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Capt. Marshall Harlan AUSTIN, Sr.

Male 1911 - 2005  (94 years)


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  • Name Marshall Harlan AUSTIN 
    Title Capt. 
    Suffix Sr. 
    Born 14 Jun 1911  Eldorado, Jackson County, OK Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Social Security No. 444-40-6245 
    Name Marshal Harlan "Pluto" AUSTIN 
    Name Marshall Harlan "Cy" AUSTIN 
    Died 19 Jul 2005  Sacramento County, CA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Arlington County, VA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 

    • (1) Source: Patricia Sikorovsky .

      (2) U.S. Naval Academy, Class of 1935, Lucky Bag Yearbook, p. 256:

      MARSHALL HARLAN AUSTIN

      "Cy" "Pluto" "Plute"

      PLUTO is suspicious of "city slickers" but is slick enough himself to copy their talents until now he is a damsel player extraordinary; he bowls 'em over by platoons. He spends his time in the spring in a racing shell, rowing up the river backwards. He doesn't care where he's going; he wants to know where he's been. During other seasons, his activities vary from snaking at Carvel to sleeping in a bunk three sizes too small - (he's always had trouble keeping his head and feet warm at the same time). He takes a cold shower every morning, considers sand blowers of no consequence, and thinks Maryland is the land that God forgot.

      (3) W. C. Austin: Pioneer and Public Servant <http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v031/v031p066.pdf>:

      Three of the Austin children served in World War II: Lowell E. Austin, USNR; Marshall Harlan Austin (grad. U. S. Naval Academy, 1935), Commander U.S.S. Redfin and U.S.S. Spearfish in Pacific Theatre; and Harriet P. Austin, Lieut. (jg) in the Waves.

      (4) http://digital.library.okstate.edu/chronicles/v025/v025p159.pdf:

      He [William Claude AUSTIN] was united in marriage on November 3, 1901 to Lillie Etta Austin, at Countyline Church, Howard County, Arkansas, and to this union came the following children:- . . .

      Marshall Harlan Austin, who married Sally Flenigan and who is now serving in charge of USS Tusk, having completed the Naval Academy in 1935, and who was Commander in charge of USS Redfin and USS Spearfish in the Pacific Theatre in World War II, receiving various citations, now resides at New London, Conn. . . .

      (5) Sturma, Michael, The USS Flier: Death and Survival on a World War II Submarine, Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 2008, pp. 111-127:

      [Note: The fate of the USS Flier is one of the most astonishing stories of the Second World War. On August 13, 1944, the submarine struck a mine and sank to the bottom of the Sulu Sea in less than one minute, leaving only fourteen of its crew of eighty-six hands alive. After enduring eighteen hours in the water, eight remaining survivors swam to a remote island controlled by the Japanese. Deep behind enemy lines and without food or drinking water, the crewmen realized that their struggle for survival had just begun.

      On its first war patrol, the unlucky Flier made it from Pearl Harbor to Midway where it ran aground on a reef. After extensive repairs and a formal military inquiry, the Flier set out once again, this time completing a distinguished patrol from Pearl Harbor to Fremantle, Western Australia. Though the Flier???s next mission would be its final one, that mission is important for several reasons: the story of the Flier???s sinking illuminates the nature of World War II underwater warfare and naval protocol and demonstrates the high degree of cooperation that existed among submariners, coast watchers, and guerrillas in the Philippines.

      The eight sailors who survived the disaster became the first Americans of the Pacific war to escape from a sunken submarine and return safely to the United States. Their story of persistence and survival has all the elements of a classic World War II tale: sudden disaster, physical deprivation, a ruthless enemy, and a dramatic escape from behind enemy lines. In The USS Flier: Death and Survival on a World War II Submarine, noted historian Michael Sturma vividly recounts a harrowing story of brave men who lived to return to the service of their country.

      The portion of this book extracted below relates to the USS Redfin and its commander, Marshall Harlan AUSTIN.]

      USS Redfin

      The USS Redfin (SS-272) was one of twenty-eight submarines constructed at Manitowoc, Wisconsin, under license from the Electric Boat Company. At one stage the Redfin had lain side by side with the USS Robalo, which was also being built there. The Manitowoc yard's most distinctive engineering feat was the manner in which the submarines were launched: they were dropped sideways into Lake Michigan instead of the traditional stern-first launch into the water. From Manitowoc the submarines were floated more than 1,000 miles down the Illinois and Mississippi rivers until they reached New Orleans.

      After being commissioned on 31 August 1943, the Redfin left New Orleans for Fremantle [Australia] on 15 October 1943. This was unusual, since most new submarines made their way to Pearl Harbor for their initial patrols. Only after operating out of Fremantle for a year did the Redfin head for Pearl Harbor as part of a wolf pack with the USS Barbero and the USS Haddo.

      The Redfin made its first war patrol out of Fremantle on 4 January 1944, skippered by Robert Donovan King. After this patrol, on 2 March 1944, King was replaced by Lieutenant Commander Marshall Harlan "Cy" Austin. The thirty-three-year-old Austin was from Eldorado, Oklahoma, and had graduated from the Naval Academy with the class of 1935. At the academy, Austin was remembered as an avid rower and for his habit of taking a cold shower every morning. He entered the submarine service in 1940 and had been deployed in the Philippines when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. At the time, his wife was back in Honolulu, only weeks away from giving birth to their first child.

      Under Cy Austin, the Redfin departed for its second war patrol on 19 March. During this patrol the Redfin sank two Japanese freighters as well as the destroyer Akigumo. The highly mobile Akigumo had been an escort for the Japanese forces attacking Pearl Harbor, participated in the Battle of Midway, and later helped evacuate Japanese troops from Kiska in the Aleutians. On 11 April 1944 the Redfin torpedoed the destroyer some thirty miles south-east of Zamboanga in the Philippines. The ship went down with 137 men, including its captain, Lieutenant Commander Atsuo Iritono. This was an impressive debut for Austin's first command. The Redfin received credit for sinking an estimated 10,000 tons of enemy shipping, making it the most successful Fremantle-based patrol of the month.

      The Redfin began its third patrol on 26 May 1944 in the company of the USS Harder, commanded by Sam Dealey. The two submarines already shared an impressive history: on the same day the Redfin sank the Akigumo, the Harder sank the Ikazuchi, another Japanese destroyer. As they left Fremantle for their fifth war patrol, the Harder and Dealey were about to enter the realm of submarine legend. Carrying two Australian commandos, the Harder was headed for Borneo to rescue a group of secret operatives being pursued by the Japanese. In addition to rescuing the operatives, the Harder claimed the sinking of five Japanese destroyers along the way. It would he proclaimed one of the most brilliant submarine patrols of the war.

      The Redfin's patrol would prove highly successful as well. On their way north, the Redfin and the Harder stopped at Exmouth Gulf to refuel. In addition to its regular crew, the Redfin carried a small intelligence party bound for Balabac Strait-Sergeant Amondo Corpus and five enlisted men, the some group that would later radio Australia and inform headquarters of the Flier's fate. The commandos on board both submarines took the opportunity to train at Exsmouth. Corpus and his men practiced handling their rubber boats and borrowed a manila line from the Harder that would later be used to help land their equipment.

      Having landed Corpus and his coast watchers on Ramos Island on 8 June, the Redfin proceeded to carry out reconnaissance off the Japanese anchorage at Tawi Tawi. On the morning of 13 June, Austin watched as a vanguard of destroyers and two heavy cruisers departed Tawi Tawi. A couple of hours later a fleet of at least six aircraft carriers, four battleships, five heavy cruisers, and their escorts emerged from the anchorage. The submarine was unable to close on the Japanese ships or to keep up with them as they steamed off. That evening, though, the Redfin sent a radio message about the fleet's movement. This intelligence, combined with that of other submarines, including the Harder, made a substantial contribution to the American victory in what became the Battle of the Philippine Sea.

      At the end of the patrol the Redfin radioed that it was heading back to the bam for some "moose milk"-a minute of whiskey, Advocat liqueur, and milk. On leave, Austin and his officers had developed a reputation for drinking the strange concoction. The Redfin received credit for sinking two enemy ships, later confirmed by JANAC. The Redfin commenced its fourth war patrol when it departed Fremantle on the afternoon of 6 August 1944, along with the USS Jack. Eight days later the Redfin passed through the Malay Barrier at Lombok Strait, exchanging recognition signals with the south- bound USS Cabrilla. By 19 August the Redfin was laying mines at Api Passage, replenishing a field of twenty-three mines initially laid by the USS Trout in April 1943. Austin and his crew may have reflected on the fact that the Trout was now missing, having disappeared with all hands on its eleventh war patrol in February 1944.

      A few days later the Redfin was patrolling west of the Balabac Islands. Austin was clearly aware of the danger posed by enemy mines, and on the afternoon of 22 August he noted in the patrol report, "I did not know my position very well and was afraid of the mine fields." At 9:00 P.M. on 24 August the submarine received instructions to proceed to coordinates in the Sulu Sea. The Redfin reached its destination at about noon on 27 August, and at 6:40 that evening it was ordered to patrol the central Sulu Sea area. The Redfin headed east toward the atoll-like Tubbataha Reefs, located about 100 miles southeast of Puerto Princesa. The following day, near midnight, the crew received instructions for a special mission. Given the Redfin's recent experience with special missions in the Palawan area-that is, landing the coast watchers on Ramos-it was an obvious choice to pick up the stranded Flier crewmen. Austin's personal reaction to these orders is unknown, but most submarine commanders were less than enthusiastic about the prospect of a special mission. Many skippers resented any distraction from what they perceived as their main objective-sinking Japanese shipping. In fact, submarines on special missions were often forbidden to attack enemy ships, to avoid compromising the operation.

      Robert Foley, skipper of the Gato, complained that special missions meant not only time off station but also danger due to shallow waters and enemy ambushes. These dangers were all too familiar to Austin and the Redfin crew. During its second patrol out of Fremantle, the Redfin had attempted to extract a group of Australian commandos, code-named Python, from northeastern Borneo. Harried by the Japanese and running short of food, the commandos were desperate for evacuation. The Redfin reached the proposed rendezvous on 2 May 1944, but when a boat party from the submarine went in to get the commandos, it was ambushed by the Japanese. The submariners were lucky to escape with their lives, and the planned evacuation was aborted. These Python commandos were the same men eventually rescued in June by the Harder.

      Memories of the aborted rescue attempt on Borneo may have dampened the Redfin crew's enthusiasm for a similar mission. However, the prospect of rescuing fellow submariners likely tempered their aversion to getting too close to shore.

      The Redfin surfaced at 6:40 P.M. on 29 August, setting course to carry out its mission. The submarine was supposed to rendezvous with a "friendly boat party" at 8:00 P.M. on 30 August off Brooke's Point. Austin's orders were to pick up not only the eight Flier crewmen but also a British missionary and his family. If the coast was clear, three white lights would shine from the Brooke's Point lighthouse.

      In the early hours of 30 August the Redfin made radar contort with Tagalinog Island, an eighteen-hectare dot in the ocean not far off Brooke's Point. The Redfin patrolled to the east, and before sunrise it dived and began navigating a course to the rendezvous point. By early afternoon the crew sported a cargo ship heading toward Brooke's Point from the north. To their dismay, it anchored within a mile of the rendezvous coordinates. Was this an unlucky coincidence or a Japanese trap?

      The Redfin crept to within 3,000 yards of the suspect craft. It did not appear to be armed, but it definitely carried radio equipment. The submarine watched and waited.

      Evacuees

      From shore the Flier survivors also watched with unease as a Japanese ship parked itself near the designated rendezvous point ar 1:30 in the afternoon. Crowley and his men had arrived at the beach that morning, transported by water buffalo. Some of the men were still without shoes.

      The Japanese craft was described as a small maru, or sea truck, of about 200 tons. The Japanese relied heavily on such small wooden cargo ships for logistical support. The sea trucks were typically distinguished by their boxlike design, and they were sometimes armed with machine guns, mortars, or a three-inch gun. This particular ship did not appear to be armed, but its presence was a severe blow to the men's morale, since they assumed that the Japanese had somehow gotten wind of the rescue plan. Nevertheless, they continued to prepare for their departure.

      The number of evacuees had more than doubled from the original eight survivors of the Flier to a total of seventeen. Included among this number were a Scottish missionary, his wife, and their son and daughter. A. M. Sutherland, described as "representing no particular faith," had lived on Palawan Island for the past twelve years. His son, Alistair, was six years old, and his daughter, Heather, was only three. Sutherland mainly looked after the health of the locals, but he also seemed to be eager to contribute to the Allied war effort, He claimed to have some knowledge of Japanese airfields on the island and the prison camp at Puerto Princesa. The day after the Flier survivors arrived at the home of T. H. Edwards, Sutherland had paid them a visit, and at Crowley's request, the missionary conducted a religious service for them. Jacobson described Sutherland as "a fine person" and the church service as ??very impressive."

      A number of others also waited at Brooke's Point, hoping to catch a ride to Australia on the Redfin. Each man had his own extraordinary story of survival in the wake of the Japanese invasion. Two of the men were from the U.S. Army. George V. Marquez and William E. Wigfield had enlisted in 1940 and were working on the ground crew at the Nichols Field air base in Manila when the war broke out. On 14 December 1941 they were evacuated to Mindoro, and after the surrender of Bataan in April 1942, Marquez, Wigfield, and about fifty others headed for the hills. They made their way to northern Panay and then sailed south in a boat. They were at Cuyo Island when the Japanese troops arrived on 20 May 1942. Most of their companions surrendered to the Japanese, but the two ex-soldiers took to the hills again. They arrived at Brooke's Point in December 1943.

      Charles O. Watkins was an American sailor. He had been with the ground forces of Pat Wing 10 at Olongopo, but after evacuation he ended up with the Naval Coast Defense Battalion at Marvivalles. In March 1942 he transferred to Fort Hughes in Manila Bay, and he surrendered to the Japanese on 6 May 1942. He spent some time in Bilibid Prison at Manila and a prison camp on northern Luzon. From there Watkins endured a forced march to the Bonbabong concentration camp. Along with 350 other prisoners, he was eventually sent by freighter to the prison camp at Puerta Princesa. He escaped from that camp on 12 August 1942 and later met up with Marquez and Wigfield in northern Palawan.

      Henry C. Garretson was a U.S. citizen and a civil engineer. He had worked in the Philippines since 1920, first for the government and later in business for himself. Once the war began he worked as a demolition engineer for the armyand helped salvage arms and ammunition from the SS Panay, which had been sunk in March 1942 by Japanese planes in Campomanes Bay at the island of Negros. Divers retrieved the Panay's cargo to arm the local guerrillas. In September 1942 Garretson headed south in an attempt to recruit help for the guerrillas on Panay and Negros. By the time he reached Brooke's Point he had contracted malaria. He stayed in the area and helped organize the Philippine constabulary force.

      The night before the planned evacuation, Vent Kerson arrived at the Edwards home. He had been traveling the district, collecting rice to help feed the guerrillas and sometimes trading beer or whiskey salvaged from Japanese ships. Jacobson declared the forty-four-year-old Kerson to be "one of the moat interesting persons I have ever met." Austin described him as a "soldier of fortune." Kerson had fought the Japanese at Shanghai in 1932 and later joined the American army at Cebu after the war began. His skills included diving and, like- Garretson, he had worked on the salvage of the Panay. After living for a time in the mountains, he traveled to Brooke's Point and, as previously noted, led the local guerrilla movement for a time. Not the least of his dangerous activities included dismantling Japanese mines that washed ashore; he then used the black powder to reload shotgun shells for the guerrillas.

      To make their escape, the evacuees borrowed two boats from a local Moro described as the "District Dato." One of the boats was equipped with an outboard motor and a hand-cranked radio. There was no shortage of fuel, since it was not uncommon for fifty-gallon drums of gasoline to wash ashore from Japanese ships. There was, however, a shortage of lubricating oil, and Crowley promised to provide the Moro boat owner with some oil from the Redfin when it arrived. They also borrowed a portable transmitter-receiver from the coast watchers to carry in one of the boats. With the Japanese ship still sitting offshore that evening, there was no way to display the designated signal from the Brooke's Point lighthouse. The Flier men and the other evacuees set off in the two boats, one towing the other, at about 8:00 P.M. The plan was to go down the coast for three or four miles, carefully avoiding the anchored Japanese ship, and attempt to contact the Redfin by radio. Unfortunately, they got no response from the Redfin. They decided to keep moving southeast, taking them even farther from the Japanese ship. If they were still unable to establish radio contact, at least they could attempt a light signal. Once in position, Russo tried to signal the submarine with a shielded lamp.

      When they failed again to make contact with the submarine, the evacuees grew increasingly tense. Unbeknownst to them, the Redfin had actually received a message from the boats earlier in the evening using the designated codes, but it had been unable to establish two-way communication. At around 11:00 P.M. a discouraged Austin took the Redfin out to sea to charge the batteries. Back in the boats, some of the evacuees claimed that they could hear the submarine's engines, but others dismissed this as wishful thinking.

      Finally, near midnight, radio contact was made using continuous-wave keying. Apparently, static from the boat's outboard motor had prevented them from establishing voice communications. By this time, the boats were five miles off Brooke's Point, and at 12:43 A.M. the Redfin spotted them.

      As it happened, the Redfin was carrying two Australian commandos. Following the Harder's successful use of commandos to evacuate the Python operatives from Borneo, Admiral Ralph Christie agreed to their routine presence on U.S. submarines. Designated Operation Politician, the idea was that these men might be useful in checking local sailing craft, carrying out beach reconnaissance, conducting interrogations, or attacking targets of opportunity. The policy of assigning pairs of Australian commandos to some submarines continued until May 1945.

      Major William Jinkins, planner and leader of the Python extraction, was now on the Redfin. He was assisted by Lieutenant T. J. Barnes. The pair had already made themselves useful by checking sailboats for Japanese soldiers or radios that might be used to transmit the positions of U.S. submarines. On 29 August Christie wrote to Vice Admiral Thomas Kinkaid and noted how fortunate it was that the Redfin was carrying Jinkins and Barnes, along with their special equipment.

      To ensure that there was no trap, Jinkins and Barnes paddled a low-profile canoe, known as a folboat, to the evacuees' waiting boats. Once the crowded boats were checked, the submarine pulled alongside and flooded down to take on the passengers. Austin, an old friend of Crowley, was able to recognize his voice. Although Austinhad been four years behind Crowley at the Naval Academy, in the small world of submarine skippers, most of them knew one another personally. Austin was also pleasantly surprised to recognize two of the coast watchers he had landed on Ramos Island on 8 June. The radio equipment being used had also been shipped in by the Redfin.

      By shortly after 1:00 the evacuees were on board, and the Redfin's crew began off-loading arms and stores for the guerrillas. They emptied out most of the submarine's armory, including two .30-caliber Browning automatic rifles capable of firing 500 rounds a minute, two .30-caliber machine guns, two .45-caliber Thompson submachine guns, four .30-caliber Springfield rifles, three .30-caliber M-1 rifles, and ten .45-caliber Colt automatic pistols. This hardware was accompanied by nearly 26,000 rounds of ammunition.

      In addition to the promised lube oil, the Redfin left considerable stores for the coast watchers and the guerrillas: medical supplies, food, writing materials, radio tubes, playing cards, soap, toilet paper, and 200 cartons of cigarettes. At 1:51 A.M. the coast watchers set off in the two small boats, which were now full of booty. Meanwhile, the civilians and the military evacuees who had never been on a submarine were about to enter the unnerving world of underwater travel.

      On Board

      With the stores for the guerrillas off-loaded and the passengers safely aboard, Austin decided to attack the Japanese ship that had made such a nuisance of itself. At 2:41 A.M. the Redfin pulled within 2,500 yards of the ship and opened fire with its four-inch and 20 mm deck guns. The four-inch gun was capable of firing thirty-three-pound high-explosive shells up to 16,000 yards; the 20 mm gun had a more modest maximum range of 4,800 yards.

      Sitting against the darkened landscape, the Japanese craft presented a difficult target. When the firing commenced, the ship quickly hoisted anchor and headed into shallow water. The Redfin gave chase but had to abandon the pursuit fifteen minutes later, after firing twenty-seven rounds from the four-inch gun and another sixty rounds of 20 mm ammunition. Although the darkness made it difficult to judge, Austin believed that they had scored no more than two or three hits on the skip. In fact, it was discovered later that shells from the submarine's four-inch gun had exploded in the surrounding hills, fortunately doing no harm to civilians.

      Despite their failure to sink theship, the new passengers seemed to enjoy the excitement. Austin noted in his report on the mission that six-year-old Alistair Sutherland had yelled "Kill the Japsl" during the entire attack.

      For those new to submarine transport, the experience could be exhilarating or frightening, depending on their point of view. The younger the passengers, the more quickly they seemed to acclimatize. Coast watcher Bob Stahl recalled the unnerving noises of crackling and knocking that accompanied running submerged. One of his fellow passengers suffered a black eye and abrasions after failing to get down a ladder quickly enough during a crash dive. The most daunting task, however was adapting to the stench belowdecks. A combination of fuel oil, cooking aromas, cigarette smoke, and body odor pervaded the boat. The olfactory senses eventually became numbed, but the process began anew after each exposure to fresh air. Years after leaving the service, a mere whiff of diesel fuel could transport some submariners back to their days on patrol.

      Most passengers were confined to the forward or after torpedo rooms, where torpedoes occupied much of the limited space. For the general safety of the craft, they were rarely allowed to move about, apart from the necessity of visiting the head, where they had to compete with the crew for the two toilet stalls. The complicated mechanisms of the head presented their own dangers, since turning the wrong valves or levers could result in blowback. Sleeping quarters usually consisted of nothing more than a hard deck, with little comfort other than a blanket. For the crew, taking on passengers could lift their morale and afforded a welcome break in the routine. Children were especially popular, and they often left the submarine wearing miniature sailor's uniforms.

      After the initial excitement of being rescued, the Flier survivors likely experienced a period of anxiety on the Redfin. A common reaction among wartime shipwreck survivors was an apprehension that their rescue vessels would be sunk on the return passage. During the cruise back to Australia, the Redfin's pharmacist's mate treated the Flier men for various cuts and injuries; he also put them on a course of quinine and atabrine to prevent malaria. Although Tremaine suffered from attacks of malaria, the health of the remaining survivors quickly improved.

      The Redfin made its way south through the Sibutu Strait, Bangka Strait, and Molucca Passage, arriving off Darwin in the early hours of 5 September. After exchanging recognition signals with the USS Nautilus, the Redfin moored at the main jetty at 7:40 A.M. There, the evacuees from Palawan Island parted company with the Redfin, and personnel from the tender USS Coucal began carrying out minor repairs on the submarine.

      In total, almost 500 people were evacuated by submarine from the Philippines. The first large group that included civilians was transported by the oversized cruiser submarine Narwhal in November 1943. These operations were kept top secret, since it was feared that if the Japanese learned of the evacuation program, there would be wholesale reprisals.

      People evacuated from the Philippines were considered important potential sources of intelligence. From Darwin they were flown by army transport planes to Queensland. To maintain secrecy, the American Red Cross took over the small Strathalan Hotel at Caloundra, seventy miles north of Brisbane, which provided a relatively isolated locale for debriefings by G-2 and counterintelligence officers. Evacuees were usually given about a month to recover, both physically and mentally, before embarking for the United States, and Alice Thompson of the Red Cross headed the recuperation center. Operations at the hotel were wound up in August 1944, an it is unclear whether thepassengers from the Redfin ever reached this destination.

      The town of Darwin's devastated appearance, the result of successive Japanese bombings, often shocked newcomers. Early in the war, the U.S. Navy had considered using Darwin as a major submarine base, but the lack of amenities and the characteristics of the harbor ruled this out. The expansive harbor was vulnerable to enemy mines, and huge tides made mooring next to a submarine tender extremely difficult. Submarine crews sometimes had to climb a tall ladder to disembark at the dock; then, on their return, they had to climb up to board the submarine. Despite these limications, by early 1944 Darwin was an important staging base for submarines. The port offered little in the way of recreational facilities, however, so crews usually made a quick turnaround, heading back to sea after taking on fuel and torpedoes.

      The Redfin crew received a mail delivery from Perth the evening they arrived ar Darwin, and they spent most of the next day relaxing. The Coucal supplied the crew with beer, and softball games were organized. In the early evening the wardrooms from the Redfin and the Nautilus attended a barbecue at the new submarine officers' dub.

      After being refueled and reloaded with torpedoes, the Redfin departed Darwin at 9:00 P.M. on 6 September. Austin and his crew headed for the Java Sea and continued their patrol off the south and east coasts of Celebes. The Redfin claimed the sinking of one tanker and damage to another in torpedo attacks. It also sank a trawler and a sampan using the deck guns. Next the crew performed "lifeguard" duties, searching for downed aviators off Balikpapan, Borneo.

      Australian commando Bill Jinkins remained on board, but T. J. Barnes had been replaced by another commando, Alec Chew. Only a few months earlier, Jinkins and the USS Harder had helped evacuate Chew and others from Borneo as the Japanese closed in on them. On the Redfin, Jinkins and Chew were ready for action in the event that reconnaissance of an island became necessary or a limpet mine attack was called for.

      The Redfin returned to Fremantle on 4 October 1944. Due to the "variety of passengers" it had taken on, including a couple of prisoners picked up during the second half of the patrol, Austin requested that the boat be fumigated and the mattresses renovated. The fourth patrol proved to be the Redfin's longest to date, with fifty-seven days ar sea. It was also one of the least successful in terms of Japanese shipping sunk. Despite the claim that it had destroyed one ship at 5,100 tons, this was never confirmed by JANAC.

      The rescued Flier crew spent the night in Darwin and received some fresh clothing from the army. The following day they were flown to Perth on Admiral Christie's private plane. After a twelve-hour flight, they arrived at the airport in Perth near midnight, where they were greeted by Christie's chief of staff and a pair of captains.

      Once in Perth, the Flier survivors were split up. John Crowley stayed at Admiral Christie's residence. James Liddell and Alvin Jacobson were given a suite of rooms in the bachelor officers' quarters. The remaining enlisted men were lodged in another part of the city. According to Jacobson, they were given two days to draw some pay and obtain new clothing. All except Crowley were then flown to the inland mining town of Kalgoorlie. Jacobson observed, "The admiral did not think that it was a good idea for us to be around sailors who were going back to sea." After ten days in Kalgoorlie they returned for a brief stay in Perth. Within a couple of days, Jacobson was on a plane headed for the United States.

      At least same of the Flier men, including Crowley, reported aboard the USS Euryale, officially designated the Flier's tender. Some nicknamed the ship the "O'Reilly," but it was also commonly known as the "Urinal." Ironically, the Flier's crew had never laid eyes on the ship before; the converted freighter had served at forward bases before heading to Fremantle in August 1944. Recalling the whole episode much later, Jacobson would conclude, "Thus ended a major experience of my life." For Crowley, however, the ordeal was far from over.

      (6) Social Security Death Index:

      Name: Marshall H. Austin
      SSN: 444-40-6245
      Last Residence: 95608 Carmichael, Sacramento, California
      Born: 14 Jun 1911
      Died: 19 Jul 2005
      State (Year) SSN issued: Oklahoma (1956-1957)

      (7) Nationwide Gravesite Locator <http://gravelocator.cem.va.gov/j2ee/servlet/NGL_v1>:

      AUSTIN, MARSHALL H
      CAPT US NAVY
      DATE OF BIRTH: 06/14/1911
      DATE OF DEATH: 07/19/2005
      BURIED AT: SECTION 7 SITE 9941-ALH
      ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY
      C/O DIRECTOR ARLINGTON, VA 22211
      (703) 607-8000

      AUSTIN, SARAH JANE
      DATE OF BIRTH: 04/28/1916
      DATE OF DEATH: 06/05/1996
      BURIED AT: SECTION 7 SITE 9941-ALH
      ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY
      C/O DIRECTOR ARLINGTON, VA 22211
      (703) 607-8000
      WIFE OF AUSTIN, MARSHALL H
      CAPT US NAVY
    Person ID I16874  Frost, Gilchrist and Related Families
    Last Modified 29 May 2018 

    Father William Claude AUSTIN,   b. 24 Jan 1880, Nashville, Howard County, AR Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 5 Oct 1946, Altus, Jackson County, OK Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 66 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Mother Lillie Etta DILDY,   b. 19 Jan 1881, Howard County, AR Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Oct 1964, Altus, Jackson County, OK Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 83 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Married 3 Nov 1901  Nashville, Howard County, AR Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F7526  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Sarah Jane FLENNIKEN,   b. 28 Apr 1916, PA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 5 Jun 1996, Sacramento County, CA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 80 years) 
    Married 28 Jan 1940  Hamburg, Erie County, NY Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Living
     2. Living
     3. Living
    Last Modified 29 May 2018 13:23:14 
    Family ID F7551  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart