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Ezra Wesley FROST

Male 1845 - 1865  (19 years)


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  • Name Ezra Wesley FROST 
    Born 20 May 1845  Fallsbury Township, Licking County, OH Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 13 Jan 1865  Florence Stockade, Florence, Florence County, SC Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 

    • (1) Source: Gary Finckel .

      (2) Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System <http://www.civilwar.nps.gov/cwss/soldiers.cfm>:

      Ezra Frost
      Regiment Name: 135 Ohio Infantry
      Side: Union
      Company: F
      Soldier's Rank In: Pvt
      Soldier's Rank Out: Pvt
      Alternate Name:
      Notes:
      Film Number: M552 roll 36

      (3) Andersonville Prisoners of War [database online], Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 1999:

      Surname [?]: Ezra Frost
      Rank: PRIVATE
      Company: F
      Regiment: 135
      State: OH
      Arm of Service: INFANTRY
      Remarks: DIED JAN. 13, 1865, @ FLORENCE, SC
      Reference: p 629 [423]
      Location of Capture: NORTH MOUNTAIN, WV
      Date of Capture: 3 Jul 1864
      Page: 0
      More Information: NO
      Code: 43426
      Grave: 0

      (4) American Civil War Soldiers [database online], Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 1999:

      Name: Ezra Frost
      Enlistment Date: 2 May 1864
      Side Served: Union
      State Served: Ohio
      Service Record: Enlisted as a Private on 2 May 1864 at the age of 18.
      Enlisted in Company F, 135th Infantry Regiment Ohio on 8 May 1864.
      Died of disease as a POW Company F, 135th Infantry Regiment Ohio on 13 Jan 1865 at Florence, SC.
      Sources: 17,501

      (5) "Andersonville," Encyclopædia Brittanica, 2010, © 2010 Encyclopædia Brittanica, Inc.:

      Andersonville, village in Sumter county, southwest-central Georgia, U.S., that was the site of a Confederate military prison from February 1864 until May 1865 during the American Civil War. Andersonville - formally, Camp Sumter - was the South's largest prison for captured Union soldiers and was notorious for its unhealthy conditions and high death rate. The site of the camp has been preserved as Andersonville National Historic Site. The village, which is approximately one-quarter mile (0.4 km) from the camp, includes the railroad depot at which the prisoners arrived and the prison warden's office. Other attractions include a 7-acre (2.8-hectare) farm dating from the mid-19th century.

      In the summer of 1863 the U.S. federal authorities ended an agreement under which Union and Confederate captives were exchanged; the resultant increased number of Union prisoners of war confined in the capital city of Richmond, Va., constituted a danger to the Confederacy and put serious pressure on that city's food supply. In November 1863, Confederate authorities selected Andersonville, through which ran a stream, as the site for a stockade encompassing 16.5 acres (6.7 hectares). Prisoners began to arrive in February 1864, before the prison was completed and before adequate supplies had been received, and by May their number amounted to about 12,000. In June the stockade was enlarged to 26 acres (10.5 hectares), but the congestion was only temporarily relieved, and by August the number of prisoners exceeded 32,000.

      No shelter had been provided for the inmates: the first arrivals made rude sheds from the debris of the stockade; the others made tents of blankets and other available pieces of cloth or dug pits in the ground. By that time the resources of the Confederacy were stretched thin, and the prison was frequently short of food. Even when food was sufficient in quantity, it was of poor quality and was poorly prepared because of the lack of cooking utensils. The water supply, deemed ample when the prison was planned, became polluted under the congested conditions, and the medical staff was inadequate and poorly provisioned. During the summer of 1864 the prisoners suffered greatly from hunger, exposure, and disease, and in seven months about one-third of them died. In the autumn of 1864, after William Tecumseh Sherman's Union forces had captured Atlanta, all the prisoners who could be moved were sent to Millen, Ga., and Florence, S.C. Arrangements at Millen were better, and, when Sherman began his March to the Sea, some 5,000 prisoners were returned to Andersonville, where the conditions also were somewhat improved. In all, nearly 13,000 Union prisoners died at Andersonville from disease, malnutrition, and other causes.

      Conditions in Andersonville were utilized as propaganda material in the North, where Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton ordered retaliation on Confederates held in Union prisons. After the war, Capt. Henry Wirz, commander of the prison, was tried and convicted of war crimes by a military commission. Wirz rejected an offer of parole in exchange for his incrimination of Confederate president Jefferson Davis, and he was hanged on Nov. 10, 1865. He is the only person in the United States ever to have been executed for war crimes. Pop. (2000) 331; (2007 est.) 338.

      (6) "Andersonville National Historic Site," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, accessed January 24, 2011:

      The Andersonville prison, officially known as Camp Sumter, served as a Confederate Prisoner-of-war camp during the American Civil War. The site of the prison is now Andersonville National Historic Site in Andersonville, Georgia. Most of the site actually lies in extreme southwestern Macon County, adjacent to the east side of Andersonville. It includes the site of the Civil War prison, the Andersonville National Cemetery and the National Prisoner of War Museum. In all, 12,913 of the approximately 45,000 Union prisoners died there because of starvation, malnutrition, diarrhea, and disease.

      Conditions

      The prison, which opened in February 1864, originally covered about 23 acres (93,000 sq m) of land enclosed by a 15-foot (4.6 m) high stockade. In June 1864 it was enlarged to 26.5 acres (107,000 sq m). The stockade was in the shape of a rectangle 1,620 feet (490 m) by 779 feet (237 m). There were two entrances on the west side of the stockade, known as "north entrance" and "south entrance".

      A Union soldier described his entry into the prison camp:

      "As we entered the place, a spectacle met our eyes that almost froze our blood with horror, and made our hearts fail within us. Before us were forms that had once been active and erect; - stalwart men, now nothing but mere walking skeletons, covered with filth and vermin. Many of our men, in the heat and intensity of their feeling, exclaimed with earnestness. "Can this be hell?" "God protect us!" and all thought that He alone could bring them out alive from so terrible a place. In the center of the whole was a swamp, occupying about three or four acres of the narrowed limits, and a part of this marshy place had been used by the prisoners as a sink, and excrement covered the ground, the scent arising from which was suffocating. The ground allotted to our ninety was near the edge of this plague-spot, and how we were to live through the warm summer weather in the midst of such fearful surroundings, was more than we cared to think of just then."

      At Andersonville, a light fence known as "the dead line" was erected approximately 19 feet (5.8 m) inside the stockade wall. It demarcated a no-man's land that kept prisoners away from the stockade wall, which was made of rough-hewn logs about 16 feet (4.9 m) high. Anyone crossing this line was shot by sentries located in the pigeon roosts.

      Andersonville Prison was frequently undersupplied with food. Even when sufficient quantities were available, the supplies were of poor quality and poorly prepared. During the summer of 1864 Union prisoners suffered greatly from hunger, exposure and disease. Within seven months, about a third of them died from what was diagnosed as dysentery and scurvy and were buried in mass graves, the standard practice by Confederate prison authorities at Andersonville. In 1864 the Confederate Surgeon General asked Joseph Jones, an expert on infectious disease, to investigate the high mortality rate at the camp. He concluded that it was due to "scorbutic dysentery" (bloody diarrhea caused by vitamin C deficiency), yet in hindsight it is likely that the cause of fatal emaciation and diarrhea was rampant hookworm disease, a condition not recognized or known during the Civil War.

      The water supply from Stockade Creek became polluted when too many Union prisoners were housed by the Confederate authorities within the prison walls. Part of the creek was used as a sink and the men were forced to wash themselves in the creek.

      The guards, disease, starvation and exposure were not all that prisoners had to deal with. A group of prisoners, calling themselves the Andersonville Raiders, attacked their fellow inmates to steal food, jewelry, money and clothing. They were armed mostly with clubs and killed to get what they wanted. Another group rose up to stop the larceny, calling themselves "Regulators". They caught nearly all of the Raiders, who were then tried by a judge (Peter "Big Pete" McCullough) and jury selected from a group of new prisoners. This jury, upon finding the Raiders guilty, set punishment that included running the gauntlet, being sent to the stocks, ball and chain and, in six cases, hanging.

      In the autumn of 1864, after the capture of Atlanta, all the prisoners who were well enough to be moved were sent to Millen, Georgia, and Florence, South Carolina. At Millen, better arrangements prevailed, and after General William Tecumseh Sherman began his march to the sea, the prisoners were returned to Andersonville, where conditions were somewhat improved.

      During the war, 45,000 prisoners were received at Andersonville prison, and of these 12,913 died. The nature of the deaths and the reasons for them are a continuing source of controversy among historians. Some contend that they were a result of deliberate Confederate war crimes toward Union prisoners and others that they were the result of disease promoted by severe overcrowding, the shortage of food in the Confederate States, the incompetence of the prison officials and the refusal of the Confederate authorities to parole black soldiers, which resulted in the imprisonment of soldiers from both sides, thus overfilling the stockade.

      A young Union prisoner, Dorence Atwater, had been chosen to record the names and numbers of the dead at Andersonville for the use of the Confederacy and the federal government after the war ended. He believed the federal government would never see the list, and was right in this assumption, as it turned out. He sat next to Henry Wirz, who was in charge of the prison pen, and secretly kept his own list among other papers. When Atwater was released, he put the list in his bag and took it through the lines without being caught. It was published by the New York Times when Horace Greeley, the owner, learned that the federal government had refused and given Atwater much grief. It was Atwater's opinion that Andersonville was indeed trying to make soldiers unfit to fight.

      Aftermath

      After the war Henry Wirz, commandant at Camp Sumter, was court-martialed on charges of conspiracy and murder. The trial was presided over by Union General Lew Wallace and featured chief JAG (Judge Advocate General)'s prosecutor Norton Parker Chipman.

      A number of former prisoners testified on conditions at Andersonville, many accusing Wirz of specific acts of cruelty. The court also considered official correspondence from captured Confederate records. Perhaps the most damaging was a letter to the Confederate surgeon general by Dr. James Jones, who in 1864 was sent by Richmond to investigate conditions at Camp Sumter. Wirz presented evidence that he pleaded to Confederate authorities to try to get more food and tried to improve the conditions for the prisoners inside.

      Unfortunately for Wirz, President Abraham Lincoln had recently been assassinated, so the political environment was not sympathetic. Wirz was found guilty of murder and was sentenced to death. On November 10, 1865, he was hanged. Wirz was the only Confederate official to be tried and convicted of war crimes resulting from the Civil War. . . . The revelation of the sufferings of the prisoners was one of the factors that shaped public opinion in the North regarding the South after the close of the Civil War.

      In 1891 the Grand Army of the Republic, Department of Georgia bought the site of Andersonville Prison from membership and subscriptions. The site was purchased by the federal government in 1910.

      (7) "Florence Stockade," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, accessed January 24, 2011:

      The Florence Stockade, also known as The Stockade or the Confederate States Military Prison at Florence, was a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp located on the outskirts of Florence, South Carolina, during the American Civil War. It operated from September 1864 through February 1865; during this time, as many as 18,000 Union soldiers were imprisoned there, about 2,800 of whom died.

      History

      The Stockade was built and became operational in September 1864, and was in operation during the final fall and winter of the war. During its time of operation, anywhere from 15,000 to 18,000 captives were held there. The need for additional prisons became imperative after General Sherman captured Atlanta on September 1, 1864. Andersonville prison in south Georgia was thought to be in the path of Sherman and the Confederate prison authorities determined to relocate the approximately 30,000 Union prisoners then at Andersonville. Because Florence had three railroads, and was thought to be secure, it was chosen as a site for a newly constructed prison. To keep the Union soldiers in order during relocation, they were told that they were to be paroled. Many of those who were unable to walk or not stable enough to travel were left behind in Andersonville. Most of the prisoners who initially came to Florence were first transported to Charleston before making their way 90 miles inland to Florence. The Florence Stockade was still under construction when the first several thousand prisoners arrived.

      The Florence Stockade covered 23.5 acres (95,000 sq m) of land with a trench dug out around the outside to prevent prisoners from tunnelling out. After about a month of operation, there were about 12,000 prisoners and a death rate of 20 to 30 per day. Supplies were scarce for both the prisoners and the guards. Men were sleeping almost naked and with no blankets. In mid-October, the United States Sanitary Commission delivered supplies. Of the total number of prisoners that passed through the Florence Stockade, 2,802 Union soldiers died there and most were buried in unmarked trenches in what would become the Florence National Cemetery after the war.

      The Stockade was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

      The site is open to the public and is a component of the City of Florence Trail System. The City of Florence and the Friends of the Florence Stockade have developed a walking tour of the site. There is also an informational gazebo on-site containing a permanent display detailing the history of the site.
    Person ID I25240  Frost, Gilchrist and Related Families
    Last Modified 10 Sep 2018 

    Father John FROST,   b. 6 Jan 1817, Perry Township, Licking County, OH Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Feb 1892, Fallsbury Township, Licking County, OH Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 75 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Mother Jane ARNOLD,   b. 5 Jul 1818, Springfield, Muskingum County, OH Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 18 Oct 1871, Fallsbury Township, Licking County, OH Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 53 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Married 1833  Licking County, OH Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F11011  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart