1368 and the birth of their first son in 1373, Katherine and John of Gaunt entered into a love affair that would produce four children for the couple, born out of wedlock but legitimized upon their parents' eventual marriage; the adulterous relationship endured until 1381 when it was truncated out of political necessity and ruined Katherine's reputation. On 13 January 1396, two years after the death of the Duke's second wife, Infanta Constance of Castile, Katherine and John of Gaunt married in Lincoln Cathedral. Records of their marriage kept in the Tower and elsewhere list: 'John of Ghaunt, Duke of Lancaster, married Katharine daughter of Guyon King of Armes in the time of K. Edward the 3, and Geffrey Chaucer her sister'. On John of Gaunt's death, Katherine became known as dowager Duchess of Lancaster. She outlived him by four years, dying on 10 May 1403, in her early fifties.


Katherine's tomb and that of her daughter, Joan Beaufort, are under a carved-stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. Joan's is the smaller of the two tombs; both were decorated with brass plates - full-length representations of them on the tops, and small shields bearing coats of arms around the sides and on the top - but those were damaged or destroyed in 1644 during the English Civil War. A hurried drawing by William Dugdale records their appearance.

Children and descendants

Katherine's children by Hugh Swynford were:

• Margaret Swynford (born c. 1369), became a nun at the prestigious Barking Abbey in 1377 with help from her future stepfather John of Gaunt, where she lived the religious life with her cousin Elizabeth Chaucer, daughter of the famous Geoffrey Chaucer and Katherine's sister Philippa de Roet.

• Sir Thomas Swynford (1367-1432), born in Lincoln while his father Sir Hugh Swynford was away on a campaign with the Duke of Lancaster in Castile fighting for Peter of Castile.

• Blanche Swynford, named after the Duchess of Lancaster and a godchild of John of Gaunt. (If, as suggested, she was born after 1375, this date is too late for her to have been fathered by Hugh Swynford, who died in 1371/2. However, since John of Gaunt obtained a dispensation for his marriage to Katherine for being Blanche Swynford's godfather, this theory can be discarded).

In 1846 Thomas Stapleton suggested that there was a further daughter named Dorothy Swynford, born c. 1366, who married Thomas Thimelby of Poolham near Horncastle, Lincolnshire, Sheriff of Lincolnshire in 1380, but there is no current evidence to support this claim.

Katherine's children by John of Gaunt were:

• John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373-1410)

• Henry, Cardinal Beaufort (1375-1447)

• Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter (1377-1426)

• Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland (1379-1440)

The descendants of Katherine Swynford and John of Gaunt are significant in English and Scottish history. Their four children had been given the surname "Beaufort" and with the approval of King Richard II and the Pope were legitimated as adults by their parents' marriage in 1396. Despite this, the Beauforts were barred from inheriting the throne of England by a clause in the legitimation act inserted by their half-brother, Henry IV, although modern scholarship disputes the authority of a monarch to alter an existing parliamentary statute on his own authority, without the further approval of Parliament. This provision was later revoked by Edward VI, placing Katherine's descendants (including himself) back within the legitimate line of inheritance; the Tudor dynasty was directly descended from John and Katherine's eldest child, John Beaufort, great-grandfather of Henry VII, who based his claim to the throne on his mother's descent from John of Gaunt, a son of Edward III. John Beaufort also had a daughter named Joan Beaufort, who married James I of Scotland and thus was an ancestress of the House of Stuart. John and Katherine's daughter, Joan Beaufort, was grandmother of the English kings Edward IV and Richard III, the latter of whom Henry Tudor (thus becoming by conquest Henry VII) defeated at the Battle of Bosworth Field; Henry's claim was strengthened by marrying Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV. It was also through Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland that the sixth queen of Henry VIII, Catherine Parr, descended. John of Gaunt's son - Katherine's stepson Henry of Bolingbroke - became Henry IV after deposing Richard II (who was imprisoned and died in Pontefract Castle, where Katherine's son, Thomas Swynford, was constable and is said to have starved Richard to death for his step-brother). John of Gaunt's daughter by his first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster, Philippa of Lancaster, was great-great-grandmother to Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII and mother of Mary I of England. John of Gaunt's child by his second wife Constance, Catherine (or Catalina), was great-grandmother of Catherine of Aragon as well.

In literature

Katherine Swynford is the subject of numerous novels, including Anya Seton's Katherine, published in 1954. Swynford is also the subject of non-fiction work, such as Alison Weir's 2008 biography Katherine Swynford: The Story of John of Gaunt and his Scandalous Duchess (ISBN 0-224-06321-9) and Jeannette Lucraft's historical biography Katherine Swynford: The History of a Medieval Mistress. Lucraft's book seeks to establish Swynford as a powerful figure in the politics of 14th-century England and an example of a woman's ability to manipulate contemporary social mores for her own interests. 
de ROET, Catherine (I41054)
327 (1) "Chenoweth History - The First Family" , Copyright © 1999-2003 by Jon D. Egge:

JOHN(1) ca 1682-1746

According to J Richard Buckey: John, the progenitor of the Chenoweth family in America, is thought to have emigrated from Cornwall sometime before 1704. He married Mary Calvert, the daughter of John Calvert and Judith Stamper, about 1705 (or as early as 1702), probably in the home of one of her relatives in Pennsylvania. (Note: family tradition has always given her name as Mary Calvert, but no existing document of that time period has been found that supports or proves this name). This corresponds with early listing of the name John Chenoweth in Bristol, Bucks Co., PA and neighboring Burlington, NJ. Early family tradition presented by Cora Hiatt in her 1925 book had placed the marriage in England, as well as the birth of the first two to four children. This same tradition placed the wife, Mary, in the line of the Lords of Baltimore. But this early family tradition is not supported by known facts, and even though Buckey's version has no firm proof, it does have the merit of supporting evidence. The origins of John, his immigration and marriage are shrouded in the mists; and no one has been able to place his real beginnings.

Cora Hiatt said they settled on a tract of land by the Gunpowder River in Baltimore County, Maryland near the thriving seaport of Joppa. This too is wrong. There is no record of John Chenoweth ever owning land in Baltimore County. Whatever the size of the land where the family resided, it surely was not the immense estate described by Cora Hiatt in her 1925 book. The earliest recording of the Chenoweths in Baltimore Co., MD is the marriage of the oldest son John in 1730 at St John's Parish. In 1737 John(1) and family are recorded on a tax roll in Back River Upper Hundred on leased land. . . .

They had at least 8 children, known by John's will: 5 sons and 3 daughters. The lines of the daughter, Mary, who married John Watson, are basically unknown to family researchers at this point, but all other seven children can be traced to descendants today. John Chenoweth was a "gentleman" blacksmith by trade and died in Frederick County, Virginia in the spring of 1746, where his will was proven. What happened to his wife Mary is unknown. It may be that Mary Calvert died before John and that he remarried. There is an early-recorded marriage in Maryland in 1736 of a John Chenoweth and a Jane Wood that would only fit this John. That may be why his wife is not mentioned by name in the will and why she did not receive the traditional ? share. His 8 children are, however, mentioned and the resultant family of John and Mary is large and thriving.

One should keep in mind though that the 8 mentioned children in the will are all children who not only survived to adulthood, but also survived their father, John. It is probable that John may have had additional children. For those times, it would be unusual to have all one's children survive to adulthood. Early records of Church of St. Ann (later known as St. Mary's), Burlington, New Jersey have a son, William Chenoweth, who was baptized by Rev. John Talbot and recorded during the year of 1704. This location is consistent with general locations theorized by Marie Eberle in her research of John. If so this is the first recorded record we have of the Chenoweth family in America and this William would have had to have died before the William of the will was born in 1718. Of the families of John's 8 children in the will, 18 of their sons and grandsons would serve in the American Revolution.

Recent work by Marie Eberle seems to indicate that John and Mary lived first in Pennsylvania and New Jersey before moving to Maryland and went to Virginia probably between 1739 and 1744. . . .


1. John b. 1706, Pennsylavia or Maryland; d. March 05, 1771, Frederick Co., VA; m. MARY M. SMITH, November 26, 1730, St. John's Parish, Baltimore Co., MD; b. Bet. 1701 - 1713, Baltimore Co., MD; d. Aft. 1773.

2. Mary b. 1708, Pennsylvania or Maryland; d. Aft. 1746; m. JOHN WATSON, May 24, 1733, St. John's Parish, Baltimore Co., MD; b. Bef. 1703; d. Abt. 1740, Baltimore, MD..

3. Richard b. 1710, Pennsylvania or Maryland; d. December 12, 1781, Baltimore Co., MD; m. KEZIA ?, Abt. 1733, Baltimore Co., MD; b. Bet. 1705 - 1717; d. Unknown.

4. Hannah b. 1713, Pennsylvania or Maryland; d. 1764, near Winchester, Frederick Co., VA; m. JAMES CARTER, JR., Abt. 1739, Baltimore Co., MD; b. 1710, Southampton Twp., Bucks Co., PA; d. November 18, 1758, near Winchester Frederick Co., VA.

5. Arthur b. August 15, 1716, Pennsylvania or Maryland; d. March 14, 1802, Baltimore Co., MD; m. SAPHIRA HOOKER, Abt. 1738; b. Abt. 1720, Baltimore Co., MD; d. May 16, 1800, Baltimore Co., MD.

6. William b. 1718, Pennsylvania or Maryland; d. Bef. December 20, 1785, Berkeley Co., VA (now WV); m. ANNE POLK, February 12, 1742/43, Virginia; b. 1722, Baltimore Co., MD; d. Unknown.

7. Thomas b. 1720, Pennsylvania or Maryland; d. 1791, buried Mason, KY; m. MARY PRICKETT, Abt. 1742, Maryland; b. 1723, Baltimore Co., MD; d. Unknown.

8. Ruth b. 1722, Pennsylvania or Maryland; d. Abt. 1760; m. JOHN PETEET, Bef. 1743; b. 1721, Virginia; d. 1788, Caswell Co., NC.

(2) "Chenoweth Wills" , Copyright © 2003-2010 by Jon D. Egge:

[Last Will and Testatment of] JOHN(1), Progenitor, Frederick Co., VA: dated April 11, 1746

transcribed by from photocopy sent by Elmer Haile, Jr.

In the Name of God Amen. I John Chinoweth of Frederick County in my last will and testament as followth:

Imp. I give, devise and bequeath unto my eldest son, John Chinoweth, to be paid by my executors within twelve months after my demise, twenty shillings Virginia Currency.

Item. I give to my son Richard Chinoweth to be paid as forsaid the sum of twenty shillings of like money foresaid.

Item. I give to my son Arthur Chinoweth to be paid as foresaid forty shillings Virginia Currency.

Item. I give to my son William Chinoweth to be paid in like manner the sum of five shillings of like currency.

Item. I give to my son Thomas Chinoweth all my wearing apparel.

Item. I give to my grandson John Watson, Junior my smooth bore gun.

Item. It is my will that the deeds of gift already made & given to my son Thomas Chinoweth & John Petit my son-in-law of my land and other particulars therein contained stand good & valid according to the purport and the meaning thereof.

Item. The residue of my estate real and personal after my just debts and funeral charges are paid, I give, devise and bequeath to be equally divided between my wife and my three daughters, Mary Watson, Hannah Carter and Ruth Petit. Item. I do make, constitute and appoint my son Thomas Chinoweth & James Carter executors of this last will and testament hereby revoking all former and other wills by me at any time heretofore made. In witness thereof I the said John Chinoweth have hereunto set my hand and seal this eleventh day of April in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty Six.

John Chinoweth (Seal)

Signed Sealed publish'd & Declared by the P. John Chinoweth as his last will and testament in the presence of us:

Joseph Stanley
Mary Stanley
Wm Jolliffe

At a court held for Frederick county Tuesday, the ninth day of May, 1746 this last will and Testament of John Chenoweth Deceased was read in open Court by the oaths of Joseph Hanley, Mary Hanley and Wm Jolliffe witnesses thereto and Thomas Chinoweth and James Carter execs. therein named having made oath to the same according to the law it was admitted to the record. . . . James Wood 
CHENOWETH, John (I9923)
328 (1) "Church Record of the Walpeck Congregation," New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, vol. 41 (1910), pp. 345, 359, 363:

Date: 1825. Oct. 16.
Parents: Moses Depue, Anna Miller
Child: Daniel, b. 28 March

Date: 1827. Aug. 3.
Parents: Moses Depue, Anna Miller
Child: Nathan, b. 10 May, 1827

Date: 1831. Jan. 9.
Parents: Moses Depue, Ann Miller
Child: Margaret. b. 25 July, 1829

(2) A household headed by Moses DEPUE is listed in the 1830 census of Pahaquarry Township, Warren County, NJ.

Listed in Moses' household are 1 free white male under 5 years of age; 1 free white male between 5 and 10 years of age; 1 free white male between 20 and 30 years of age; 1 free white female under 5 years of age; and 1 free white female between 20 and 30 years of age.

Assuming that Moses is the free white male listed in the 1830 census as then being between 20 and 30 years of age, he would have been born between 1800 and 1810, according to the 1830 census.

Assuming that Moses' wife is the free white female listed in the 1830 census as then being between 20 and 30 years of age, she would have been born between 1800 and 1810, according to the 1830 census.

Assuming that the other persons in Moses' household are children of Moses and/or his wife, those children would have consisted of two sons (one of which sons would have been born between 1820 and 1825, and one of which sons would have been born between 1825 and 1830, according to the 1830 census) and one daughter (which daughter would have been born between 1825 and 1830, according to the 1830 census).

(3) A household headed by Moses DEPEW is listed in the 1840 census of Pahaquarry Township, Warren County, NJ.

Listed in Moses' household are 1 free white male between 5 and 10 years of age; 1 free white male between 10 and 15 years of age; 2 free white males between 15 and 20 years of age; 1 free white male between 30 and 40 years of age; 2 free white females under 5 years of age; 1 free white female between 5 and 10 years of age; 1 free white female between 10 and 15 years of age; 1 free white female between 20 and 30 years of age; and 1 free white female between 30 and 40 years of age.

Assuming that Moses is the free white male listed in the 1840 census as then being between 30 and 40 years of age, he would have been born between 1800 and 1810, according to the 1840 census.

Assuming that Moses' wife is the free white female listed in the 1840 census as then being between 30 and 40 years of age, she would have been born between 1800 and 1810, according to the 1840 census.

Assuming that the other persons in Moses' household are children of Moses and/or his wife, those children would have consisted of four sons (two of which sons would have been born between 1820 and 1825, one of which sons would have been born between 1825 and 1830, and one of which sons would have been born between 1830 and 1835, according to the 1840 census) and five daughters (one of which daughters would have been born between 1810 and 1820, one of which daughters would have been born between 1825 and 1830, one of which daughters would have been born between 1830 and 1835, and two of which daughters would have been born between 1835 and 1840, according to the 1840 census).

(4) A household headed by Moses DEPUY is listed in the 1850 census of Pahaquarry Township, Warren County, NJ.

Moses is listed in the 1850 census as a farmer who was then 46 years of age; therefore, according to the 1850 census, he was born in about 1804. According to the 1850 census, he was born in NJ.

Listed with Moses is his son, Daniel, a laborer who was then 24 years of age; therefore, according to the 1850 census, he was born in about 1826. According to the 1850 census, he was born in NJ.

Also listed with Moses is his son, Nathan, a laborer who was then 22 years of age; therefore, according to the 1850 census, he was born in about 1828. According to the 1850 census, he was born in NJ.

Also listed with Moses is his daughter, Hannah, who was then 18 years of age; therefore, according to the 1850 census, she was born in about 1832. According to the 1850 census, she was born in NJ.

Also listed with Moses is his son, Manuel, who was then 16 years of age; therefore, according to the 1850 census, he was born in about 1834. According to the 1850 census, he was born in NJ.

Also listed with Moses is his daughter, Sally Ann, who was then 14 years of age; therefore, according to the 1850 census, she was born in about 1836. According to the 1850 census, she was born in NJ.

Also listed with Moses is his daughter, Blandenia, who was then 12 years of age; therefore, according to the 1850 census, she was born in about 1838. According to the 1850 census, she was born in NJ.

Also listed with Moses is his daughter, Caroline, who was then 6 years of age; therefore, according to the 1850 census, she was born in about 1844. According to the 1850 census, she was born in NJ.

(5) A household headed by Moses DEPUE is listed in the 1860 census of Pahaquarry Township, Warren County, NJ.

Moses is listed in the 1850 census as a farmer who was then 54 years of age; therefore, according to the 1860 census, he was born in about 1806. According to the 1860 census, he was born in NJ.

Also listed with Moses is his son, Nathan, a laborer who was then 30 years of age; therefore, according to the 1860 census, he was born in about 1830. According to the 1860 census, he was born in NJ.

Also listed with Moses is his daughter, Malissa, who was then 26 years of age; therefore, according to the 1860 census, she was born in about 1834. According to the 1850 census, she was born in NJ.

Also listed with Moses is his daughter, Sally A., who was then 22 years of age; therefore, according to the 1860 census, she was born in about 1838. According to the 1860 census, she was born in NJ.

Also listed with Moses is his daughter, Caroline B., who was then 16 years of age; therefore, according to the 1860 census, she was born in about 1844. According to the 1860 census, she was born in NJ.


Moses DePue
Birth: Apr. 10, 1804
Death: Sep. 16, 1875

Family links: Children: Susan DePue (1840 - 1842), Caroline B. DePue (1844 - 1866); Spouse: Ann DePue (1804 - 1846).

Note: Age 71.5.6; husband of Ann _____.

Burial: DePue Burying Ground, Pahaquarry, Warren County, New Jersey, USA

Created by: Karen
Record added: Feb 05, 2006
Find A Grave Memorial# 13233012 
DEPUE, Moses (I5199)
329 (1) "Church Record of the Walpeck Congregation," New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, vol. 41 (1910), pp. 83, 94, 96, 98, 202:

Date: 1803. July 10.
Parents: Richard French, Easter Scrosman
Child: Selitie, b. 16 Aug., 1799; Susy, b. 25 June, 1801

Date: 1803. Oct. 16.
Parents: Richard French, Esther Croswell
Child: Caty, b. 14 Jan., 1803

Date: 1804. Oct. 13.
Parents: Richard French, Elizabeth V. Vlierden
Child: Marie, b. 18 Jan., 1805

Date: 1806. April 17.
Parents: Richard French, Elizabeth -
Child: Sarah, b. 18 Jan., 1807

Date: 1809. May 25.
Parents: Richard French, Elizebeth Van vlera
Child: Moses, b. 27 March, 1809

(2) A household headed by Richard FRENCH is listed in the 1810 census of Cross Creek Township, Washington County, PA.

Listed in Richard's household are 1 free white male under 10 years of age; 1 free white male between 26 and 45 years of age; 2 free white females under 10 years of age; and 1 free white female between 26 and 45 years of age.

Assuming that Richard is the free white male listed in the 1810 census as then being between 26 and 45 years of age, he would have been born between 1765 and 1784, according to the 1810 census.

Assuming that Richard's wife is the free white female listed in the 1810 census as then being between 26 and 45 years of age, she would have been born between 1765 and 1784, according to the 1810 census.

Assuming that the other persons in Richard's household are children of Richard and/or his wife, those children would have consisted of one son [which son would have been born between 1800 and 1810, according to the 1810 census] and two daughters [which daughters would have been born between 1800 and 1810, according to the 1810 census].

(3) The History of Tuscarawas County, Ohio, Chicago, IL: Warner, Beers & Co., 1884:

Page 637, Rush Township:

It was here in the valley of the Stillwater that the first settlement in the township was made. The six sections which form the eastern part of Rush, 19, 20, 25, 26, 31 and 32 of Township 13, Range 7, like those in Mill Township, are a portion of the Dohrman tract. It began to be settled about 1808, and in 1820 the following settlers resided here and owned property: Thomas Archbold, the east half of Section 19; Nathan Adams, the northeast quarter of Section 20; Peter Bennett, the southwest quarter of Section 19; Patrick Bennett, the northwest quarter of Section 31; Richard French, the northeast quarter of Section 31; Charles Foster, the southwest quarter of Section 32; William Lyons and James Martin, the south half of Section 31; Hugh Nelson, the northwest quarter of Section 32; John Niblack, the northeast quarter of Section 25; Levi Porter, the southwest quarter of Section 20; Andrew Sewell,the southeast quarter of Section 25; William Wilson, the northeast quarter of Section 32.

(4) A household headed by Richard FRENCH is listed in the 1820 census of Dohrman Township, Tuscarawas County, OH.

Listed in Richard's household are 2 free white males under 10 years of age; 2 free white males between 10 and 16 years of age; 1 free white male over 45 years of age; 2 free white females under 10 years of age; 1 free white female between 10 and 16 years of age; 1 free white female between 16 and 26 years of age; and 1 free white female between 26 and 45 years of age.

Assuming that Richard is the free white male listed in the 1820 census as then being over 45 years of age, he would have been born before 1775, according to the 1820 census.

Assuming that Richard's wife is the free white female listed in the 1820 census as then being between 26 and 45 years of age, she would have been born between 1775 and 1794, according to the 1820 census.

Assuming that the other persons in Richard's household are children of Richard and/or his wife, those children would have consisted of four sons [two of which sons would have been born between 1794 and 1810, and two of which sons would have been born between 1810 and 1820, according to the 1820 census] and four daughters [one of which daughters would have been born between 1794 and 1804, one of which daughters would have been born between 1794 and 1810, and two of which daughters would have been born between 1810 and 1820, according to the 1820 census].

(5) A household headed by Richard FRENCH is listed in the 1830 census of Dohrman Township, Tuscarawas County, OH.

Listed in Richard's household are 1 free white male between 10 and 15 years of age; 1 free white male between 15 and 20 years of age; 1 free white male between 50 and 60 years of age; 1 free white female under 5 years of age; 1 free white female between 5 and 10 years of age; 2 free white females between 10 and 15 years of age; and 1 free white female between 40 and 50 years of age.

Assuming that Richard is the free white male listed in the 1830 census as then being between 50 and 60 years of age, he would have been born between 1770 and 1780, according to the 1830 census.

Assuming that Richard's wife is the free white female listed in the 1830 census as then being between 40 and 50 years of age, she would have been born between 1780 and 1790, according to the 1830 census.

Assuming that the other persons in Richard's household are children of Richard and/or his wife, those children would have consisted of two sons [one of which sons would have been born between 1810 and 1815, and one of which sons would have been born between 1815 and 1820, according to the 1830 census] and four daughters [two of which daughters would have been born between 1815 and 1820, one of which daughters would have been born between 1820 and 1825, and one of which daughters would have been born between 1825 and 1830, according to the 1830 census].

(6) Kerri Pajutee :

Tuscarawas County, Ohio Administration Record 1810-1839, pp. 483-484:

Estate of Richard French

A true and accurate inventory of the goods and chattels of Richard French late of the Township of Rush in the county of Tuscarawas as presented to the undersigned William Barkley, Alexander Edie, Jr. and John Robinson appraisers appointed by the court of common pleas of said county by Hugh Nelson Administrator of said estate this 7th day of June AD 1838.

One mare & colt - $45.00
Four sheep - $3.50
One saddle - $4.50
One lot of clothes & basket - $7.23
One axe - $1.00
One hoe & ______ - $1.25
One ? & holding - $7.50
One pair of socks - $.59
One lot of wood - $1.37
One bottle - $.11
One bible & testament - $.75
One bin strand & cord - $1.00
Ten yards of flannel - $5.00
3 cuts of woolen yarn - $.12 ½
one pair of shoes - $.62
Total amount of appraisement - $78.32 ½

Given under our hands this day and year appraised
- John Robinson
- William Barkley
- Alexander Edie, Jr.

The state of Ohio Tuscarawas County

Before me William C. Kennady a justice of the peace in and for said county personally came William Barkley, Alexander Edie, Jr. and John Robinson of praises of the estate of Richard French late of the Township of Rush in said county deceased and were sworn will and truly to appraise all the goods and chattels of the said Estate which should be presented to them for appraisement. Given under my hand and seal this seventh day of June AD 1838

- Wm. C. Kennedy

* * *

Sale List

List of this sales of property goods and chattels belonging to the estate of Richard French late of Rush Township Tuscarawas County Ohio deceased sold at Public Venders by this undersigned administration of said Estate on this 23 day of June 1838.

Purchasers names:
Thomas Ogden - 1 wool hat - $0.26
Levi Porter - 1 saddle - $5.00
William Coples - 1 log chain - $2.06 ¼
Jacob Sponsler - 1 hoe & chivis - $0.18 ¾
Jacob Sponsler - 1 Axe - $1.13
Thomas Nelson - 2 lbs wool - $0.24
Moses French - 1 bed stead & cord - $1.00
David Gibson - 1 bottle - $0.08
Jacob Sponsler - 1 pair shoes - $0.18 ¾
Samuel Bonham - 1 Bible & Testament - $0.63
William Coples - 1 lot flannel - $5.20
Cornelius Crum - 1 pr socks & yarn - $0.41
David Gibson - 1 bed & bedding - $6.26
Samuel Bonham - 1 basket & clothes - $2.50
Moses French - 1 ewe & lamb - $2.25
Jacob Sponsler - 1 ewe & lamb - $2.00

Total amount of sales bring $71.38 / Signed Hugh Nelson, Administrator

* * *

Schedule of Debts

A true and accurate statement of the debts which appear from the papers and accounts and under which have come into my hands be due and owing to the Estate of Richard French late of Rush Township Tuscarawas County Ohio Dec'd. So far as known to the undersigned Administrator.

One note on David & George Gibson for $5.50
One note on Moses French for $350 with credits thereone $100 leaving unpaid $250.00
One note on Richard French Jr. for $300 with credits thereon $124.13 ½ leaving unpaid $175.96 ½
One note on Charles P. Everett $12.00
One due bill on Josh Cail $50.00
One note on Kiser Ross & I. Johnson $1.75
One note on Wm. Crum & Moses French $70.53 ¼
One note on Richard & Moses French $24.25
One note on Hugh Carothers $12.00
Total amount of debts due said Estate $599.99 ¾

Given under my hand this 1st day of August 1838/
Signed Hugh Nelson Administrator 
FRENCH, Richard Sr. (I5275)
330 (1) "Clara Barton," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Clarissa Harlowe Barton (December 25, 1821 - April 12, 1912) was a pioneering American nurse who founded the American Red Cross. She was a hospital nurse in the American Civil War, a teacher, and patent clerk. Nursing education was not very formalized at that time and she did not attend nursing school, so she provided self-taught nursing care. Barton is noteworthy for doing humanitarian work and civil rights advocacy at a time before women had the right to vote. She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1973.

Early life

Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born on December 25, 1821, in North Oxford, Massachusetts and was named after the titular character of Samuel Richardson's novel Clarissa. Her father was Captain Stephen Barton, a member of the local militia and a selectman who inspired his daughter with patriotism and a broad humanitarian interest. He was a soldier under the command of General Anthony Wayne in his crusade against the Indians in the northwest. He was also the leader of progressive thought in the Oxford village area. Barton's mother was Sarah Stone Barton.

When she was three years old, Barton was sent to school with her brother Stephen, where she excelled in reading and spelling. At school, she became close friends with Nancy Drew; she is the only known friend Barton had as a child due to her extreme timidity.

When Barton was ten years old, she assigned herself the task of nursing her brother David back to health after he fell from the roof of a barn and received a severe head injury. She learned how to distribute the prescribed medication to her brother, as well as how to place leeches on his body to bleed him (a standard treatment at this time). She continued to care for David long after doctors had given up. He made a full recovery.

Her parents tried to help cure her timidity by enrolling her to Colonel Stones High School, but their strategy turned out to be a catastrophe. Barton became more timid and depressed and would not eat. She was brought back home to regain her health.

Upon her return, her family relocated to help a family member: a paternal cousin of Clara's had died and left his wife with four children and a farm. The house that the Barton family was to live in needed to be painted and repaired. Barton was persistent in offering assistance, much to the gratitude of her family. After the work was done, Barton was at a loss because she had nothing else to help with, to not feel like a burden to her family.

She began to play with her male cousins and, to their surprise, she was good at keeping up with such activities as horseback riding. It was not until after she had injured herself that Barton's mother began to question her playing with the boys. Barton's mother decided she should focus on more feminine skills. She invited one of Clara's female cousins over to help develop her femininity. From her cousin, she gained proper social skills as well.

To assist Barton with overcoming her shyness, her parents persuaded her to become a schoolteacher. She achieved her first teacher's certificate in 1839, at only 17 years old. This profession interested Barton greatly and helped motivate her; she ended up conducting an effective redistricting campaign that allowed the children of workers to receive an education. Successful projects such as this gave Barton the confidence needed when she demanded equal pay for teaching.

Early professional life

Barton became an educator in 1838 and served for 12 years in schools in Canada and West Georgia. Barton fared well as a teacher; she knew how to handle rambunctious children, particularly the boys, since as a child she enjoyed her male cousins' and brothers' company. She learned how to act like them, making it easier for her to relate to and control the boys in her care. After her mother's death in 1851, the family home closed down. Barton decided to further her education by pursuing writing and languages at the Clinton Liberal Institute in New York. In this college, she developed many friendships that broadened her point of view on many issues concurring at the time. The principal of the institute recognized her tremendous abilities and admired her work. This friendship lasted for many years, eventually turning into a romance. As a writer, her terminology was pristine and easy to understand. Her writings and bodies of work could instruct the local statesmen.

While teaching in Hightstown, Barton learned about the lack of public schools in Bordentown, the neighboring city. In 1852, she was contracted to open a free school in Bordentown, which was the first ever free school in New Jersey. She was successful, and after a year she had hired another woman to help teach over 600 people. Both women were making $250 a year. This accomplishment compelled the town to raise nearly $4,000 for a new school building. Once completed, though, Barton was replaced as principal by a man elected by the school board. They saw the position as head of a large institution to be unfitting for a woman. She was demoted to "female assistant" and worked in a harsh environment until she had a nervous breakdown along with other health ailments, and quit.

In 1855, she moved to Washington D.C. and began work as a clerk in the US Patent Office; this was the first time a woman had received a substantial clerkship in the federal government and at a salary equal to a man's salary. For three years, she received much abuse and slander from male clerks. Subsequently, under political opposition to women working in government offices, her position was reduced to that of copyist, and in 1856, under the administration of James Buchanan, she was fired because of her "Black Republicanism". After the election of Abraham Lincoln, having lived with relatives and friends in Massachusetts for three years, she returned to the patent office in the autumn of 1861, now as temporary copyist, in the hope she could make way for more women in government service.

American Civil War

On April 19, 1861, the Baltimore Riot resulted in the first bloodshed of the American Civil War. Victims within the Massachusetts regiment were transported to Washington D.C. after the violence, which happened to be Barton's home at the time. Wanting to serve her country, Barton went to the railroad station when the victims arrived and nursed 40 men. Barton provided crucial, personal assistance to the men in uniform, many of whom were wounded, hungry and without any supplies other than what they carried on their backs. She began helping them by personally taking supplies to the unfinished Capitol Building where the young men of the 6th Massachusetts Militia, who had been attacked in Baltimore, Maryland, were housed.

Barton quickly recognized them, as she had grown up with some of them, and some she had even taught. Barton, along with several other women, personally provided clothing, food, and supplies for the sick and wounded soldiers. She learned how to store and distribute medical supplies and offered emotional support to the soldiers by keeping their spirits high. She would read books to them, write letters to their families for them, talk to them, and support them.

It was on that day that she identified herself with army work and began her efforts towards collecting medical supplies for the Union soldiers. Prior to distributing provisions directly onto the battlefield and gaining further support, Barton used her own living quarters as a storeroom and distributed supplies with the help of a few friends in early 1862, despite opposition in the War Department and among field surgeons. Ladies' Aid societies helped in sending bandages, food, and clothing that would later be distributed during the Civil War. In August 1862, Barton finally gained permission from Quartermaster Daniel Rucker to work on the front lines. She gained support from other people who believed in her cause. These people became her patrons, her most supportive being Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts.

After the First Battle of Bull Run, Barton placed an ad in a Massachusetts newspaper for supplies; the response was a profound influx of supplies. She worked to distribute stores, clean field hospitals, apply dressings, and serve food to wounded soldiers in close proximity to several battles, including Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. Barton helped both Union and Confederate soldiers. Supplies were not always readily available though. At the battle of Antietam, for example, Barton used corn-husks in place of bandages.

In 1863 she began a romantic relationship with an officer, Colonel John J. Elwell.

In 1864, she was appointed by Union General Benjamin Butler as the "lady in charge" of the hospitals at the front of the Army of the James. Among her more harrowing experiences was an incident in which a bullet tore through the sleeve of her dress without striking her and killed a man to whom she was tending. She was known as the "Florence Nightingale of America". She was also known as the "Angel of the Battlefield" after she came to the aid of the overwhelmed surgeon on duty following the battle of Cedar Mountain in Northern Virginia in August 1862. She arrived at a field hospital at midnight with a large amount of supplies to help the severely wounded soldiers. This naming came from her frequent timely assistance as she served troops at the battles of Fairfax Station, Chantilly, Harpers Ferry, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Charleston, Petersburg and Cold Harbor.

Post American Civil War

After the end of the American Civil War, Barton discovered that thousands of letters from distraught relatives to the War Department were going unanswered because the soldiers they were questioning about were buried in unmarked graves. Many of these soldiers were labeled just as "missing". Motivated to do more about the situation, Miss Barton contacted President Lincoln in hopes that she would be allowed to respond officially to these unanswered inquiries. She was given permission, and "The Search for the Missing Men" commenced.

After the war, she ran the Office of Missing Soldiers, at 437½ Seventh Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. in the Gallery Place neighborhood. The office's purpose was to find or identify soldiers killed or missing in action. Barton and her assistants wrote 41,855 replies to inquiries and helped locate more than twenty-two thousand missing men. Barton spent the summer of 1865 helping find, identify, and properly bury 13,000 individuals who died in Andersonville prison camp, a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp in Georgia. She continued this task over the next four years, burying 20,000 more Union soldiers and marking their graves. Congress eventually appropriated $15,000 toward her project.

American Red Cross

Barton achieved widespread recognition by delivering lectures around the country about her war experiences in 1865-1868. During this time she met Susan B. Anthony and began an association with the woman's suffrage movement. She also became acquainted with Frederick Douglass and became an activist for civil rights. After her countrywide tour she was both mentally and physically exhausted and under doctor's orders to go somewhere that would take her far from her current work. She closed the Missing Soldiers Office in 1868 and traveled to Europe. In 1869, during her trip to Geneva, Switzerland, Barton was introduced to the Red Cross and Dr. Appia; he later would invite her to be the representative for the American branch of the Red Cross and help her find financial benefactors for the start of the American Red Cross. She was also introduced to Henry Dunant's book A Memory of Solferino, which called for the formation of national societies to provide relief voluntarily on a neutral basis.

At the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War, in 1870, she assisted the Grand Duchess of Baden in the preparation of military hospitals, and gave the Red Cross society much aid during the war. At the joint request of the German authorities and the Strasbourg Comité de Secours, she superintended the supplying of work to the poor of Strasbourg in 1871, after the Siege of Paris, and in 1871 had charge of the public distribution of supplies to the destitute people of Paris. At the close of the war, she received honorable decorations of the Golden Cross of Baden and the Prussian Iron Cross.

When Barton returned to the United States, she inaugurated a movement to gain recognition for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) by the United States government. In 1873, she began work on this project. In 1878, she met with President Rutherford B. Hayes, who expressed the opinion of most Americans at that time which was the U.S. would never again face a calamity like the Civil War. Barton finally succeeded during the administration of President Chester Arthur, using the argument that the new American Red Cross could respond to crises other than war such as natural disasters like earthquakes, forest fires, and hurricanes.

Barton became President of the American branch of the society, which held its first official meeting at her I Street apartment in Washington, DC, May 21, 1881. The first local society was founded August 22, 1881 in Dansville, Livingston County, New York, where she maintained a country home.

The society's role changed with the advent of the Spanish-American War during which it aided refugees and prisoners of the civil war. Once the Spanish-American War was over the grateful people of Santiago built a statue in honor of Barton in the town square, which still stands there today.

Domestically in 1884 she helped in the floods on the Ohio river, provided Texas with food and supplies during the famine of 1887 and took workers to Illinois in 1888 after a tornado and that same year to Florida for the yellow fever epidemic. Within days after the Johnstown Flood in 1889, she led her delegation of 50 doctors and nurses in response. In 1897, responding to the humanitarian crisis in the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of the Hamidian massacres, Barton sailed to Constantinople and after long negotiations with Abdul Hamid II, opened the first American International Red Cross headquarters in the heart of Turkey. Barton herself traveled along with five other Red Cross expeditions to the Armenian provinces in the spring of 1896, providing relief and humanitarian aid. Barton also worked in hospitals in Cuba in 1898 at the age of seventy-seven. Barton's last field operation as President of the American Red Cross was helping victims of the Galveston hurricane in 1900. The operation established an orphanage for children.

As criticism arose of her mixing professional and personal resources, Barton was forced to resign as president of the American Red Cross in 1904, at the age of 83 because of her egocentric leadership style fitting poorly into the formal structure of an organizational charity. She had been forced out of office by a new generation of all-male scientific experts who reflected the realistic efficiency of the Progressive Era rather than her idealistic humanitarianism. In memory of the courageous women of the civil war, the Red Cross Headquarters was founded. During the dedication, not one person said a word. This was done in order to honor the women and their services. After resigning, Barton founded the National First Aid Society.

Final years

She continued to live in her Glen Echo, Maryland home which also served as the Red Cross Headquarters upon her arrival to the house in 1897. Barton published her autobiography in 1907, titled The Story of My Childhood. On April 12, 1912 at the age of 90, she died in her home. The cause of death was pneumonia.

Religious beliefs

Although not formally a member of the Universalist Church of America, in a 1905 letter to the widow of Carl Norman Thrasher, she identified herself with her parents' church as a "Universalist".[35]

["] My dear friend and sister:

["] Your belief that I am a Universalist is as correct as your greater belief that you are one yourself, a belief in which all who are privileged to possess it rejoice. In my case, it was a great gift, like St. Paul, I "was born free", and saved the pain of reaching it through years of struggle and doubt.

["] My father was a leader in the building of the church in which Hosea Ballow preached his first dedication sermon. Your historic records will show that the old Huguenot town of Oxford, Mass. erected one of, if not the first Universalist Church in America. In this town I was born; in this church I was reared. In all its reconstructions and remodelings I have taken a part, and I look anxiously for a time in the near future when the busy world will let me once more become a living part of its people, praising God for the advance in the liberal faith of the religions of the world today, so largely due to the teachings of this belief.

["] Give, I pray you, dear sister, my warmest congratulations to the members of your society. My best wishes for the success of your annual meeting, and accept my thanks most sincerely for having written me.

["] Fraternally yours, (Signed) Clara Barton.["]

While she was not an active member of her parents' church, Barton wrote about how well known her family was in her hometown and how many relationships her father formed with others in their town through their church and religion.

Clara Barton National Historic Site

In 1975, the Clara Barton National Historic Site, located at 5801 Oxford Road, Glen Echo, Maryland, was established as a unit of the National Park Service at Barton's home, where she spent the last 15 years of her life. As the first National Historic Site dedicated to the accomplishments of a woman, it preserves the early history of the American Red Cross, since the home also served as an early headquarters of the organization. The North Oxford, Massachusetts, house in which she was born is now also a museum.

The National Park Service has restored eleven rooms, including the Red Cross offices, the parlors, and Barton's bedroom. Visitors to Clara Barton National Historic Site can gain a sense of how Barton lived and worked. Guides lead tourists through the three levels, emphasizing Barton's use of her unusual home. In 2018 the site was indefinitely closed due to repairs.

Clara Barton's Missing Soldiers Office

In 1869, Barton closed the Missing Soldiers Office and headed to Europe. The third floor of her old boardinghouse was boarded up in 1913, and the site forgotten. The site was "lost" in part because the city realigned its addressing system in the 1870s. The boardinghouse became 437½ Seventh Street Northwest (formerly 488½ Seventh Street West).

In 1997, General Services Administration carpenter Richard Lyons was hired to check out the building for its demolition. He found a treasure trove of Barton items in the attic, including signs, clothing, Civil War soldier's socks, an army tent, Civil War-era newspapers, and many documents relating to the Office of Missing Soldiers. This discovery led to the NPS saving the building from demolition. It took years, however, for the site to be restored. The Clara Barton's Missing Soldiers Office Museum, run by the National Museum of Civil War Medicine, opened in 2015. 
BARTON, Clara (I46641)
331 (1) "CLARK-SPURRIER - HOWARD-BURJES - Family Tree," a Public Member Tree on

(2) Essex P. "FROST" is listed in a household headed by his step-father, John B. FROST, in the 1870 census of South Carrollton Precinct, Muhlenberg County, KY.

Essex P. is listed in the 1870 census as a farmer who was then 19 years of age; therefore, according to the 1870 census, he was born in about 1851. According to the 1870 census, he was born in KY. Although Essex P.'s surname is listed as FROST in the 1870 census, the compiler believes that Essex P.'s surname was really SPURRIER.


Essex Spurrier
Birth: Jan. 2, 1851
Death: Jun. 8, 1926

Family links: Children: Bjarne Harry Spurrier (1884 - 1957)

Note: With Pauline

Burial: Lee-Dodds Cemetery, Lyon County, Kentucky, USA

Created by: Kathy Thompson
Record added: Jul 07, 2008
Find A Grave Memorial# 28102818 
SPURRIER, Essex Pike Jr. (I30098)
332 (1) "CLARK-SPURRIER - HOWARD-BURJES - Family Tree," a Public Member Tree on


Pauline Spurrier
Birth: Mar. 4, 1854
Death: Oct. 7, 1926

Family links: Children: Bjarne Harry Spurrier (1884 - 1957)

Note: With Essex

Burial: Lee-Dodds Cemetery, Lyon County, Kentucky, USA

Created by: Kathy Thompson
Record added: Jul 07, 2008
Find A Grave Memorial# 28102825 
NEWMAN, Pauline (I30099)
333 (1) "CLARK-SPURRIER - HOWARD-BURJES - Family Tree," a Public Member Tree on EVANS, Sarah Jane (I30083)
334 (1) "CLARK-SPURRIER - HOWARD-BURJES - Family Tree," a Public Member Tree on SPURRIER, Dr. Essex Pike Sr. (I30094)
335 (1) "CLARK-SPURRIER - HOWARD-BURJES - Family Tree," a Public Member Tree on SPURRIER, Elizabeth S. (I30095)
336 (1) "CLARK-SPURRIER - HOWARD-BURJES - Family Tree," a Public Member Tree on SPURRIER, William T. (I30096)
337 (1) "CLARK-SPURRIER - HOWARD-BURJES - Family Tree," a Public Member Tree on SPURRIER, David Evans (I30097)
338 (1) "Col Samuel Brewer" :

Col Samuel Brewer was born on 4 November 1716 in Framingham, MA, under the name Bruer. He was the son of Jonathan Brewer and Arabella Goulding. Col Samuel Brewer married Martha Bent, daughter of John Bent and Hannah Rice, on 10 March 1740/41 in Framingham, MA (literally 1740).

Col Samuel Brewer and Martha Bent resided after 1744 in Rutland, MA. Col Samuel Brewer was in the military in 1775 serving as Adjutant General under Gen. Thomas in 1775. He was wounded at the battle of Bunker Hill. He was commissioned a colonel in the 12th Mass. regiment, 1777 Jan 1, and served at Stillwater and at Albany later that year. He was cashiered 1778 Sep 29.

Father: Jonathan Brewer
Mother: Arabella Goulding

Children of Col Samuel Brewer and Martha Bent:

• Jason Brewer
• Martha Brewer
• Lucy Brewer
• Nathan Brewer
• John Brewer
• Abigail Brewer
• Samuel Brewer
• Eliab Brewer

© Copyright 2002, 2019 by the Edmund Rice (1638) Association. 
BREWER, Col. Samuel (I46681)
339 (1) "Damaris Eager" :

Damaris Eager was born on 1 September 1707. She married Jaazaniah How, son of John How and Deliverance Rice.

Children of Damaris Eager and Jaazaniah How:

• Joel How
• Hephzibah How
• Elijah How
• Jacob How
• Jaazaniah How

© Copyright 2002, 2019 by the Edmund Rice (1638) Association. 
EAGER, Damaris (I46660)
340 (1) "Daniel Chester French," Encyclopædia Brittanica, 2010, © 2010 Encyclopædia Brittanica, Inc.:

Daniel Chester French, (b. April 20, 1850, Exeter, N.H., U.S. - d. Oct. 7, 1931, Stockbridge, Mass.), sculptor whose work is probably more familiar to a wider American audience than that of any other native sculptor.

French's first important commission, which came from the town of Concord, Mass., was the statue "The Minute Man" (1875), commemorating the Concord fight 100 years earlier. It became the symbol for defense bonds, stamps, and posters of World War II. French's great marble, the seated Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C., was dedicated in 1922. In the intervening 50 years he created a vast number of works on American subjects. Among these are the equestrian statues of General Ulysses S. Grant in Philadelphia and General George Washington in Paris; three pairs of bronze doors for the Boston Public Library; the "Standing Lincoln," Lincoln, Neb.; the statue of Ralph Waldo Emerson in the public library, Concord, Mass.; the "Alma Mater" at Columbia University; and the "Four Continents" at the New York City customhouse.


Daniel Chester French
Birth: Apr. 20, 1850
Death: Oct. 7, 1931

Sculptor. His two most famous statues are the bronze "The Minuteman" (1875) in Concord, MA, and the marble statue of Abraham Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC (1922).

Family links: Spouse: Mary French (1859 - 1939)

Burial: Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Concord, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, USA

Maintained by: Find A Grave
Record added: Jan 01, 2001
Find A Grave Memorial# 366 
FRENCH, Daniel Chester (I15304)
341 (1) "Daniel Defoe," Encyclopædia Brittanica, 2010, © 2010 Encyclopædia Brittanica, Inc.:

Daniel Defoe, (b. 1660, London, Eng. - d. April 24, 1731, London), English novelist, pamphleteer, and journalist, author of Robinson Crusoe (1719-22) and Moll Flanders (1722).

Early life.

Defoe's father, James Foe, was a hard-working and fairly prosperous tallow chandler (perhaps also, later, a butcher), of Flemish descent. By his middle 30s, Daniel was calling himself "Defoe," probably reviving a variant of what may have been the original family name. As a Nonconformist, or Dissenter, Foe could not send his son to the University of Oxford or to Cambridge; he sent him instead to the excellent academy at Newington Green kept by the Reverend Charles Morton. There Defoe received an education in many ways better, and certainly broader, than any he would have had at an English university. Morton was an admirable teacher, later becoming first vice president of Harvard College; and the clarity, simplicity, and ease of his style of writing - together with the Bible, the works of John Bunyan, and the pulpit oratory of the day - may have helped to form Defoe's own literary style.

Although intended for the Presbyterian ministry, Defoe decided against this and by 1683 had set up as a merchant. He called trade his "beloved subject," and it was one of the abiding interests of his life. He dealt in many commodities, traveled widely at home and abroad, and became an acute and intelligent economic theorist, in many respects ahead of his time; but misfortune, in one form or another, dogged him continually. He wrote of himself:

No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.

It was true enough. In 1692, after prospering for a while, Defoe went bankrupt for £17,000. Opinions differ as to the cause of his collapse: on his own admission, Defoe was apt to indulge in rash speculations and projects; he may not always have been completely scrupulous, and he later characterized himself as one of those tradesmen who had "done things which their own principles condemned, which they are not ashamed to blush for." But undoubtedly the main reason for his bankruptcy was the loss that he sustained in insuring ships during the war with France - he was one of 19 "merchants insurers" ruined in 1692. In this matter Defoe may have been incautious, but he was not dishonourable, and he dealt fairly with his creditors (some of whom pursued him savagely), paying off all but £5,000 within 10 years. He suffered further severe losses in 1703, when his prosperous brick-and-tile works near Tilbury failed during his imprisonment for political offenses, and he did not actively engage in trade after this time.

Soon after setting up in business, in 1684, Defoe married Mary Tuffley, the daughter of a well-to-do Dissenting merchant. Not much is known about her, and he mentions her little in his writings, but she seems to have been a loyal, capable, and devoted wife. She bore eight children, of whom six lived to maturity, and when Defoe died the couple had been married for 47 years.

Mature life and works.

With Defoe's interest in trade went an interest in politics. The first of many political pamphlets by him appeared in 1683. When the Roman Catholic James II ascended the throne in 1685, Defoe - as a staunch Dissenter and with characteristic impetuosity - joined the ill-fated rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth, managing to escape after the disastrous Battle of Sedgemoor. Three years later James had fled to France, and Defoe rode to welcome the army of William of Orange - "William, the Glorious, Great, and Good, and Kind," as Defoe was to call him. Throughout William III's reign, Defoe supported him loyally, becoming his leading pamphleteer. In 1701, in reply to attacks on the "foreign" king, Defoe published his vigorous and witty poem The True-Born Englishman, an enormously popular work that is still very readable and relevant in its exposure of the fallacies of racial prejudice. Defoe was clearly proud of this work, because he sometimes designated himself "Author of 'The True-Born Englishman'" in later works.

Foreign politics also engaged Defoe's attention. Since the Treaty of Rijswijk (1697), it had become increasingly probable that what would, in effect, be a European war would break out as soon as the childless king of Spain died. In 1701 five gentlemen of Kent presented a petition, demanding greater defense preparations, to the House of Commons (then Tory-controlled) and were illegally imprisoned. Next morning Defoe, "guarded with about 16 gentlemen of quality," presented the speaker, Robert Harley, with his famous document "Legion's Memorial," which reminded the Commons in outspoken terms that "Englishmen are no more to be slaves to Parliaments than to a King." It was effective: the Kentishmen were released, and Defoe was feted by the citizens of London. It had been a courageous gesture and one of which Defoe was ever afterward proud, but it undoubtedly branded him in Tory eyes as a dangerous man who must be brought down.

What did bring him down, only a year or so later, and consequently led to a new phase in his career, was a religious question - though it is difficult to separate religion from politics in this period. Both Dissenters and "Low Churchmen" were mainly Whigs, and the "highfliers" - the High-Church Tories - were determined to undermine this working alliance by stopping the practice of "occasional conformity" (by which Dissenters of flexible conscience could qualify for public office by occasionally taking the sacraments according to the established church). Pressure on the Dissenters increased when the Tories came to power, and violent attacks were made on them by such rabble-rousing extremists as Dr. Henry Sacheverell. In reply, Defoe wrote perhaps the most famous and skillful of all his pamphlets, "The Shortest-Way With The Dissenters" (1702), published anonymously. His method was ironic: to discredit the highfliers by writing as if from their viewpoint but reducing their arguments to absurdity. The pamphlet had a huge sale, but the irony blew up in Defoe's face: Dissenters and High Churchmen alike took it seriously, and - though for different reasons - were furious when the hoax was exposed. Defoe was prosecuted for seditious libel and was arrested in May 1703. The advertisement offering a reward for his capture gives the only extant personal description of Defoe - an unflattering one, which annoyed him considerably: "a middle-size spare man, about 40 years old, of a brown complexion, and dark-brown coloured hair, but wears a wig, a hooked nose, a sharp chin, grey eyes, and a large mole near his mouth." Defoe was advised to plead guilty and rely on the court's mercy, but he received harsh treatment, and, in addition to being fined, was sentenced to stand three times in the pillory. It is likely that the prosecution was primarily political, an attempt to force him into betraying certain Whig leaders; but the attempt was evidently unsuccessful. Although miserably apprehensive of his punishment, Defoe had spirit enough, while awaiting his ordeal, to write the audacious "Hymn To The Pillory" (1703); and this helped to turn the occasion into something of a triumph, with the pillory garlanded, the mob drinking his health, and the poem on sale in the streets. In An Appeal to Honour and Justice (1715), he gave his own, self-justifying account of these events and of other controversies in his life as a writer.

Triumph or not, Defoe was led back to Newgate, and there he remained while his Tilbury business collapsed and he became ever more desperately concerned for the welfare of his already numerous family. He appealed to Robert Harley, who, after many delays, finally secured his release - Harley's part of the bargain being to obtain Defoe's services as a pamphleteer and intelligence agent.

Defoe certainly served his masters with zeal and energy, traveling extensively, writing reports, minutes of advice, and pamphlets. He paid several visits to Scotland, especially at the time of the Act of Union in 1707, keeping Harley closely in touch with public opinion. Some of Defoe's letters to Harley from this period have survived. These trips bore fruit in a different way two decades later: in 1724-26 the three volumes of Defoe's animated and informative Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain were published, in preparing which he drew on many of his earlier observations.

Perhaps Defoe's most remarkable achievement during Queen Anne's reign, however, was his periodical, the Review. He wrote this serious, forceful, and long-lived paper practically single-handedly from 1704 to 1713. At first a weekly, it became a thrice-weekly publication in 1705, and Defoe continued to produce it even when, for short periods in 1713, his political enemies managed to have him imprisoned again on various pretexts. It was, effectively, the main government organ, its political line corresponding with that of the moderate Tories (though Defoe sometimes took an independent stand); but, in addition to politics as such, Defoe discussed current affairs in general, religion, trade, manners, morals, and so on, and his work undoubtedly had a considerable influence on the development of later essay periodicals (such as Richard Steele and Joseph Addison's The Tatler and The Spectator) and of the newspaper press.

Later life and works.

With George I's accession (1714), the Tories fell. The Whigs in their turn recognized Defoe's value, and he continued to write for the government of the day and to carry out intelligence work. At about this time, too (perhaps prompted by a severe illness), he wrote the best known and most popular of his many didactic works, The Family Instructor (1715). The writings so far mentioned, however, would not necessarily have procured literary immortality for Defoe; this he achieved when in 1719 he turned his talents to an extended work of prose fiction and (drawing partly on the memoirs of voyagers and castaways such as Alexander Selkirk) produced Robinson Crusoe. A German critic has called it a "world-book," a label justified not only by the enormous number of translations, imitations, and adaptations that have appeared but by the almost mythic power with which Defoe creates a hero and a situation with which every reader can in some sense identify.

Here (as in his works of the remarkable year 1722, which saw the publication of Moll Flanders, A Journal of the Plague Year, and Colonel Jack) Defoe displays his finest gift as a novelist - his insight into human nature. The men and women he writes about are all, it is true, placed in unusual circumstances; they are all, in one sense or another, solitaries; they all struggle, in their different ways, through a life that is a constant scene of jungle warfare; they all become, to some extent, obsessive. They are also ordinary human beings, however, and Defoe, writing always in the first person, enters into their minds and analyzes their motives. His novels are given verisimilitude by their matter-of-fact style and their vivid concreteness of detail; the latter may seem unselective, but it effectively helps to evoke a particular, circumscribed world. Their main defects are shapelessness, an overinsistent moralizing, occasional gaucheness, and naiveté. Defoe's range is narrow, but within that range he is a novelist of considerable power, and his plain, direct style, as in almost all of his writing, holds the reader's interest.

In 1724 he published his last major work of fiction, Roxana, though in the closing years of his life, despite failing health, he remained active and enterprising as a writer.


A man of many talents and author of an extraordinary range and number of works, Defoe remains in many ways an enigmatic figure. A man who made many enemies, he has been accused of double-dealing, of dishonest or equivocal conduct, of venality. Certainly in politics he served in turn both Tory and Whig; he acted as a secret agent for the Tories and later served the Whigs by "infiltrating" extremist Tory journals and toning them down. But Defoe always claimed that the end justified the means, and a more sympathetic view may see him as what he always professed to be, an unswerving champion of moderation. At the age of 59 Defoe embarked on what was virtually a new career, producing in Robinson Crusoe the first of a remarkable series of novels and other fictional writings that resulted in his being called the father of the English novel.

Defoe's last years were clouded by legal controversies over allegedly unpaid bonds dating back a generation, and it is thought that he died in hiding from his creditors. His character Moll Flanders, born in Newgate Prison, speaks of poverty as "a frightful spectre," and it is a theme of many of his books.

Reginald P.C. Mutter

(2) The inscription on the monument at Daniel DEFOE's grave at Bunhill Fields Burial Ground, London, England, reads as follows:

BORN 1661.
DIED 1731.

See the photograph of the monument at

(3) Novak, Maximillian E., Daniel Defoe, Master of Fictions, New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc., 2001, pp. 20-21, 73, 92:

Like so much in Defoe's life, the exact place and date of his birth are uncertain. The place was probably the London parish of St Giles Cripplegate and the date some time in 1660. The parish registers of St Giles Cripplegate list the birth of his two sisters in a distinct manner. In the list for 1657 there appears:

Mary daught' of James Foe Tallowchandler & of Ailce Not christened but borne November 13.

And for 1659:

Elizab' daugt' of James Foe tallowchand' & of Ailce not Christe: borne June 19.

By the time Defoe was born, the recorders had renamed to the custom of including only baptisms rather than births, and like his sisters, Defoe was not baptized. . . . At any rate, the birth of Elizabeth in June of 1659 makes some date in 1660, anywhere from late spring to the end of the year, a likely time for the birth of Daniel.

Why were he and his sisters unbaptized? Since the family's religious sympathies were with the Presbyterians, what would cause them to take such a decision? Samuel Annesley, whom Defoe was to eulogize in a poem after his death, was the minister at St Giles Cripplegate church, and it has sometimes been thought that the Foe family attended his sermons after he was ejected from his place following the Restoration settlement. But Annesley allowed his children to be baptized. Defoe's biographer, Frank Bastian, has made the ingenious suggestion that Alice Foe may have been a Quaker. He rightly suggests how rare the entry 'not christened' was in the parish registers, and connects Defoe's interest in the Quakers with their attitudes toward baptism to arrive at what might seem like a plausible explanation.

Bastian may be correct, but he provides no real evidence for his conjecture. . . .

On the first day of January 1684 Daniel Foe married Mary Tuffley, the only daughter of John Tuffley and his wife, Joan, formerly Joan Rawlins. Tuflley was a cooper, and Defoe may have become acquainted with him and his family in connection with one of his major business activities - buying, selling, and importing wines. The event took place at St Botolph Aldgate, a parish church located just outside the 'bars' marking the limits of the old city of London and not very far from where Defoe's uncle, Henry Foe, had lived in his spacious house with six chimneys. They were married more than a year after Defoe had presented Mary with his gift of 'Historical Collections'. The manuscript at the Clark Library is bound in a white vellum embossed with green and gold. Whether this was in any way connected with the original binding is impossible to determine. Pages seem to have been added in the nineteenth century, but it would certainly have been the kind of decorative volume that an 'Adorer', such as Defoe professed himself to be, might have presented to the woman he wished to marry.

In that work, Defoe quoted one wise man on the folly of marrying young, but Mary was just 20 and Daniel about 24, young for someone just beginning his career as a merchant. The equivalent of the modern marriage licence had been obtained on 28 December 1683 and appears in the Allegations for Marriage Licences issued by the Vicar-General of the Archbishop of Canterbury as follows:

Daniel Foe, of St. Michaell, Cornehill, Lond., Merchant, Bachelor, about 24, & Mrs. Mary Tuffley, of St. Bottolph's, Aldgate, Lond., Spinster, about 20, with consent of her Father; alleged by Charles Lodwick, of St. Michaell's aforesaid; at St. Bottolph's aforesaid, St. Lawrence, Jewry, or St. Giles, Cripplegate, London. . . .
Although the next few years were to bring some genuine pleasures, they were certainly mixed with the anxieties of family life and the uncertainties of business. But on that day in October, Defoe must have seen before him the prospect of a brilliant future. He was 29. His wife, Mary, had either just given birth to their second daughter, Maria, or was pregnant with her. On the other hand, Defoe's excitement over the successful invasion by William of Orange, now William III, ruling jointly with his wife, Queen Mary, would certainly have been tempered by his grief over the death of his first child. On 7 September 1688, he had buried Mary in the parish church of St Michael Cornhill. . . .

So little is known of Defoe's children that his biographers tend to avoid the subject. James Sutherland, wonderful scholar that he was, limited himself to a discussion of the supposed illegitimacy of Benjamin Norton Defoe, who was probably Defoe's third child, concluding that Defoe's sins were probably 'not those of the flesh' and that the charge, coming from the unreliable Richard Savage, was doubtful. The little that we know is that Defoe had eight children in all: Mary, Maria, Hannah, Benjamin, Henrietta, Daniel, Margaret, and, finally, Sophia, in December 1701.

(4) Johnston, George, History of Cecil County, Maryland [reprint], Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., 1972, pp. 526-529:


Written expressly for the History of Cecil County by Mrs. Mary E. Ireland.

[Note by compiler: The compiler has not verified the following information.]

WHILE many perhaps can boast of celebrated ancestors, few can trace back to a more distinguished source than the Trimble's; they being lineal descendants of Elizabeth, niece of Daniel Defoe.

From Elizabeth, who came from England in 1718, down to her relatives of the present day, all the family with a few exceptions have lived within two miles of Brick Meetinghouse, Cecil County, Maryland; all worshiped in the meetinghouse which gave the village its original name, and all, when called upon to pay the debt of nature, have been brought for interment to the burial-ground attached to this meetinghouse.

In order to explain how it it was that Elizabeth, neice of Daniel Defoe, and ancestor of the Trimble family, happened to settle in this part of the New World, it will be necessary, to go back to the year 1705, when Daniel Defoe, on account of his persistent writing upon the exciting subjects of the times, was compelled to seek an asylum under the roof of his widowed sister, Elizabeth Maxwell, in the city of London.

Three years before, he had sent forth his, "Shortest Way with Dissenters," for which he had suffered the pillory, fine, and imprisonment. It was on account of this article that the government offered £50 for the discovery of his hiding place. The proclamation as tradition informs us, was worded very nearly thus:

"Whereas Daniel Defoe, alias De Fooe, is charged with writing a scandalous and seditious pamphlet, entitled the 'Shortest Way with Dissenters.' (He is a middled-sized, spare man, about forty years old, of brown complexion and dark brown colored hair, but wears a wig; a hook nose, sharp chin, gray eyes, and a large mole near his mouth; was born in London, and for many years was a hose-factor in Frogman's yard, Cornhill, and now is owner of the brick and pantile works near Tilbury Fort in Essex;) whoever shall discover the said Daniel Defoe to one of Her Majesty's Secretaries of State, or any of Her Majesty's justices' of the peace, so he may be apprehended, shall have a reward of ??50, which Her Majesty has ordered immediately to be paid upon such discovery."

On his release he was again imprisoned for his political pamphlets, and through the influence of Lord Oxford, was again liberated; but in his sister's house, secure from his political and pecuniary assailants, he continued to send forth his barbed arrows with impunity. A small room in the rear of the building was fitted up for his private study, and it was there that his sister's only daughter (named for herself, Elizabeth), who was five years of age when her uncle came to live with them, received her education under his teaching; and it was there that " Robinson Crusoe" was written, one year after his niece had left her home and him. Perhaps the comparative isolation he endured suggested the wonderful narrative to his mind.

The Defoe's were all members of the Society of Friends, and attended a meeting designated by the odd name of "Bull and Mouth," which was often mentioned in the early annals of the society.

At eighteen, Elizabeth contracted a matrimonial engagement, which was peremptorily broken off by her mother. This caused an alienation from all her friends, and she privately left her home and embarked for America. Being without funds, she bargained with the captain to be sold on her arrival, to reimburse him for her passage. Accordingly, in the autumn of that year she, with a number of others, was offered for sale in Philadelphia, and Andrew Job, a resident of Nottingham, now in Cecil County, Maryland, happening to be in the city at the time, bought her for a term of years, and brought her to his home.

In 1725 Elizabeth Maxwell became the wife of Thomas Job, son of Andrew, and now being happily settled, she wrote to her mother and uncle, giving them the first information of her whereabouts. As soon as possible a letter came from her uncle, stating that her mother was dead, and that, a large property, in addition to her mother's furniture, had been left to her by will, in case she should ever be found alive. An inventory of the goods sent accompanied the letter, and especial attention was solicited for the preservation of such articles as he had used in his private study, "as they had descended to the family from their Flemish ancestors, who sought refuge under the banner of Queen Elizabeth from the tyranny of Phillipe." He also apologized for the condition of two chairs, the wicker-seats of which he had worn out and replaced by wooden ones. One of these chairs is in the possession of James Trimble, and the other, which belonged to his brother Joseph, was after his death, presented by James to the Historical Society of Delaware, in Wilmington, because it was in that city that the last thirty years of the business part of Joseph Trimble's life was spent.

All the letters received from her uncle were carefully preserved by Elizabeth until her death which occurred on the 7th of September, 1782, at the age of eighty-two. One of her grandsons, Daniel Defoe Job, living near her, was almost constantly in her society. She took delight in relating recollections of her early days; of how she used to bother her uncle, meddling with his papers, until he would expel her from his study.

Daniel spoke of his grandmother as a little, old, yellow looking woman, passionately fond of flowers, and retaining her activity of mind and body until the close of her life. 
DEFOE, Daniel Sr. (I19008)
342 (1) "Daniel Williams Sr. (1710 - bef. 1759)" :

Daniel Williams Sr.

Born 28 Sep 1710 in New Kent County, Colony of Virginia

Son of John Williams Sr. and Mary (Keeling) Williams

Brother of John Williams Jr, Mary (Williams) Graves, Anne (Williams) Daniel, Nathaniel Williams, Elizabeth (Williams) Henderson, Sarah (Williams) Castello and Joseph Williams

Husband of Ursula (Henderson) Reid - married 19 Oct 1732 in Hanover, Colony of Virginia

Father of Marya Marie (Williams) Goodman, Henry Williams, John Williams, James Henderson Williams, Joseph Williams, Mary (Williams) Satterwhite, Elisha Williams and Daniel Williams Jr.

Died before 18 Dec 1759 in Granville, North Carolina

Profile manager: Jeanne Aloia

Profile last modified 18 Jan 2019 | Created 10 Mar 2011 . . .


Daniel Williams was born 28 Sep 1710, the fourth child and second son of Jonathan Williams and Mary Keeling, when his father was 31 and his mother 26.

Daniel married Ursula Clark Henderson on 19 Oct 1732. Even when various sources agree on the children of Daniel & Ursula, there are at least three different sets of dates attributed for their births, none varying more than three years. These dates are taken from Scott K. Williams' research:

1. Maria Williams (spelled "Merya" in father's will), b. 26 Jul 1733, m. Benjamin Goodman

2. Henry Williams, b. 03 Nov 1734, m. 1771 to Elizabeth ____, d. 1796 in Caswell Co., NC

3. John Williams, b. 04 Nov 1737, m1. Mary Atwood, m2. Anna Maria Gooch (spelled "Gouge" in transcribed will at SC State Archives) widow of Jospeh Minter, d. 1794 in Edgefield County, SC

4. Col. James Henderson Williams, b. 10 Nov 1740, m. 1762 to Mary Wallace, d. 08 Oct 1780 at Battle of Kings Mt., Gaston Co., NC

5. Col. Joseph Williams, b. 06 Sep 1742, m. Sarah Lanier, d. 03 Jun 1766 in Orange Co., NC

6. Mary Williams, b. 30 May 1745, m. Isaac Mitchell

7. Daniel Williams, Jr., b. 02 Jul 1747, m. 30 Jul 1765 to Ann Henderson (1st cousin) See Daniel Jr.'s profile for disputed date of birth/marriage.

Daniel and Ursula's children left few tracks. Two of their sons, John and his brother James, made a mark in their country's history and in their heritage as Continental soldiers. Daniel died long before James was killed in the Battle of Kings Mountain in October 1780, and we don't know if Ursula was still living then or not.

Daniel's will indicates he was a man of some means for the times, although it, like most wills of the era make little to no mention of cash money. Assets were primarily in slaves, livestock, acreage and crops. He owned in excess of 2,550 acres around Granville Co., NC, 23 slaves, a tobacco crop, cattle, horses, sheep and hogs.

Granville Co., NC Land Grants for Daniel:

nr.1036 - 420 acres, Grant 27, Issued 4 Nov 1757, GB 14, p.96. Located on Andrew's Swamp

nr.1037 - 292 acres, Grant 26, Issued on the same day, same book, p.97. On the East side of Andrew's Swamp

Halifax Co., VA, Deed Book 7, p.320:

1 Nov 1768. Thomas Tunstall of Halifax to William Nunn of King & Queen Co, for 90£. 400 acres, the upper part of tract patented 10 Apr 1751 to William Irby & by him sold to Daniel Williams who devised [by his will] the same to be equally divided between his sons James & Joseph Williams. The same was conveyed by Joseph Williams to Thomas Tunstall by deed in Halifax.

Ruth, wife of Thomas Tunstall, relinquished dower

Recorded 19 Jan 1769.

- From post to NCCASWEL, Rootsweb mail list, 1 Sep 2005 by E.W.Wallace.


Birth place variously listed as: New Kent Co., VA, or Hanover Co., VA (which was created in 1719 from New Kent Co.), or Prince Edward Co., VA (which is doubtful based on other data for this Daniel Williams).

Death date variously listed as: 15 Nov 1759 or before 15 Nov 1757 in Granville Co., NC. Daniel died between 15 Nov 1759 when his will was signed, and 18 Dec 1759 when it was proved in court.


Daniel's will was filed in Granville Co., NC; dated November 15, 1759; Probated December 18, 1759, Granville Co., NC [Note: Early Granville wills were filed in Raleigh County, NC]. His will shows that he owned land in both Virginia and North Carolina. His bequeaths included land:

To his son-in-law Benjamin Goodman: 200 acres of land being land he now lives on bounded by Trents line the path so far as to include the said two hundred acres with a west line running from said Bridge or Ridge Path to Capt. Mitchel's line

To his son John Williams: 350 acres by estimation it being the land I purchased of Richard Bullock

To sons James Williams and Joseph Williams: 800 acres of land lying in Halifax Co, VA to be equally divided

To son James Williams: 400 acre tract piece or parcel of land on Anderson Swamp

To son Joseph Williams: 400 acre tract piece or parcel of land lying on Hero Road and on the branches of Island Creek

To son Daniel Williams: 400 acres of land the same being the land and plantation where I now live

He named his wife Ursula Executrix, and his sons John and Executors. Witnesses were Luke Waldrup and William Sims.


Daniel Williams
Birth: 28 Sep 1710, Hanover County, Virginia, USA
Death: Dec 1759 (aged 49), Granville County, North Carolina, USA
Burial: Unknown

Family Members: Parents: Jonathon Drayton Williams (1679-1755), Mary Ann Keeling Williams (1684-1755); Spouse: Ursula Clark Henderson Williams (1710-1765, m. 1732); Children: John Williams (1737-1794), Brigadier General James Henderson Williams (1740-1780), Elisha Williams (1747-Unknown); Siblings: Nathaniel Williams (1712-1766), Elizabeth Williams Henderson (1714-1790)

Created by: James Real
Added: 8 Aug 2015
Find A Grave Memorial: 150360540 
WILLIAMS, Daniel I (I46047)
343 (1) "Davy Crockett," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

David "Davy" Crockett (August 17, 1786 - March 6, 1836) was a 19th-century American folk hero, frontiersman, soldier, and politician. He is commonly referred to in popular culture by the epithet "King of the Wild Frontier". He represented Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives and served in the Texas Revolution.

Crockett grew up in East Tennessee, where he gained a reputation for hunting and storytelling. After being made a colonel in the militia of Lawrence County, Tennessee, he was elected to the Tennessee state legislature in 1821. In 1825, Crockett was elected to the U.S. Congress, where he vehemently opposed many of the policies of President Andrew Jackson, most notably the Indian Removal Act. Crockett's opposition to Jackson's policies led to his defeat in the 1831 elections. He won again in 1833, then narrowly lost in 1835, prompting his angry departure to Texas (then the Mexican state of Tejas) shortly thereafter. In early 1836, Crockett took part in the Texas Revolution and was killed at the Battle of the Alamo in March.

Crockett became famous in his own lifetime for larger-than-life exploits popularized by stage plays and almanacs. After his death, he continued to be credited with acts of mythical proportion. These led in the 20th century to television and movie portrayals, and he became one of the best-known American folk heroes.

Family and early life

The Crocketts were of Irish, English, Scottish and French-Huguenot ancestry. The earliest known paternal ancestor was Gabriel Gustave de Crocketagne, whose son Antoine de Saussure Peronette de Crocketagne was given a commission in the Household Troops under French King Louis XIV. Antoine married Louise de Saix and immigrated to Ireland with her, changing the family name to Crockett. Their son Joseph Louis was born in Ireland and married Sarah Stewart. Joseph and Sarah immigrated to New York, where their son William David was born in 1709. He married Elizabeth Boulay. William and Elizabeth's son David was born in Pennsylvania and married Elizabeth Hedge. They were the parents of William, David Jr., Robert, Alexander, James, Joseph and John, the father of David Crockett who died at the Alamo.

John was born c. 1753 in Frederick County, Virginia. The family moved to Tryon County, North Carolina c. 1768. In 1776, the family moved to northeast Tennessee, in the area now known as Hawkins County. John was one of the Overmountain Men who fought in the Battle of Kings Mountain during the American Revolutionary War. While John was away as a militia volunteer in 1777, David and Elizabeth were killed at their home near today's Rogersville by Creeks and Chickamauga Cherokees led by war chief Dragging Canoe. John's brother Joseph was wounded in the skirmish. His brother James was taken prisoner and held for seventeen years.

John married Rebecca Hawkins in 1780. When their son David was born August 17, 1786, they named him after John's father. David was born in what is now Greene County, Tennessee (at the time part of North Carolina), close to the Nolichucky River, near the community of Limestone. John continually struggled to make ends meet, and in 1792, the Crocketts moved to a tract of land on Lick Creek. Selling that tract of land in 1794, John moved the family to Cove Creek and built a gristmill with partner Thomas Galbraith. A flood destroyed the gristmill and the Crockett homestead. In 1792, the Crocketts moved to Mossy Creek in Jefferson County. John forfeited his property in bankruptcy in 1795. The Crocketts moved on to property owned by a Quaker by the name of John Canady. At Morristown in the Southwest Territory, John built a tavern on a stage coach route.

When David was 12 years old, his father indentured him to Jacob Siler to help with the Crockett family indebtedness. David helped tend Siler's cattle as a buckaroo on a 400-mile trip to near Natural Bridge in Virginia. He was well treated and paid for his services, but after several weeks in Virginia decided to return home to Tennessee. The next year, John enrolled his sons in school. After an altercation with a fellow student, David played hookey from school. Upon learning of this, John attempted to whip David but was outrun by his son. David joined a cattle drive to Front Royal, Virginia for Jesse Cheek. Upon completion of that trip, he joined teamster Adam Myers on a trip to Gerrardstown, West Virginia. In between trips with Myers, he worked for farmer John Gray. After leaving Myers, he journeyed to Christiansburg, where he apprenticed for the next four years with hatter Elijah Griffith.

In 1802 he journeyed by foot back to his father's tavern in Tennessee. His father was in debt to Abraham Wilson for $36, so David was hired out to Wilson to pay off the debt. Later, Crockett worked off a $40 debt to John Canady. Once the debts were paid, John Crockett told his son he was free to leave. David returned to Canady's employment, where he stayed for four years.

Marriages and children

Crockett fell in love with John Canady's niece Amy Summer, who was unavailable to him due to her engagement to Canady's son Robert. While serving as part of the wedding party, Crockett met Margaret Elder. He persuaded her to marry him, and a marriage contract was drawn up on October 21, 1805. Margaret had also become engaged to another young man at the same time and married him instead.

He met Polly Finley and her mother Jean at a harvest festival. Although friendly towards him in the beginning, Jean Finley eventually felt Crockett was not the man for her daughter. Crockett declared his intentions to marry Polly, regardless of whether the ceremony was allowed to take place in her parents home or had to be performed elsewhere. He arranged for a justice of the peace and took out a marriage license on August 12, 1806. On August 16, he rode to Polly's house with family and friends, determined to ride off with Polly to be married elsewhere. Polly's father pleaded with Crockett to have the wedding in the Finley home. Crockett agreed only after Jean apologized for her past treatment of him.

The newlyweds settled on land near Polly's parents, and their first child, John Wesley Crockett, who became a United States Congressman, was born July 10, 1807. Their second child, William Finley Crockett, was born November 25, 1808. In October 1811, the family relocated to Lincoln County. Their third child Margaret Finley (Polly) Crockett was born on November 25, 1812. The Crocketts then moved to Franklin County in 1813. He named the new home on Beans Creek "Kentuck." His wife Polly died in March 1815, and Crockett asked his brother John and his sister-in-law to move in with him to help care for the children. That same year, he married the widow Elizabeth Patton, who had a daughter, Margaret Ann, and a son, George. David and Elizabeth's son, Robert Patton, was born September 16, 1816. Daughter Rebecca Elvira was born December 25, 1818. Daughter Matilda was born August 2, 1821.

Tennessee militia

Andrew Jackson was appointed major general of the Tennessee militia in 1802. The Fort Mims massacre near Mobile, Mississippi Territory, on August 30, 1813, became a rallying cry for the Creek War. On September 20, Crockett left his family and enlisted as a scout for an initial term of 90 days with Francis Jones's Company of Mounted Rifleman, part of the Second Regiment of Volunteer Mounted Riflemen. They served under Colonel John Coffee in the war, marching south into present-day Alabama and taking an active part in the fighting. Crockett often hunted wild game for the soldiers, and felt better suited to that role than the killing of Creek warriors and families. He served until December 24, 1813.

The War of 1812 was being waged concurrently with the Creek War. After the Treaty of Fort Jackson in August 1814, Andrew Jackson, now with the U.S. Army, wanted the British forces ousted from Spanish Florida and asked for support from the Tennessee militia. Crockett re-enlisted as third sergeant for a six-month term with the Tennessee Mounted Gunmen under Captain John Cowan on September 28, 1814. Because they were days behind the rest of the troops, Crockett's unit saw little of the main action and was focused mostly on foraging for food. Crockett returned home in December. He was still on a military reserve status until March 1815, so he hired a young man to fulfill the remainder of his service.

Legislative career

In 1817, Crockett moved the family to new acreage in Lawrence County, where he first entered public office as a commissioner helping to configure the new county's boundaries. On November 25, the state legislature appointed him county justice of the peace. On March 27, 1818, he was elected lieutenant colonel of the Fifty-seventh Regiment of Tennessee Militia, defeating candidate Daniel Matthews for the position. By 1819, Crockett was operating multiple businesses in the area and felt his public responsibilities were beginning to consume so much of his time and energy that he had little left for either family or business. He resigned from the office of justice of the peace and from his position with the regiment.

Tennessee General Assembly

In 1821, he resigned as commissioner and successfully ran for a seat in the Tennessee General Assembly, representing Lawrence and Hickman counties. It was this election where Crockett honed his anecdotal oratory skills. He was appointed to the Committee of Propositions and Grievances on September 17, 1821, and served through the first session that ended November 17, as well as the special session called by the governor in the summer of 1822, ending on August 24. He favored legislation to ease the tax burden on the poor. Crockett spent his entire legislative career fighting for the rights of impoverished settlers whom he felt dangled on the precipice of losing title to their land due to the state's complicated system of grants. He supported 1821 gubernatorial candidate William Carroll, over Andrew Jackson's endorsed candidate Edward Ward.

Less than two weeks after Crockett's 1821 election to the General Assembly, a flood of the Tennessee River destroyed Crockett's businesses. In November, Elizabeth's father Robert Patton deeded 800 acres of his Carroll County property to Crockett. Crockett sold off most of the acreage to help settle his debts, and moved his family to the remaining acreage on the Obion River, which remained in Carroll County until 1825 when the boundaries were reconfigured and put it in Gibson County. In 1823, he ran against Andrew Jackson's nephew-in-law William Edward Butler and won a seat in the General Assembly representing the counties of Carroll, Humphreys, Perry, Henderson and Madison. He served in the first session, which ran from September through the end of November 1823, and in the second session that ran September through the end of November 1824, championing the rights of the impoverished farmers. During Andrew Jackson's election to the United States Senate in 1823, Crockett backed his opponent John Williams.

United States House of Representatives

On October 25, 1824, Crockett notified his constituents of his intention to run in the 1825 election for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives. He lost that election to the incumbent Adam Rankin Alexander. A chance meeting in 1826 gained him the encouragement of Memphis mayor Marcus Brutus Winchester to try again to win a seat in Congress. The Jackson Gazette published a letter from Crockett on September 15, 1826, announcing his intention of again challenging Rankin, stating his opposition to the policies of President John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State Henry Clay and Rankin's position on the cotton tariff. Militia veteran William Arnold also entered the race, and Crockett easily defeated both political opponents for the two-year term March 4, 1827 - March 3, 1829. He arrived in Washington D.C. and took up residence at Mrs. Ball's Boarding House, where a number of other legislators lived when Congress was in session. Jackson was elected as President of the United States in 1828. Crockett continued his legislative focus on settlers getting a fair deal for land titles, offering H.R. 27 amendment to a bill sponsored by James K. Polk.

I believed it was a wicked, unjust measure. . . . I voted against this Indian bill, and my conscience yet tells me that I gave a good honest vote, and one that I believe will not make me ashamed in the day of judgement.

David Crockett, A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett

He was re-elected for the March 4, 1829 - March 3, 1831 session, once again defeating Adam Rankin Alexander. Crockett introduced H.R. 185 amendment to the land bill on January 29, 1830. The amendment was defeated May 3, 1830. On February 25, 1830, Crockett introduced a resolution to abolish the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, because he felt it was public money going to benefit the sons of wealthy men. He spoke out against Congress giving a lump sum amount of $100,000 to the widow of Stephen Decatur, citing that Congress was not empowered to do that. Crockett opposed Jackson's 1830 Indian Removal Act, and was the only member of the Tennessee delegation to vote against it. Cherokee chief John Ross sent him a letter on January 13, 1831, expressing his thanks for Crockett's vote. His vote was not popular with his own district, and in 1831 he was defeated in the election by William Fitzgerald.

Crockett ran against Fitzgerald again in the 1833 election and was returned to Congress, serving until 1835. On January 2, 1834, Crockett introduced the land title resolution H.R. 126, but it never made it as far as being open for debate on the House floor. He was defeated for re-election in the August 1835 election by Adam Huntsman. During his last term in Congress, Crockett collaborated with Kentucky Congressman Thomas Chilton to write his autobiography, which was published by E. L. Carey and A. Hart in 1834 as A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett, Written by Himself. Crockett went east to promote the book. In 1836, newspapers published the now-famous quote attributed to Crockett upon his return to his home state. He said, "I told the people of my district that I would serve them as faithfully as I had done; but if not, they might go to hell, and I would go to Texas."

Texas Revolution

By December 1834, Crockett was writing to friends about moving to Texas if Jackson's chosen successor Martin Van Buren was elected President. The next year he discussed with his friend Benjamin McCulloch raising a company of volunteers to take to Texas in the expectation that a revolution was imminent. After the election results became known in August, his departure to Texas was delayed by a court appearance in the last week of October as co-executor of his deceased father-in-law's estate, and he finally left his home near Rutherford in West Tennessee on Nov. 1, 1835, with three other men to explore Texas. His youngest child, Matilda, later wrote that she distinctly remembered the last time she saw her father: "He was dressed in his hunting suit, wearing a coonskin cap, and carried a fine rifle presented to him by friends in Philadelphia ... He seemed very confident the morning he went away that he would soon have us all to join him in Texas." From his home he traveled to Jackson, arriving there with 30 well-armed men, where he gave a speech from the steps of the Madison County courthouse, and then rode southwest to Bolivar, where he spent the night at residence of Dr. Calvin Jones, once again drawing crowds who sent him off the next morning. He arrived in Memphis in the second week of November with a much-diminished company, and ferried over the Mississippi River the next day and continued his journey on horseback through Arkansas.

On November 12, 1835, Crockett and his entourage arrived in Little Rock, Arkansas. The local newspapers reported that hundreds of people swarmed into town to get a look at Crockett, and a group of leading citizens put on a dinner in his honor that night at the Jeffries Hotel. Crockett spoke "mainly to the subject of Texan independence," as well as Washington politics.

He arrived in Nacogdoches, Texas, in early January 1836. On January 14, 1836, Crockett and 65 other men signed an oath before Judge John Forbes to the Provisional Government of Texas for six months: "I have taken the oath of government and have enrolled my name as a volunteer and will set out for the Rio Grande in a few days with the volunteers from the United States." Each man was promised about 4,600 acres (19 km2) of land as payment. He also sold two rifles to Colonel O'Neal for $60. (After his death there was a claim for his heirs for $57.50. In 1854 his widow received a payment certificate for $24.00 from Texas.) On February 6, Crockett and about five other men rode into San Antonio de Bexar and camped just outside the town. They were later greeted by James Bowie and Antonio Menchaca, and taken to the home of Don Erasmo Seguin.

Crockett arrived at the Alamo on February 8. On February 23, to the surprise of the men garrisoned in the Alamo, a Mexican army led by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna arrived. The Mexican soldiers immediately initiated a siege. Santa Anna ordered his artillery to keep up a near-constant bombardment. The guns were moved closer to the Alamo each day, increasing their effectiveness. On February 25, 200-300 Mexican soldiers crossed the San Antonio River and took cover in abandoned shacks approximately 90 yards (82 m) to 100 yards (91 m) from the Alamo walls. The soldiers intended to use the huts as cover to establish another artillery position, although many Texians assumed that they actually were launching an assault on the fort. Several men volunteered to burn the huts. To provide cover, the Alamo cannons fired grapeshot at the Mexican soldiers, and Crockett and his men fired rifles, while other defenders reloaded extra weapons for them to use in maintaining a steady fire. Within 90 minutes, the battle was over, and the Mexican soldiers retreated. Inside the Alamo, the stores of powder and shot were limited. On February 26, Alamo commander William Barret Travis ordered the artillery to stop returning fire so as to conserve precious ammunition. Crockett and his men were encouraged to keep shooting, as they were unusually effective.

As the siege progressed, Travis sent many messages asking for reinforcements. Several messengers were sent to James Fannin, who commanded the only other official group of Texian soldiers. Fannin and several hundred Texians occupied Presidio La Bahia at Goliad. Although Fannin ultimately decided it was too risky to attempt to reinforce the Alamo, historian Thomas Ricks Lindley concludes that up to 50 of Fannin's men left his command to go to Bexar. These men would have reached Cibolo Creek, 35 miles (56 km) from the Alamo, on the afternoon of March 3. There they joined another group of men who also planned to join the garrison.

That same night, outside the Alamo, there was a skirmish between Mexican and Texian troops. Several historians, including Walter Lord, speculated that the Texians were creating a diversion to allow their last courier, John Smith, to evade Mexican pickets. However, in 1876, Alamo survivor Susannah Dickinson said that Travis sent three men out shortly after dark on March 3, probably a response to the arrival of Mexican reinforcements. The three men, who included Crockett, were sent to find Fannin. Lindley stated that just before midnight, Crockett and one of the other men found the force of Texians waiting along Cibolo Creek, who had advanced to within 20 miles (32 km) of the Alamo. Just before daylight on March 4, part of the Texian force managed to break through the Mexican lines and enter the Alamo. A second group was driven across the prairie by Mexican cavalry.

The siege ended on March 6, when the Mexican army attacked just before dawn while the defenders were sleeping. The daily bombardment by artillery had been suspended, perhaps a ploy to encourage the natural human reaction to a cessation of constant strain. But the garrison awakened and the final fight began. Most of the noncombatants gathered in the church sacristy for safety. According to Dickinson, before running to his post, Crockett paused briefly in the chapel to say a prayer. When the Mexican soldiers breached the north outer walls of the Alamo complex, most of the Texians fell back to the barracks and the chapel, as previously planned. Crockett and his men were too far from the barracks to take shelter. and were the last remaining group in the mission to be in the open. The men defended the low wall in front of the church, using their rifles as clubs and relying on knives, as the action was too furious to allow reloading. After a volley and a charge with bayonets, Mexican soldiers pushed the few remaining defenders back toward the church. The Battle of the Alamo lasted almost 90 minutes.

Once all of the defenders had been killed, Santa Anna ordered his men to take the bodies to a nearby stand of trees, where they were stacked together and wood piled on top. That evening, a fire was lit and the bodies of the defenders were burned to ashes.

The ashes were left undisturbed until February 1837, when Juan Seguin and his cavalry returned to Bexar to examine the remains. A local carpenter created a simple coffin, and ashes from the funeral pyres were placed inside. The names of Travis, Crockett, and Bowie were inscribed on the lid. The coffin is thought to have been buried in a peach tree grove, but the spot was not marked and can no longer be identified.


All that is certain about the fate of David Crockett is that he died fighting at the Alamo on the morning of March 6, 1836, at age 49. According to many accounts of the battle, between five and seven Texans surrendered during the battle, possibly to General Castrillon. Incensed that his orders to take no prisoners had been ignored, Santa Anna demanded the immediate execution of the survivors. Although Castrillon and several other officers refused to do so, staff officers who had not participated in the fighting drew their swords and killed the unarmed Texians.


Weeks after the battle, stories began to circulate that Crockett was among those who surrendered and were executed. However, Ben, a former American slave who acted as cook for one of Santa Anna's officers, maintained that Crockett's body was found in the barracks surrounded by "no less than sixteen Mexican corpses", with Crockett's knife buried in one of them. Historians disagree on which story is accurate. According to Petite, "every account of the Crockett surrender-execution story comes from an avowed antagonist (either on political or military grounds) of Santa Anna's. It is believed that many stories, such as the surrender and execution of Crockett, were created and spread in order to discredit Santa Anna and add to his role as villain."

In 1955, Jesús Sánchez Garza self-published a book called La Rebelión de Texas-Manuscrito Inédito de 1836 por un Ofical de Santa Anna purporting to be memoirs of José Enrique de la Peña, a Mexican officer present at the Battle of the Alamo. In 1975, the Texas A&M University Press published an English translation of the book, called With Santa Anna in Texas: A Personal Narrative of the Revolution. The English publication caused a scandal within the United States, as it asserted that Crockett did not die in battle. Historians disagree on whether any or all of the book has been falsified. Because the original book was self-published, no editor or publisher ever vetted its authenticity. Sánchez Garza never explained how he gained custody of the documents or where they were stored after de la Peña's death.

Some historians, including Bill Groneman, found it suspicious that Sánchez Garza's compilation was published in 1955, at the height of interest in Crockett and the Alamo caused by Walt Disney's television miniseries about Crockett's life, Davy Crockett. Groneman also points out that the journals are made up of several different types of paper from several different paper manufacturers, all cut down to fit. Historian Joseph Musso also questions the validity, likewise basing his suspicions on the timing of the diaries' release.

"The document's most energetic defender has been historian James Crisp, who found an 1839 pamphlet by de la Peña in which the Mexican said he was preparing his diary for publication - proof that, if nothing else, the Sanchez Garza text had a historical basis. Finally, in 2001, archivist David Gracy published a detailed analysis of the manuscript, including lab results. He found, among other things, that the paper and ink were of a type used by the Mexican army in the 1830s, and the handwriting matched that on other documents in the Mexican military archives that were written or signed by de la Peña."

Furthermore, Catherine Williamson manuscript cataloguer at Butterfield & Butterfield said: "De la Peña's memoir was written on a high rag content paper typical of the early 19th century. The watermarks tell us the paper was produced in Lisbon between 1825 and 1832. If something had indicated to us the paper was made after that period or was from the 20th century and clearly a fake, we would not be offering it for sale. We're satisfied that it is what it is." Butterfield officials believe the eyewitness journal could fetch between $200,000 and $300,000.

In de la Peña's narrative, he adds a footnote which may align both versions. He states that "All of the enemy perished, there remaining alive only an elderly lady and a Negro slave, whom the soldiers spared out of mercy and because we had established that only force had kept them in danger." (Perry 1975) This implies that the summary execution of the survivors may have occurred prior to the releasing of Dickinson and Joe, so that they observed Crockett as dead, lending credence to their testimony. De la Peña describes the disposal of the dead and wounded as an ongoing process that took some time.

First, no other accounts of Crockett's surviving the Alamo have surfaced besides de la Peña's diary. No documentation in the archives of the Mexican government, nor any of the personal records of others present at the Battle of the Alamo, give any hint of survivors amongst the defenders, much less any claiming Crockett as a survivor. Secondly, there is some speculation that de la Peña's account may have been a deliberate fabrication, with the intention of presenting Santa Anna in a far more diabolical light than American (and especially Texan) historians have given him since the fall of the Alamo.

The written account by de la Peña, even if a legitimate writing, has also been questioned in that many doubt his abilities to identify any of the Alamo defenders by name. It is a popular belief by many historians that de la Peña may have witnessed or been told about executions of some Alamo survivors, but in fact neither he nor his comrades would have known who these men were. Part of the reason that de la Peña's memoirs are questioned comes from his detailed account of Col. William Travis' death in With Santa Anna in Texas. In that account, he describes with detail how Travis was heroic in his final moments, turning straight into the Mexican soldiers and facing his death with honor. The problem with this: how would de la Peña have been able to distinguish Travis from any of the other defenders of the Alamo? The freed former slave to Travis, Joe, claimed Travis died early on in the battle, on the north wall. In addition to this, the Mexican Army had not breached the walls of the Alamo when Travis was killed, therefore they would have been seeing him from an area below the walls, while being fired down upon by the defenders. To add to this, Travis was killed before daybreak, meaning it was still dark. Therefore, it is believed that de la Peña either created the scenario of Travis' death, or he saw another of the defenders after breaching the walls, and took him to be Travis.


One of Crockett's sayings, which were published in almanacs between 1835 and 1856 (along with those of Daniel Boone and Kit Carson), was: Always be sure you are right, then go ahead.

While serving in the United States House of Representatives, Crockett became a Freemason. He entrusted his masonic apron to the Weakly Lodge in Tennessee before leaving for Texas, and it still survives today.

In 1967 the U.S. Postal Service issued a 5-cent stamp commemorating Davy Crockett.


David Stern "Davy" Crockett
Birth: Aug. 17, 1786, Greene County, Tennessee, USA
Death: Mar. 6, 1836, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, USA

Folk Figure, Frontiersman, Soldier, US Congressman, and Defender of the Alamo. Commonly referred to as the "King of the Wild Frontier," his exploits as an American folk hero were popularized in films, stage plays, and books, which were often exaggerated. Born in present-day Greene County, Tennessee near Limestone, his father struggled to make ends meet. As a young boy, he had to work to help pay his father's debts and would often tend cattle for local farmers. In 1806 he married Polly Finley and they moved several times before he signed up as a scout and forager for the local militia in September 1813 during the Creek War. The following year he participated in a military expedition in Spanish Florida and returned home in December 1814. After relocating to Lawrence County, Tennessee, he first entered politics, serving as a county commissioner and justice of the peace. In 1818 he was elected as a lieutenant colonel of the 57th Tennessee Militia and was soon engaged in several local business ventures. In 1821 he resigned as commissioner and was elected to the Tennessee Legislature and was re-elected two years later. In 1825 he ran as a National Republican and lost for a seat for Tennessee's 9th district in the US House of Representatives but won the following year, serving for two terms from March 1827 until March 1831. He voted against President Andrew Jackson's 1830 Indian Removal Act which made him unpopular with his constituents and he lost his seat in the 1830 election. In 1832 he ran for the US House of Representatives from Tennessee's newly created 12th district and was elected, defeating his former opponent William Fitzgerald, serving one term from March 1833 until March 1835. During this last term, he had expressed a desire about moving to Texas, and in November 1835, he assembled a group of volunteers and led them to the Alamo mission in present-day San Antonio, Texas where, on February 8, 1836, he joined up with the legendary James Bowie and Alamo commander Lieutenant Colonel William Barret Travis. They encountered a force of about 1,800 Mexican soldiers under the command of General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. With only about 185 to 260 men, the Alamo defenders managed to hold off the Mexican Army for 13 days until they were finally overrun on March 6, 1836 and Crockett died either in combat or was executed at the age of 49. Historians disagree on how he died, as there are several accounts of his death that cannot be accurately verified. Over the years, his character has been portrayed in numerous films and television programs, including Jack Perrin in "The Painted Stallion" (1937), Robert Barrat in "Man of Conquest" (1939), Arthur Hunnicutt in "The Last Command" (1955), Fess Parker in "Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier" (1955) and "Davy Crockett and the River Pirates" (1956), John Wayne in "The Alamo" (1960), Brian Keith in "The Alamo: 13 Days to Glory" (1987), Johnny Cash in "Davy Crockett: Rainbow in the Thunder" (1988), John Schneider in James A. Michener's ABC television miniseries "Texas" (1994), and Billy Bob Thornton in "The Alamo" (2004). The song "The Ballad of Davy Crockett" sung by Bill Hayes and written for the ABC television miniseries "Davy Crockett" that aired from 1954 to 1955, reached No. 1 on the Billboard charts from March to April 1955. In addition to his burial location at the San Fernando Cathedral in San Antonio, Texas, a cenotaph resides at his birthplace in Limestone Springs, Tennessee. A life-size statue in his honor resides at the Lawrenceburg Public Square in Lawrenceburg, Tennessee. (bio by: William Bjornstad)

Family links: Parents: John B Crockett (1759 - 1834), Rebecca Hawkins Crockett (1756 - 1832); Spouses: Mary Finley Crockett (1788 - 1815), Elizabeth Patton Crockett (1788 - 1860); Children: John Wesley Crockett (1807 - 1852), William Finley Crockett (1809 - 1846), Margaret Finley Crockett Flowers (1812 - 1860), Robert Patton Crockett (1816 - 1889), Rebecca E Crockett Halford (1818 - 1879), Elizabeth Jane Crockett Whitehurst (1818 - 1895), Matilda Crockett Fields (1821 - 1890); Siblings: William Crockett (1782 - 1858), David Stern Crockett (1786 - 1836), John Crockett (1787 - 1840), Benjamin Franklin Ellis (1797 - 1877)*


Inscription: "Here Lie the Remains of Travis, Crockett, Bowie and Other Alamo Heroes Formerly buried in the sanctuary of the Old San Fernando Church. Exhumed July 28, 1936. Exposed to public view for a year. Entombed May 11, 1938 The Archdiocese of San Antonio erected this memorial May 11 A.D. 1938 R.I.P."

Burial: San Fernando Cathedral, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, USA

Maintained by: Find A Grave
Record added: Jan 01, 2001
Find A Grave Memorial# 2308 
CROCKETT, David Stern (I41529)
344 (1) "Deacon David Rice" :

Deacon David Rice was born on 27 December 1659 in Sudbury, MA. He was the son of Henry Rice and Elizabeth Moore. Deacon David Rice married Hannah Walker, daughter of Thomas Walker and Mary (?), on 7 April 1687 in Sudbury, MA. Deacon David Rice died on 16 October 1723 in Framingham, MA, aged 63y (not found in the published records).

11 October 1682 Deacon David Rice bought 60 acres between Cochituate Pond and his father's land, from Gookin and How. He was an original member of the church in Framingham, serving as deacon, selectman, and treasurer in Framingham. David Rice's estate was settled as follows: Bezaleel and Josiah Rice Administrators. Agreement of the heirs, 9 November 1723, was signed by Bezaleel Rice, Josiah Rice, Samuel Frost and his wife Elizabeth, John Bent and his wife Hannah.

Father: Henry Rice
Mother: Elizabeth Moore

Children of Deacon David Rice and Hannah Walker:

• Sarah Rice
• Elizabeth Rice
• Hannah Rice
• Bezaleel Rice
• Josiah Rice

© Copyright 2002, 2019 by the Edmund Rice (1638) Association. 
RICE, Deacon David (I46024)
345 (1) "Deborah Smith":

Deborah Smith was born in 1741. She married Elijah How, son of Jaazaniah How and Damaris Eager, on 24 June 1759 in Leicester, MA. Deborah Smith died on 25 August 1816 in Spencer, MA, aged 75y, listed as widow Sarah Howe in the vital records, but as Deborah on her gravestone. She was buried in Old Cemetery, Spencer, MA.

© Copyright 2002, 2019 by the Edmund Rice (1638) Association. 
SMITH, Deborah (I46662)
346 (1) "Deliverance Rice" :

Deliverance Rice was born on 14 August 1681 in Sudbury, MA. She was the daughter of John Rice and Tabitha Stone. Deliverance Rice married John How, son of Isaac How and Frances Woods, on 3 November 1703 in Sudbury, MA; listed as John of Marlborough. Deliverance Rice died after 1723.

She and John How resided in 1703 in Marlborough, MA.

Father: John Rice
Mother: Tabitha Stone

Children of Deliverance Rice and John How:

• Jaazaniah How
• Matthias How
• Isaac How
• Benjamin How
• Tabitha How
• Patience How
• Paul How
• Mary How
• Francis How
• Abigail How

© Copyright 2002, 2019 by the Edmund Rice (1638) Association. 
RICE, Deliverance (I46657)
347 (1) "Descendants of Richard, 2nd son, Baltimore Co., MD," , Copyright © 1999-2003 by Jon D. Egge:


Richard was the second son, third child, born about 1710, probably in Pennsylvania or New Jersey before the family came to Maryland. Richard married in Baltimore County, Kezia, her parents, surname, and age unknown. Richard would remain in Baltimore County all his life. Three of his sons would serve in the American Revolution: Richard, Thomas, and Joseph. According to Elmer Haile, Jr., "Richard started buying land in 1746 with the acquisition of 100 acres of Merryman's Adventure from Samuel Merryman. This farm is south of Great Falls of the Gunpowder, probably north of Towson." He and Kezia had nine known children, all mentioned in his will, written October 1, 1781, about two months before his death at age 71. Over the years, Richard's land holdings in Baltimore Co. came to over 200 acres, which he divided by will among 4 of his 5 living sons: Richard, Jr., Thomas, Arthur and Joseph. For their share, these four were to pay monies to the youngest son, William.

Of note is an increasing problem with the dates given for Richard's marriage and children by Cora Hiatt. None of these dates has been found on any document. In 1737, Richard is living with this father and 3 of his other brothers. There is no indication that Richard is married at this point in 1737, though Hiatt gives the birth of the first child as 1734. The earliest sighting of Kezia (Cassiah) as Richard's wife is in the early 1740's as a witness in a Quaker marriage at the Gunpowder MM. The marriage dates of at least his sons Arthur and Thomas would indicate that they were not as old as Hiatt claimed.

Cora placed the marriages and lives of three of Arthur's sons and one of his grandsons as children of Richard. In reality we know very little of this family after Richard's death in 1781. Most of them seem to vanish without a trace. Only the lines from the deceased son, John, whose family went basically to Tennessee, and the lines of Hannah and Thomas who went to Harford Co. are known to us. Something seems to have happened to this family. It is known that there was a long disputed estate claim between the children of Richard and the widow of the deceased son John. In the end, Frances seems to have won out and the lands of Richard were disposed of by a sheriff's sale.:

• Richard, Jr. was living in the Back River Upper Hundred with 3 of his brothers in 1773. In 1783 Richard is living on his father's property [Merryman's Adventure and Henry's Delight] with 5 white inhabitants. He is mentioned again in February 7, 1787 as the executor of his father's will, though the will itself had appointed his brother Joseph, executor. In May of the same year he petitioned the Justices of the Baltimore Co. Orphan's Court that he had endeavored to have a complete inventory of the estate, but basically he had been frustrated in his attempts by a certain Frances Chenoweth who had considerable property late of the deceased in her hand. In 1790 He appears in the 1790 census. There is a record of a Richard Chenoweth marrying an Elizabeth Burton and having a daughter Priscilla in 1792. Whether this is Richard, Jr. or not is unknown.

• Arthur was living with his brother Thomas in the 1783 tax rolls. He appears to have married Cassandra Bosley on March 24, 1784. He appears in the 1790 census, a wife and 2 daughters probably living on a 1790 lease from John Sutton on a property called part of the Valley of Jehosphat that abuts Gunpowder Manor and extended to Gunpowder falls, north of Towsend. It maybe that the Elizabeth Chenoweth who married Elijah Passmore and settled in Kentucky with a daughter, Cassandra Passmore, may be one of these daughters. It is known that parts of the Bosely family went to the same area of Kentucky.

• William is a puzzle. Cora Hiatt thought this was her ancestor, but that is highly doubtful. He is living with his bothers in 1773. He is in the 1781 will and appears in records with his brother Thomas. It is possible that he is the William Chenoweth who married Harriet Norris. His brother Thomas married Rachel Norris.

• Joseph is an enigma. The only mention of him is in his father's will of 1781. He is to be the executor of the will, but we know that this duty was at some point assumed by his brother, Richard, Jr. Joseph has never been found other than a name in his father's will.

• Susanna is given to have married a Price in the will. Who this was, or what happened to her is unknown.

• Kezia is was still single in the 1781 will. The Harris book says she married John Christ Kempff on October 09, 1783 in Baltimore Co., MD. Nothing further is known.
As stated, Richard died on December 12, 1781 leaving a will naming his living wife Kezia, his 5 livings sons and 3 living daughters, and his deceased son John, and a grandson Richard by his son John. Today, it is believed that many of the unconnected Chenoweths lines that live in the Baltimore today come from the lines of Richard. . . .

Children of RICHARD CHENOWETH and KEZIA ? are:

1. Susanna b. Abt. 1743, Baltimore Co., MD; d. Aft. 1820; m. ? PRICE; b. Bet. 1735 - 1754.

2. Richard b. Abt. 1745, Baltimore Co., MD; d. Abt. 1815.

3. John b. Abt. 1746, Baltimore Co., MD; d. Bef. December 04, 1781, Baltimore Co., MD; m. FRANCES HAILE, 1757, Batimore Co., MD; b. Abt. 1739; d. 1815.

4. Arthur b. Abt. 1751, Baltimore Co., MD; m. CASANDRA BOSLEY, March 24, 1784, Balitmore Co., MD; b. Abt. 1752; d. September 02, 1793, Mercer Co., KY.

5. Hannah b. Abt. 1752, Baltimore Co., MD; d. March 15, 1836, Harford Co., MD; m. JOSEPH ASHTON; b. October 04, 1742; d. November 13, 1819, Harford Co., MD.

6. William b. Abt. 1753.

7. Kezia b. 1755, Baltimore Co., MD; d. Unknown; m. JOHN CHRIST KEMPFF, October 09, 1783, Baltimore Co., MD; b. Bet. 1740 - 1760.

8. Thomas b. Abt. 1756, Baltimore Co., MD; m. RACHEL NORRIS, January 01, 1788, St John's, Hartford Co., MD; b. Abt. 1761, Harford Co., MD; d. Unknown.

9. Joseph b. Abt. 1758, Baltimore Co., MD; d. Unknown.

(2) "Chenoweth Wills" , Copyright © 2003-2010 by Jon D. Egge:

RICHARD(2) b: 1710, Baltimore Co., MD: dated October 1, 1781
scanned from Cora Hiatt book

WILL OF RICHARD CHENOWETH [Wills No. C. 1763-1779-Lib. W. B. No. 3]

Last Will and Testament of Richard Chenoweth

I, Richard Chenoweth, of Baltimore County in the State of Maryland, Blacksmith, being of sound and perfect mind, memory and understanding, do make publish and declare this my last Will and Testament in manner and form following, that is to say: First, I will that all my just debts be paid within reasonable time after my death by my Executrix here after named.

I give and bequeath to my four following sons, namely, Richard Chenoweth, Arthur Chenoweth, Thomas Chenoweth and Joseph Chenoweth, their heirs and assigns forever, all my lands to be equally divided between them after the death of my wife, and also I give and bequeath to my said sons one feather bed each; and whereas my lands are the most valuable part of my estate I will and desire that each of my four sons above mentioned, pay to my son William Chenoweth, Ten Pounds hard money, with interest to commence at the end of one year after my death if not paid before, and also that each of them pay to my grandson, Richard Chenoweth, son of John Chenoweth, deceased, five pounds like money, when he shall arrive at the age of twenty-one years.

I give and bequeath, to my wife Kezia Chenoweth one-third part of all my estate, real and personal, for, and during her natural life, and the remains, two thirds of my personal estate, to be equally divided between my four following children, namely, William Chenoweth, Susana Price, Hannah Ashton and Kezia Chenoweth, Junior.

And lastly, I constitute and appoint my wife, Kezia Chenoweth, and my son, Joseph Chenoweth, Executor and Executrix, of this my last Will and Testament. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this first day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand, seven hundred and eighty-one.

Richard Chenoweth - Seal

Baltimore County to Wit. Signed, sealed and delivered and acknowledged to be his last Will and Testament in the presence of

John Willmott
Edward Talbott
John Talbott

On the 14th day of December 1781, came John Willmott, Edward Talbott and John Talbott. subscribing evidence to the foregoing last Will and Testament of Richard Chenoweth and made oath and that they did see the Testator herein named, sign and seal this Will, that they heard his publish, pronounce and declare the same to be his last Will and Testament; that at the time of his doing, he was to the best of their several apprehensions, of sound, disposing mind, memory and understanding and that they subscribed their names as witnesses at his request in his presence and in the presence. of each other. Sworn before me Register of Wills for Baltimore County, WILLIAM BUCHANAN. 
CHENOWETH, Richard (I45358)
348 (1) "Descendants of The Peteets of Ruth Chenoweth - 3 generations" , Copyright © 1994-2004 by Jon D. Egge and Richard C. Harris:

THE PETEETS: RUTH(2) 1722-1760

Ruth was the youngest child, born about 1722, probably in Pennsylvania or New Jersey before the family came to Maryland. She married John Peteet, before 1743, probably in Frederick Co., VA. The name, given by the will of John Chenoweth, was Petit, but recent discoveries have found that the common usage was Peteet or Poteet. It is believed that Ruth and John had at least five children. Most of the line presently known goes through Richard John Peteet, the youngest son, who accompanied his father John to North Carolina and then moved on to Wilkes Co., GA. There are indications that others of the family went north to Maryland. It maybe that a daughter, Hannah, married John Haile, in the line of the same Haile family that married into the lines of Ruth's brother, Richard. The link to these Hailes of Richard(2) is Thomas Hale s/o John Haile & Hannah Poteet, though is not proven. Thomas Hale married Elizabeth Chenoweth, a daughter of John(3) and Francis Haile. Elizabeth and Thomas were Hale cousins, but it is possible they were Chenoweth cousins as well.

Mary Peteet, another daughter, married Thomas Vaughn on December 15, 1763 in Baltimore Co., MD. One of their children went to Pennsylvania.

It is known that John Peteet, the father, and his son, John Richard, went to North Carolina after the Revolutionary War. John Richard is thought to have served in the Revolution from Virginia. This migration to the Deep South is unique in the family, and presents an interesting "southern" line to the Chenoweth family. John Richard eventually settled in Wilkes Co., GA. It is thought that Ruth may have died in the 1760s well before her husband, John, who died in 1788 in Caswell Co., NC. . . .


1. John, Jr., b. Abt. 1743.

2. James b. Aft. 1740; d. Unknown.

3. Hannah b. Abt. 1746; m. JOHN HAILE, September 04, 1762, Baltimore, Baltimore Co., MD; b. Abt. 1737, Maryland; d. Abt. 1798, Sullivan Co., TN.

4. Mary b. April 16, 1747; m. THOMAS VAUGHN, December 15, 1763, St. John's Parish, Baltimore Co., MD; b. Bef. 1733; d. Abt. 1805, Center Co., PA.

5. Richard John b. December 22, 1750, Virginia; d. August 03, 1827, Wilkes Co., GA; m. (1) ISABELLA ADELPHIA 'DELPHIA' HENDERSON, 1777; b. 1758; d. September 25, 1826, Wilkes Co., GA; m. (2) SUSANNAH CALLAWAY, January 13, 1827, Wilkes Co., GA; b. Bet. 1750 - 1780; d. Aft. 1827. 
CHENOWETH, Ruth (I9922)
349 (1) "Donald Mackay, 1st Lord Reay," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Donald Mackay, 1st Lord Reay (March 1591 - February 1649), known as Sir Donald Mackay, 1st Baronet, from 1627 to 1628, was a Scottish peer and soldier.

Mackay was the eldest son of Huistean Du Mackay. He was created a Baronet, of Strathnaver, in 1627 and the following year he was raised to the Peerage of Scotland as Lord Reay, of Reay in the County of Caithness. In 1626 he raised a regiment under a charter from King Charles I, with which he served with distinction in Denmark under Christian IV. He was not present with the regiment when they fought at the Siege of Stralsund in 1628, command devolving to his lieutenant colonel, Alexander Seaton. The regiment then fought under Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years' War. He later fought as a Royalist in the Civil War.

Lord Reay was married four times. He married, firstly, Barbara Mackenzie, sister of Colin Mackenzie, 1st Earl of Seaforth, in 1610. He married, secondly, Rachel Winterfield or Harrison, sometime before 1631. This marriage was annulled. He married, thirdly, Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Thomson, and fourthly, Marjorie, daughter of Francis Sinclair. Lord Reay died in February 1649, aged 57, and was succeeded in his titles by his son John.

(2) Mackay, Angus, The Book of Mackay, Edinburgh, Scotland: Norman MacLeod, 1906, pp. 142-143:

Lord Donald was thrice married. His first wife was Barbara, whom he married in 1610, eldest daughter of Kenneth, 1st Lord Kintail, and sister of Colin and George, 1st and 2nd Earls of Seaforth. She bore him four sons and two daughter: -

i. Iye, died 1617.

ii. John, succeeded as 2nd Lord Reay. . . .

iii. Hew, died unmarried before 1642.

iv. Lieut-Col. Angus, progenitor of the Melness Mackays. . . .

v. Jane, married Wm. Mackay III. of Bighouse, and had issue. . . .

vi. Mary, married Sir Roderick Macleod of Talisker, second son of Macleod of Macleod.

[Note by compiler: This source does not mention a marriage to Rachel Winterfield or Harrison, sometime before 1631, which marriage was annulled.]

Donald married, secondly, in 1632, Elizabeth Thomson, who died about 1637, leaving one daughter: -

vii. Ann, married Alexander, brother of Sir James Macdonald of Sleat.

[Note by compiler: This source does not mention any marriage of Ann/Anna MACKAY to Hew/Hugh MUNRO.]

Donald married, thirdly, Marjory, daughter of Francis Sinclair of Stirkoke, Caithness, by whom he had three sons and two daughters: -

viii. William, had sas. of the lands of Kinloch, 4th January, 1669, and married Ann, daughter of Col. Hugh Mackay of Scoury, by whom he had an only son, George. The said George was served heir to his deceased father, William, 24th February, 1710, and married Elizabeth, daughter of Angus IV. of Bighouse. The issue of this last marriage was an only son, Captain William Mackay, who married Jane Mackay of Borgie, and died at Thurso without issue, 1772.

ix. Charles, progenitor of the Sandwood Mackays. . . .

x. Rupert, a twin brother of Charles, who died unmarried.

xi. Margaret, died at Thurso, unmarried, 1720.

xii. Christian, married Alexr. Gunn of Killcarnan, chieftain of the MacHamish Gunns, and had issue. 
MACKAY, Donald (I41074)
350 (1) "Dorothy Emma Howell (1919-2011)," Familypedia :

Dorothy Emma Howell (1919-) was born 4 June 1919 in Chicago, Illinois, United States to Edwin John Howell Jr. (1897-1946) and Della Murray (1902-1960) and died 1 November 2011 in Washington, United States of unspecified causes. She married Hugh Ellsworth Rodham (1911-1993) 1942 in United States. Ancestors are from the United States.


Offspring of Dorothy Emma Howell (1919-) and Hugh Ellsworth Rodham (1911-1993):

• Hillary Diane Rodham (1947); [b.] 26 October 1947 Chicago, Illinois, United States; [m.] William Jefferson Blythe (1946)

• Hugh Edwin Rodham (1950)

• Anthony Dean Rodham (1954)


Dorothy Emma Howell Rodham
Birth: Jun. 4, 1919, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, USA
Death: Nov. 1, 2011, Washington, District of Columbia, District Of Columbia, USA

Born in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of Edwin John Howell, Jr. (1897-1946), a Chicago firefighter, & Della Murray (1902-1960). Her sister is Isabelle Howell (born 1924). She was the Mother of Hillary Rodham Clinton, the 67th United States Secretary of State, former First Lady, Presidential candidate and United States Senator from New York.

Family links: Spouse: Hugh Ellsworth Rodham (1911 - 1993)

Burial: Washburn Street Cemetery, Scranton, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, USA

Created by: John Robert Mauney
Record added: Nov 01, 2011
Find A Grave Memorial# 79673130 
HOWELL, Dorothy Emma (I38689)

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