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25401 (1) Whitaker, Thomas Dunham, The History and Antiquities of the Deanery of Craven, in the County of York, London, England, Nichols and Son, 1805, p. 116:

Hamerton appears to be the town of Amer, which is the same word with AImer, or Aylmer, a well-known Saxon appellative. The first of the name which occurs is Richard de Hamerton, in 1170, 26 Hen. II. The next is Stephen, who paid a composition of 8s. for scutage in 1210. The next is Orme de Hamerton, a benefactor to Edisford Hospital, near Clitheroe. To this Orme succeeded John his son, of whom nothing more is known; and he by Richard, who, as appears by Kirkby's Inquisition, 13 Edw. I. held one carucate of land in Hamerton and Riston of Henry de Lacy earl of Lincoln.

He was succeeded by Stephen his son, who was living 9 Edw. II.; and had a son John, deceased some time before 33 Edw. III. leaving Adam, who, marrying . . . Katherine daughter of Elias de Knolle, brought into the family the manors of Wigglesworth, Knolsmere, and Hellifield Peele.
HAMERTON, John de (I44245)
25402 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Annis Boudinot Stockton

Annis Boudinot Stockton (July 1, 1736 - February 6, 1801) was an American poet, one of the first women to be published in the Thirteen Colonies. Her poems appeared in leading newspapers and magazines of the day. She was the author of more than 120 works, but it was not until 1985, when a manuscript copybook long held privately was given to the New Jersey Historical Society, that most became known. Before that, she was known to have written 40 poems. The copybook contained poems that tripled her known work. A collection of her full works was published in 1995.

A member of the New Jersey elite, Stockton was the only woman to be elected as an honorary member of the American Whig Society. The secret group in Princeton had been opposed to the Crown before the American Revolutionary War. Afterward, they recognized Stockton's service in protecting their papers during the British attack on the town.

The wife of the prominent attorney Richard Stockton, Annis became known as the "Duchess of Morven", the name of their estate in Princeton, New Jersey. She had a correspondence with George Washington, whom they had entertained, and sent him numerous poems.

Early life and education

Annis Boudinot was born in Darby, Pennsylvania, to Elias Boudinot, a merchant and silversmith, and Catherine Williams. Her father's family had been French Huguenot refugees who came to North America in the late 17th century. She was second of ten children, but only about half survived to adulthood.

Marriage and family

About 1757, Boudinot married Richard Stockton, an attorney from a prominent family. Part of the New Jersey elite class, they had several children.

During the American Revolution, he was one of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence. Annis Stockton became known as the "Duchess of Morven," their mansion and estate in Princeton, New Jersey. It was named after a mythical Gaelic kingdom.

During the war, the British under General Cornwallis plundered Morven, burned Richard Stockton's "splendid library and papers, and drove off his stock, much of which was blooded and highly valuable." Her husband had escaped but was later captured and imprisoned by the British. He suffered lasting ill effects to his health and died in 1781 at the age of 51, before the official end of the war.

The Boudinot-Stockton families were also connected through Annis' younger brother Elias Boudinot. He had studied law with her husband to prepare for the bar. After getting established as an attorney, Elias married Hannah Stockton, Richard's younger sister. Boudinot became a statesman from New Jersey and was elected as President of the Continental Congress in 1782-1783. He signed the Treaty of Paris.

Literary career

Annis Boudinot Stockton was one of America's first female published poets. She published 21 poems in the "most prestigious newspapers and magazines of her day." They addressed political and social issues, and she used the wide variety of genres considered integral to neoclassical writing: odes, pastorals, elegies, sonnets, epitaphs, hymns, and epithalamia. Her works were read both in the colonies and internationally, in England and in France.

She was well known as a prolific writer among her Middle Atlantic writing circle. The group included Elizabeth Graeme Ferguson, Benjamin Young Prime, Samuel Stanhope Smith, Philip Freneau, and Hugh Henry Brackenridge. Stockton's connection to Ferguson also linked her to such women writers as Anna Young Smith, Susanna Wright, Milcah Martha Moore and Hannah Griffitts. At the time, many of these writers passed most of their works to each other in manuscript. This was particularly true of women. Because of that, they were not as well known to later scholars as writers whose works were published, but they represented an active and influential part of the literary culture. In the late twentieth century, more manuscripts of their works have been made public.

In 1984 a large manuscript copybook containing numerous poems and other pieces by Stockton was donated to the New Jersey Historical Society by Christine Carolyn McMillan Cairnes and her husband George H. Cairnes. The following year, it was made available to researchers for the first time. Before then, Stockton was known to have written 40 poems, but the copybook expanded the total of her works threefold. In 1995 Carla Mulford published a collection of 125 poems, all of Stockton's known pieces; she also provided a lengthy introduction that provided insights into the poet's time and late eighteenth-century society.

A Patriot in her own right, prior to the British invasion of Princeton, Stockton rescued and hid important papers of the American Whig Society, which was a secret society important to the revolution. After the war, the Society honored her as an honorary member for her services. She was the only woman to be so recognized.

In correspondence with George Washington, whom she had hosted at Morven, Stockton sent him both poems and letters. His reply to one, giving an idea of their shared topics, may be seen at The Papers of George Washington.


Annis Boudinot Stockton
Birth: Jul. 1, 1736
Death: Feb. 6, 1801, Fieldsboro, Burlington County, New Jersey, USA . . .

Family links: Parents: Elias Boudinot (1706 - 1770), Mary Catherine Williams Boudinot (1715 - 1765); Spouse: Richard Stockton (1730 - 1781); Children: Richard Stockton (1764 - 1828)

Burial: Christ Church Burial Ground, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA
Plot: Rush Family Plot

Maintained by: Find A Grave
Originally Created by: Nikita Barlow
Record added: Jun 09, 2005
Find A Grave Memorial# 11131407 
BOUDINOT, Annis (I32484)
25403 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I36210)
25404 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Conrad Hilton

Conrad Nicholson Hilton (December 25, 1887 - January 3, 1979) was an American hotelier and the founder of the Hilton Hotels chain.

Early life

Conrad Hilton was born in San Antonio, New Mexico. His father, Augustus Halvorsen Hilton, was an immigrant from Norway and his Catholic mother, Mary Genevieve (née Laufersweiler), was an American of German descent. Hilton grew up with seven siblings: Felice A. Hilton, Eva C. Hilton, Carl H. Hilton, Julian Hilton (died in infancy), Rosemary J. Hilton, August H. Hilton and Helen A. Hilton.

Hilton attended the Goss military (New Mexico Military Institute), and St. Michael's College (now Santa Fe University of Art and Design), and the New Mexico School of Mines (now New Mexico Tech). He was a member of the international fraternity Tau Kappa Epsilon. In his early twenties, Hilton was a Republican representative in the first New Mexico Legislature, when the state was newly formed. He served two years in the U.S. Army during World War I. His father was killed in a car accident while he was serving in the Army in France.

The most enduring influence to shape Hilton's philanthropic philosophy beyond that of his parents was the Roman Catholic Church and his sisters. He credited his mother with guiding him to prayer and the church whenever he was troubled or dismayed - from the boyhood loss of a beloved pony to severe financial losses during the Great Depression. His mother continually reminded him that prayer was the best investment he would ever make.


As a young boy, Hilton developed entrepreneurial skills working at his father's general store in Socorro County, New Mexico. This was followed by varied experiences, including a stint as a representative in New Mexico's first State Legislature and a career decision to become a banker.

It was with the intention of buying a bank that he arrived in Texas at the height of the oil boom. He bought his first hotel instead, the 40-room Mobley Hotel in Cisco, Texas, in 1919, when a bank purchase fell through. The hotel did such brisk business that rooms changed hands as much as three times a day, and the dining room was converted into additional rooms to meet the demand.

He went on to buy and build hotels throughout Texas, including the high rise Dallas Hilton, opened in 1925; the Abilene Hilton in 1927; Waco Hilton in 1928; and El Paso Hilton in 1930. He built his first hotel outside of Texas in 1939 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, today known as the Hotel Andaluz. During the Great Depression Hilton was nearly forced into bankruptcy and lost several of his hotels. Nonetheless he was retained as manager of a combined chain, and eventually regained control of his remaining eight hotels.

Over the next decade he expanded west to California and east to Chicago and New York, crowning his expansions with such acquisitions as the Stevens Hotel in Chicago (then the world's largest hotel), and the fabled Waldorf-Astoria in New York. He formed the Hilton Hotels Corporation in 1946, and Hilton International Company in 1948.

During the 1950s and 1960s, Hilton Hotels' worldwide expansion facilitated both American tourism and overseas business by American corporations. It was the world's first international hotel chain, at the same time promulgating a certain worldwide standard for hotel accommodations. In all, Hilton eventually owned 188 hotels in thirty-eight cities in the U.S., including the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D. C., the Palmer House in Chicago, and the Plaza Hotel and Waldorf-Astoria in New York City, along with fifty-four hotels abroad. He later purchased the Carte Blanche Credit Company and an interest in the American Crystal Sugar Company, as well as other enterprises.

Hilton received honorary degrees from the University of Detroit (1953), DePaul University (1954), Barat College (1955), Adelphi College (1957), Sophia University, Tokyo (1963), and the University of Albuquerque (1975). Hilton's autobiography, Be My Guest, was published in 1957 by Prentice Hall. In 1966, Hilton was succeeded as president by his son Barron and was elected chairman of the board.

Personal life

In 1925, Hilton married Mary Adelaide Barron (d. 1966). They had three children: Conrad Nicholson "Nicky" Hilton, Jr., William Barron Hilton, and Eric Michael Hilton, before divorcing in 1934.

Hilton married actress Zsa Zsa Gabor. They had one child: Constance Francesca Hilton, before divorcing in 1946. Gabor wrote in her 1991 autobiography One Lifetime is Not Enough that she only became pregnant by Hilton after he raped her during their marriage.

In 1976, Hilton married Mary Frances Kelly. Their marriage lasted until his death in 1979. Mary Hilton died in 2006.

The Hilton family fortune

In 1979, Hilton died of natural causes at the age of 91. He is interred at Calvary Hill Cemetery, a Catholic cemetery in Dallas, Texas. He left $500,000 to each of his two surviving siblings and $10,000 to each of his nieces, nephews and to his daughter Francesca. The bulk of his estate was left to the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, which he established in 1944. His son, Barron Hilton, who spent much of his career helping build the Hilton Hotels Corporation, contested the will, despite being left the company as acting President, Chief Executive Officer, and Chairman of the Board of Directors. A settlement was reached and, as a result, Barron Hilton received 4 million shares of the hotel enterprise, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation received 3.5 million shares, and the remaining 6 million shares were placed in the W. Barron Hilton Charitable Remainder Unitrust. Upon Barron Hilton's death, Unitrust assets will be transferred to the Hilton Foundation, of which Barron sits on the Board of Directors as Chairman.

On December 25, 2007, Barron Hilton announced that he would leave about 97% of his fortune (estimated at $2.36 billion), to a charitable unitrust which would eventually be merged with the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation. By leaving his estate to the Foundation, Barron not only donated the fortune he had amassed on his own, but also returned to the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation the Hilton family fortune amassed by his father, which otherwise would have gone to the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation 30 years previously had Barron not contested his father's will.


• Conrad Hughes Hilton (the son of Richard Hilton), and Conrad Nicholson Hilton III (son of Conrad Nicholson Hilton, Jr.), are named after him.

• The Conrad N. Hilton Foundation was established in 1944 by Conrad N. Hilton. Its mission is the alleviation of human suffering worldwide.

• Conrad N. Hilton Humanitarian Prize created in 1996 by The Conrad N. Hilton Foundation.

• The Conrad N. Hilton College is a hospitality school of the University of Houston named after Conrad Hilton.

• The Conrad N. Hilton Library at the Culinary Institute of America.

• The Conrad N. Hilton Chair in Business Ethics, The Hilton Distinguished Entrepreneur Award, and the Conrad N. Hilton Endowed Chair of Entrepreneurship at the College of Business Administration Loyola Marymount University

• Conrad Hilton is the great grandfather of Paris Hilton and Nicky Hilton. 
HILTON, Conrad Nicholson Sr. (I36204)
25405 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Conrad Hilton, Jr.

Conrad Nicholson "Nicky" Hilton, Jr. (July 6, 1926 - March 31, 1969) was an American socialite, hotel heir, businessman, and TWA director. He was one of the sons of Conrad Hilton (founder of Hilton Hotels).

Early life

Hilton was born in Dallas, Texas. His father was Conrad Nicholson Hilton, founder of Hilton Hotels, and his mother was Mary Adelaide (Barron). Hilton grew up with three siblings: William Barron Hilton, Eric Michael Hilton, and Constance Francesca Hilton. He was the great-uncle of Paris and Nicky Hilton. He attended New Mexico Military Institute.

Personal life

Hilton had an affair with his step-mother, Zsa Zsa Gabor, in 1944. He was Elizabeth Taylor's first husband (May 6, 1950 - January 29, 1951) with the marriage ending in divorce.

In 1958, Hilton married oil heiress Patricia "Trish" McClintock. They had two sons: Conrad Nicholson Hilton III and Michael Otis Hilton.

Hilton died of a heart attack at the age of 42, brought about by many years of heavy alcohol consumption. He is interred in Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City, California.


Conrad Nicholson Hilton, Jr
Birth: Jul. 6, 1926, Dallas, Dallas County, Texas, USA
Death: Feb. 5, 1969, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California, USA

Hilton Hotel heir. Elizabeth Taylor's first husband.

Family links: Parents: Conrad Nicholson Hilton (1887 - 1979), Mary Barron Saxon (1906 - 1966); Spouse: Elizabeth Taylor (1932 - 2011)

Burial: Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City, Los Angeles County, California, USA

Maintained by: Find A Grave
Record added: Jul 14, 1998
Find A Grave Memorial# 3155 
HILTON, Conrad Nicholson Jr. (I36203)
25406 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Eddie Fisher (singer)

Edwin Jack "Eddie" Fisher (August 10, 1928 - September 22, 2010) was an American entertainer. He was the most successful pop singles artist of the first half of the 1950s, selling millions of records and hosting his own TV show.

Fisher left his first wife, actress Debbie Reynolds, to marry Reynolds' best friend, actress Elizabeth Taylor, when Taylor's husband, film producer Mike Todd, died. This event garnered scandalous and unwelcome publicity for Fisher. He later married Connie Stevens. Fisher is the father of actresses Carrie Fisher (with Reynolds), Joely Fisher (with Stevens), and Tricia Leigh Fisher (with Stevens).

Early life

Fisher, fourth of seven children, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Russian-born Jewish immigrants Gitte (later Katherine "Katie") (née Winokur) and Joseph Tisch. His father's surname was originally Tisch, but was anglicised in use by the time of the 1940 Census. To his family, Fisher was always called "Sonny Boy", a nickname derived from the song of the same name in Al Jolson's film The Singing Fool (1928).

Fisher attended Thomas Junior High School, South Philadelphia High School, and Simon Gratz High School. It was known at an early age that he had talent as a vocalist and he started singing in numerous amateur contests, which he usually won. He made his radio debut on WFIL, a local Philadelphia radio station. He also performed on Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts, a popular radio show which later moved to TV. Because he became a local star, Fisher dropped out of high school in the middle of his senior year to pursue his career.


By 1946, Fisher was crooning with the bands of Buddy Morrow and Charlie Ventura. He was heard in 1949 by Eddie Cantor at Grossinger's Resort in the Borscht Belt. Cantor's so-called discovery of Fisher was later described as a totally contrived, "manipulated' arrangement by Milton Blackstone, Grossinger's publicity director. After performing on Cantor's radio show he was an instant hit and gained nationwide exposure. He then signed with RCA Victor.

Fisher was drafted into the U.S. Army in 1951, sent to Texas for basic training, and served a year in Korea. From 1952 to 1953, he was the official vocal soloist for The United States Army Band (Pershing's Own) and a tenor section member in the United States Army Band Chorus (an element of Pershing's Own) assigned at Fort Myer in the Washington, D.C. Military District. During his active duty period, he also made occasional guest television appearances, in uniform, introduced as "PFC Eddie Fisher". After his discharge, he became even more popular singing in top nightclubs. He also had a variety television series, Coke Time with Eddie Fisher (NBC) (1953-1957), appeared on The Perry Como Show, Club Oasis, The Martha Raye Show, The Gisele MacKenzie Show, The Chesterfield Supper Club and The George Gobel Show, and starred in another series, The Eddie Fisher Show (NBC) (1957-1959, alternating with Gobel's series).

A pre-rock and roll vocalist, Fisher's strong and melodious tenor made him a teen idol and one of the most popular singers of the early 1950s. He had 17 songs in the Top 10 on the music charts between 1950 and 1956 and 35 in the Top 40.

In 1956, Fisher costarred with then-wife Debbie Reynolds in the musical comedy Bundle of Joy. He played a dramatic role in the 1960 drama BUtterfield 8 with second wife Elizabeth Taylor. His best friend was showman and producer Mike Todd, who died in a plane crash in 1958. Fisher's affair and subsequent marriage to Taylor, Todd's widow, caused a show business scandal because he and Reynolds had a very public divorce. Because of the unfavorable publicity surrounding the affair and divorce, NBC canceled Fisher's television series in March 1959.

In 1960, he was dropped by RCA Victor and briefly recorded on his own label, Ramrod Records. He later recorded for Dot Records. During this time, he had the first commercial recording of "Sunrise, Sunset" from Fiddler on the Roof. This technically counts as the biggest standard Fisher can claim credit for introducing, although it is rarely associated with him. He also recorded the albums Eddie Fisher Today and Young and Foolish (both 1965). The Dot contract was not successful in record sales terms, and he returned to RCA Victor and had a minor single hit in 1966 with the song "Games That Lovers Play" with Nelson Riddle, which became the title of his best selling album. When Fisher was at the height of his popularity, in the mid-1950s, singles, rather than albums, were the primary recording medium. His last album for RCA was an Al Jolson tribute, You Ain't Heard Nothin' Yet. In 1983 he attempted a comeback tour but this was not a success. Eddie Fisher's last released album was recorded around 1984 on the Bainbridge record label. Fisher tried to stop the album from being released, but it turned up as After All. The album was produced by William J. O'Malley and arranged by Angelo DiPippo. DiPippo worked with Eddie countless hours to better his vocals but it became useless. His final recordings (never released) were made in 1995 with the London Philharmonic Orchestra. According to arranger-conductor Vincent Falcone in his 2005 autobiography, Frankly: Just Between Us, these tracks were ". . . the best singing of his life." Fisher performed in top concert halls all over the United States and headlined in major Las Vegas showrooms. He headlined at the Palace Theater in New York City as well as London's Palladium.

Fisher created interest as a pop culture icon. Betty Johnson's "I Want Eddie Fisher For Christmas", containing references to a number of hit songs, reached #28 in the Music Vendor national survey during an 11 week chart run in late 1954.

Fisher has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, one for recording, at 6241 Hollywood Boulevard, and one for television, at 1724 Vine Street.

Personal life

Fisher had five marriages and four children:

• Debbie Reynolds (1955-1959; divorced)
Carrie Fisher (born 1956)
Todd Fisher (born 1958)

• Elizabeth Taylor (1959-1964; divorced)

• Connie Stevens (1967-1969; divorced)
Joely Fisher (born 1967)
Tricia Leigh Fisher (born 1968)

• Terry Richard (1975-1976; divorced)

• Betty Lin (1993 - April 15, 2001; her death)

In 1981, Fisher wrote an autobiography, Eddie: My Life, My Loves (ISBN 0-06-014907-8). He wrote another autobiography in 1999 titled Been There, Done That (ISBN 0-312-20972-X). The later book devotes little space to Fisher's singing career, but recycled the material of his first book and added many new sexual details that were too strong to publish before. His daughter Carrie declared, upon publication: "That's it. I'm having my DNA fumigated."

When interviewed, Debbie Reynolds said that she could understand being dumped "for the world's most beautiful woman (Taylor)", previously a close friend. Taylor and Reynolds later resumed their friendship, and mocked Fisher in their TV movie These Old Broads, wherein their characters ridiculed the ex-husband they shared, named "Freddie".


Fisher suffered from knee, back, hearing, and eyesight problems in his later years, the last of which were worsened by a botched cataract removal operation, and so he rarely appeared in public. According to friends, he remained mentally vigorous and kept himself busy following news and politics, and singing his old songs while friend George Michalski played the piano. Michalski had worked on several occasions over the years to help Fisher get his name back on the music charts. He said "The '60s passed Eddie by; he missed that entire era of music. I'd play a Beatles song like Something for him and he'd think I wrote it."

Fisher broke his hip on September 9, 2010, and died 13 days later on September 22, 2010 at his home in Berkeley, California, from complications from hip surgery. He was 82 years old.

After his death, he was cremated and his ashes were buried alongside the grave of his wife, Betty (who died on April 15, 2001), at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park.

His second wife, Elizabeth Taylor, died six months and one day after Fisher, on March 23, 2011. 
FISHER, Edwin Jack (I36224)
25407 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Elizabeth Taylor

Dame Elizabeth Rosemond "Liz" Taylor, DBE (February 27, 1932 - March 23, 2011) was a British-American actress. From her early years as a child star with MGM, she became one of the great screen actresses of Hollywood's Golden Age. As one of the world's most famous film stars, Taylor was recognized for her acting ability and for her glamorous lifestyle, beauty, and distinctive dark blue eyes, often described as violet.

National Velvet (1944) was Taylor's first success, and she starred in Father of the Bride (1950), A Place in the Sun (1951), Giant (1956), Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958), and Suddenly, Last Summer (1959). She won the Academy Award for Best Actress for BUtterfield 8 (1960), played the title role in Cleopatra (1963), and married her costar Richard Burton. They appeared together in 11 films, including Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), for which Taylor won a second Academy Award. From the mid-1970s, she appeared less frequently in film, and made occasional appearances in television and theatre.

Her much-publicized personal life included eight marriages and several life-threatening illnesses. From the mid-1980s, Taylor championed HIV and AIDS programs; she co-founded the American Foundation for AIDS Research in 1985, and the Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation in 1993. She received the Presidential Citizens Medal, the Legion of Honour, the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award and a Life Achievement Award from the American Film Institute, who named her seventh on their list of the "Greatest American Screen Legends". Taylor died of congestive heart failure in March 2011 at the age of 79, having suffered many years of ill health.

Early life

Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor was born at Heathwood, her parents' home at 8 Wildwood Road in Hampstead Garden Suburb, a northwestern suburb of London; the younger of two children of Francis Lenn Taylor (1897-1968) and Sara Sothern (née Sara Viola Warmbrodt; 1895-1994), who were Americans residing in England. Taylor's older brother, Howard Taylor, was born in 1929. Her parents were originally from Arkansas City, Kansas. Francis Taylor was an art dealer, and Sara was a former actress whose stage name was "Sara Sothern". Sothern retired from the stage in 1926 when she married Francis in New York City. Taylor's two first names are in honor of her paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Mary (Rosemond) Taylor. One of her maternal great-grandfathers was Swiss.

Colonel Victor Cazalet, one of their closest friends, had an important influence on the family. He was a rich, well-connected bachelor, a Member of Parliament and close friend of Winston Churchill. Cazalet loved both art and theatre and was passionate when encouraging the Taylor family to think of England as their permanent home. Additionally, as a Christian Scientist and lay preacher, his links with the family were spiritual. He also became Elizabeth's godfather. In one instance, when she was suffering with a severe infection as a child, she was kept in her bed for weeks. She "begged" for his company: "Mother, please call Victor and ask him to come and sit with me."

Biographer Alexander Walker suggests that Elizabeth's conversion to Judaism at the age of 27 and her lifelong support for Israel, may have been influenced by views she heard at home. Walker notes that Cazalet actively campaigned for a Jewish homeland, and her mother also worked in various charities, which included sponsoring fundraisers for Zionism. Her mother recalls the influence that Cazalet had on Elizabeth:

["]Victor sat on the bed and held Elizabeth in his arms and talked to her about God. Her great dark eyes searched his face, drinking in every word, believing and understanding.["]

A dual citizen of the United Kingdom and the United States, she was born British through her birth on British soil and an American citizen through her parents. In October 1965, as her then-husband was British, she signed an oath of renunciation at the U.S. Embassy in Paris, but with the phrase "abjure all allegiance and fidelity to the United States" struck out. U.S. State Department officials declared that her renunciation was invalid due to the alteration and Taylor signed another oath, this time without alteration, in October 1966. She applied for restoration of U.S. citizenship in 1977, during then-husband John Warner's Senate campaign, stating she planned to remain in America for the rest of her life.

At the age of three, Taylor began taking ballet lessons. Shortly before the beginning of World War II, her parents decided to return to the United States to avoid hostilities. Her mother took the children first, arriving in New York in April 1939, while her father remained in London to wrap up matters in his art business, arriving in November. They settled in Los Angeles, California, where her father established a new art gallery, which included many paintings he shipped from England. The gallery soon attracted numerous Hollywood celebrities who appreciated its modern European paintings. According to Walker, the gallery "opened many doors for the Taylors, leading them directly into the society of money and prestige" within Hollywood's movie colony.

Acting career

Child actress

Soon after settling in Los Angeles, Taylor's mother discovered that Hollywood people "habitually saw a movie future for every pretty face". Some of her mother's friends, and even total strangers, urged her to have Taylor screen-tested for the role of Bonnie Blue, Scarlett's child in Gone with the Wind, then being filmed. Her mother refused the idea, as a child actress in film was alien to her, and in any case they would return to England after the war.

Hollywood columnist Hedda Hopper introduced the Taylors to Andrea Berens, the fiancée of John Cheever Cowdin, chairman and major stockholder of Universal Pictures. Berens insisted that Sara take Taylor to see Cowdin who, she assured, would be dazzled by her breathtaking beauty. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer also became interested in Taylor, and MGM head Louis B. Mayer reportedly told his producer, "Sign her up, sign her up! What are you waiting for?" As a result, she soon had both Universal and MGM willing to place her under contract. When Universal learned that MGM was equally interested, however, Cowdin telephoned Universal from New York: "Sign her up, he ordered, don't even wait for the screen test." Universal then gave her a seven-year contract.

Taylor appeared in her first motion picture at the age of nine in There's One Born Every Minute (1942), her only film for Universal.

After less than a year, however, the studio fired Taylor for unknown reasons. Some speculate that she did not live up to Cowdin's promise. Walker believes that Taylor's intuition told her "she wasn't really welcome at Universal." She learned, for instance, that her casting director complained, "The kid has nothing", after a test. Even her beautiful eyes did not impress him. Taylor's eyes were a deep blue that appeared violet and stunned those who met her in person, with a mutation that gave Taylor double eyelashes. "Her eyes are too old, she doesn't have the face of a child," he said. But Walker admits that "this was not so far off the mark as it may appear now". He explains:

["]There was something slightly odd about Elizabeth's looks, even at this age - an expression that sometimes made people think she was older than she was. She already had her mother's air of concentration. Later on, it would prove an invaluable asset. At the time, it disconcerted people who compared her unfavorably with Shirley Temple's cute bubbling innocence or Judy Garland's plainer and more vulnerable juvenile appeal.["]

Taylor herself remembers that when she was a child in England, adults used to describe her as having an "old soul," because, as she says, "I was totally direct." She also recognized similar traits in her baby daughter:

["]I saw my daughter as a baby, before she was a year old, look at people, steadily, with those eyes of hers, and see people start to fidget, and drop things out of their pockets and finally, unable to stand the heat, get out of the room.["]

Taylor's father served as an air raid warden with MGM producer Sam Marx, and learned that the studio was searching for an English actress for a Lassie film. Taylor received the role and was offered a long-term contract at the beginning of 1943. She chose MGM because "the people there had been nicer to her when she went to audition", Taylor recalled. MGM's production chief, Benny Thau, was to remain the "only MGM executive" she fully trusted during subsequent years, because, writes Walker, "he had, out of kindly habit, made the gesture that showed her she was loved". Thau remembered her as a "little dark-haired beauty . . . [with] those strange and lovely eyes that gave the face its central focus, oddly powerful in someone so young." MGM, in addition, was considered a "glamorous studio", boasting that it had "more stars than there are in heaven." Before Taylor's mother would sign the contract, however, she sought certainty that Taylor had a "God-given talent" to become an actress. Walker describes how they came to a decision:

["][Mrs. Taylor] wanted a final sign of revelation. . . . Was there a divine plan for her? Mrs. Taylor took her old script for The Fool, in which she had played the scene of the girl whose faith is answered by a miracle cure. Now she asked Elizabeth to read her own part, while she read the lines of the leading man. She confessed to weeping openly. She said, 'There sat my daughter playing perfectly the part of the child as I, a grown woman, had tried to do it. It seemed that she must have been in my head all those years I was acting'.["]

Adolescent star

MGM cast Taylor in Lassie Come Home (1943) with child-star Roddy McDowall, with whom she would share a lifelong friendship. He later recalled regarding her beauty, "who has double eyelashes except a girl who was absolutely born to be on the big screen?" The film received favorable attention for both actors, and MGM signed Taylor to a conventional seven-year contract, starting at $100 a week with regular raises. Her first assignment under her new contract was a loan-out to 20th Century Fox for the character of Helen Burns in a film version of the Charlotte Brontë novel Jane Eyre (1943). Taylor returned to England to appear in another McDowall picture for MGM, The White Cliffs of Dover (1944).

Taylor's persistence in seeking the role of Velvet Brown in MGM's National Velvet made her a star at the age of 12. Her character was a young girl, training her beloved horse to win the Grand National. Velvet, which costarred fellow young actor Mickey Rooney and English newcomer Angela Lansbury, became a great success upon its release in December 1944. Many years later Taylor called it "the most exciting film" she had ever made, although the film caused many of her later back problems due to her falling off a horse during filming.

Viewers and critics "fell in love with Elizabeth Taylor when they saw her in it." Walker explains why the film was popular:

["]Its enormous popularity rubs off on to its heroine because she expresses, with the strength of an obsession, the aspirations of people - people who have never seen a girl on horseback, or maybe even a horse race for that matter - who believe that anything is possible. . . . A philosophy of life, in other words . . . a film which . . . has acquired the status of a generational classic. . . .["]

National Velvet grossed over US $4 million and MGM signed Taylor to a new long-term contract. Because of the movie's success she was cast in another animal film, Courage of Lassie (1946), in which Bill the dog outsmarts the Nazis. The film's success led to another contract for Taylor paying her $750 per week. Her roles as the neurotic Mary Skinner in a loan-out to Warner Brothers' Life With Father (1947), Cynthia Bishop in Cynthia (1947), Carol Pringle in A Date with Judy (1948), and Susan Prackett in Julia Misbehaves (1948) were all successful. Taylor earned a reputation as a consistently successful adolescent actress, with a nickname of "One-Shot Liz" (referring to her ability to shoot a scene in one take) and a promising career. Taylor's portrayal of Amy in the American classic Little Women (1949) was her last adolescent role.

MGM studios provided schooling for its child stars with classrooms within the studio grounds. Taylor, however, came to dislike being cut off from typical schools with average students who were not treated like stars. She recalls her life before studio acting as a happier period in her childhood:

["]One of the few times I've ever really been happy in my life was when I was a kid before I started acting. With the other kids I'd make up games, play with dolls, pretend games. . . . As I got more famous - after National Velvet, when I was 12 - I still wanted to be part of their lives, but I think in a way they began to regard me as a sort of an oddity, a freak.

["]I hated school - because it wasn't school. I wanted terribly to be with kids. On the set the teacher would take me by my ear and lead me into the schoolhouse. I would be infuriated; I was 16 and they weren't taking me seriously. Then after about 15 minutes I'd leave class to play a passionate love scene as Robert Taylor's wife.["]

Transition into adult roles

The teenage Taylor was reluctant to continue making films. Her stage mother forced Taylor to relentlessly practice until she could cry on cue and watched her during filming, signaling to change her delivery or a mistake. Taylor met few others her age on movie sets, and was so poorly educated that she needed to use her fingers to do basic arithmetic. When, at age 16, Taylor told her parents that she wanted to quit acting for a normal childhood, Sara Taylor told her that she was ungrateful: "You have a responsibility, Elizabeth. Not just to this family, but to the country now, the whole world".

In October 1948, Taylor sailed aboard the RMS Queen Mary to England to begin filming Conspirator. Unlike some other child actors, Taylor made an easy transition to adult roles. Before Conspirator's 1949 release, a TIME cover article called her "a jewel of great price, a true star sapphire", and the leader among Hollywood's next generation of stars such as Montgomery Clift, Kirk Douglas, and Ava Gardner. The petite Taylor had the figure of a mature woman, with a 19" waist.[24] Conspirator failed at the box office, but 16-year-old Taylor's portrayal of a 21-year-old debutante who unknowingly marries a communist spy played by 38-year old Robert Taylor, was praised by critics for her first adult lead in a film. Taylor's first picture under her new salary of $2,000 per week was The Big Hangover(1950), both a critical and box office failure, that paired her with screen idol Van Johnson. The picture also failed to present Taylor with an opportunity to exhibit her newly realized sensuality.

Her first box office success in an adult role came as Kay Banks in the comedy Father of the Bride (1950), alongside Spencer Tracy and Joan Bennett. The film spawned a sequel, Father's Little Dividend (1951), which Taylor's co-star Spencer Tracy summarized with "boring . . . boring . . . boring". The film did well at the box office, but it would be Taylor's next picture that would set the course for her career as a dramatic actress.

In late 1949, Taylor had begun filming George Stevens' A Place in the Sun. Upon its release in 1951, Taylor was hailed for her performance as Angela Vickers, a spoiled socialite who comes between George Eastman (Montgomery Clift) and his poor, pregnant factory-working girlfriend Alice Tripp (Shelley Winters). The film, based on Theodore Dreiser's novel, An American Tragedy, was an indictment of "the American dream" and its corrupting influences, notes biographer Kitty Kelley.

Although Taylor, then only 17, was unaware of the psychological implications of the story and its powerful nuances, it became the pivotal performance of Taylor's career. Kelley explains that Stevens, its director, knew that with Elizabeth Taylor as the young and beautiful star, the "audience would understand why George Eastman (Clift) would kill for a place in the sun with her." Hollywood columnist Hedda Hopper, allowed on the set to watch the filming, became "wide-eyed watching the little girl from National Velvet seduce Montgomery Clift in front of the camera," writes Kelley. When the scene was over, Hopper went to her, "Elizabeth, where on earth did you ever learn how to make love like that?"

Critics acclaimed the film as a classic, a reputation it sustained throughout the next 50 years of cinema history. The New York Times' A.H. Weiler wrote, "Elizabeth's delineation of the rich and beauteous Angela is the top effort of her career", and the Boxoffice reviewer unequivocally stated "Miss Taylor deserves an Academy Award".

Taylor became increasingly unsatisfied with the roles being offered to her at the time. While she wanted to play the lead roles in The Barefoot Contessa and I'll Cry Tomorrow, MGM continued to restrict her to mindless and somewhat forgettable films such as: a cameo as herself in Callaway Went Thataway (1951), Love Is Better Than Ever (1952), Ivanhoe (1952), and The Girl Who Had Everything (1953).

Taylor's next screen endeavor, Rhapsody (1954), another tedious romantic drama, proved equally frustrating. Taylor portrayed Louise Durant, a beautiful rich girl in love with a temperamental violinist (Vittorio Gassman) and an earnest young pianist (John Ericson). A film critic for the New York Herald Tribune wrote: "There is beauty in the picture all right, with Miss Taylor glowing into the camera from every angle . . . but the dramatic pretenses are weak, despite the lofty sentences and handsome manikin poses."

Taylor's fourth period picture, Beau Brummell, made just after Elephant Walk and Rhapsody, cast her as the elaborately costumed Lady Patricia, which many felt was only a screen prop - a ravishing beauty whose sole purpose was to lend romantic support to the film's title star, Stewart Granger.The Last Time I Saw Paris (1954) fared only slightly better than her previous pictures, with Taylor being reunited with The Big Hangover costar Van Johnson. The role of Helen Ellsworth Willis was based on that of Zelda Fitzgerald and, although pregnant with her second child, Taylor went ahead with the film, her fourth in 12 months. Although proving somewhat successful at the box office, she still yearned for more substantial roles.


Following a more substantial role opposite Rock Hudson and James Dean in George Stevens' epic Giant (1956), Taylor was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress four years in a row for Raintree County (1957) opposite Montgomery Clift; Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) opposite Paul Newman; Suddenly, Last Summer (1959) with Montgomery Clift, Katharine Hepburn and Mercedes McCambridge; and finally winning for BUtterfield 8 (1960).[35] The film co-starred then-husband Eddie Fisher and ended her contract, which Taylor said had made her an "MGM chattel" for 18 years.

Suddenly, Last Summer's success placed Taylor among the top-ten most successful actors at the box office, and she remained in the top-ten almost every year for the next decade. In 1960, Taylor became the highest-paid actress up to that time when she signed a $1 million dollar contract to play the title role in 20th Century Fox's lavish production of Cleopatra, which was released in 1963. During the filming, she began a romance with her future husband Richard Burton, who played Mark Antony in the film. The romance received much attention from the tabloid press, as both were married to other spouses at the time. Taylor ultimately received $7 million for her role.

Her second Academy Award, also for Best Actress in a Leading Role, was for her performance as Martha in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), playing opposite then-husband Richard Burton. The film was a turning point for both Taylor and Burton, as it was the "most exciting and daunting project either of them had ever contemplated," writes Walker. Taylor saw the film as her chance to act, "to really act," and a chance to emulate one of her favorite dramatic actresses, Vivien Leigh, who played roles as a "tragic heroine." For this part, however, Taylor worried that she did not look old enough, as her character was to be twenty years older. To compensate, she added gray hairs and transformed herself both physically and vocally: she intentionally gained weight, minimized makeup, and added excessive mascara to her eyes along with smudgy bags beneath them.

Taylor and Burton appeared together in six other films during the decade, among them The V.I.P.s (1963), The Sandpiper (1965), and The Taming of the Shrew (1967). By 1967 their films had earned $200 million at the box office. When Taylor and Burton considered not working for three months, the possibility caused alarm in Hollywood as "nearly half of the U.S. film industry's income" came from movies starring one or both of them. Their next films Doctor Faustus (1967), The Comedians (1967) and Boom! (1968), however, all failed at the box office.

Taylor appeared in John Huston's Reflections in a Golden Eye (1967) opposite Marlon Brando (replacing Clift, who died before production began) and Secret Ceremony (1968) opposite Mia Farrow. By the end of the decade her box-office drawing power had considerably diminished, as evidenced by the failure of The Only Game in Town (1970), with Warren Beatty.

Although limited by a "thin and inflexible voice", Taylor continued to star in numerous theatrical films throughout the 1970s, such as Zee and Co. (1972) with Michael Caine, Ash Wednesday (1973), The Blue Bird (1976) with Jane Fonda and Ava Gardner, and A Little Night Music (1977). With then-husband Richard Burton, she co-starred in the 1972 films Under Milk Wood and Hammersmith Is Out, and the 1973 made-for-TV movie Divorce His, Divorce Hers.


Taylor starred in the 1980 mystery film The Mirror Crack'd, based on an Agatha Christie novel. In 1985, she played movie gossip columnist Louella Parsons in the TV film Malice in Wonderland opposite Jane Alexander, who played Hedda Hopper. Taylor appeared in the miniseries North and South as well as playing the titular role in a 1987 Western TV-movie entitled Poker Alice with Tom Skerritt and George Hamilton. Her last theatrical film was 1994's The Flintstones.

In February 1996, she appeared on the TV program, The Nanny as herself, and the star of the show, Fran, identified her to a friend by using all of her husbands' names, stating that she would be meeting "Elizabeth Taylor-Hilton-Wilding-Todd-Fisher-Burton-Burton-Warner-Fortensky". In 2001 she played an agent in the TV film These Old Broads. She appeared on a number of television series, including the soap operas General Hospital and All My Children, as well as the animated series The Simpsons - once as herself, and once as the voice of Maggie Simpson, uttering one word, "Daddy".

Taylor also acted on the stage, making her Broadway and West End debuts in 1982 with a revival of Lillian Hellman's The Little Foxes. She was then in a production of Noël Coward's Private Lives (1983), in which she starred with her former husband, Richard Burton. The student-run Burton Taylor Studio in Oxford was named for the famous couple after Burton appeared as Doctor Faustus in the Oxford University Dramatic Society (OUDS) production of the Marlowe play. Taylor played the ghostly, wordless Helen of Troy, who is entreated by Faustus to "make [him] immortal with a kiss".

In the early 1980s, Taylor moved to Bel Air, Los Angeles, which was her residence until her death. She also owned homes in Palm Springs, London and Hawaii.


In March 2003, Taylor declined to attend the 75th Annual Academy Awards, due to her opposition to the Iraq War. She publicly condemned then President George W. Bush for calling on Saddam Hussein to leave Iraq, and said she feared the conflict would lead to "World War III".

The February 2007 issue of Interview magazine was devoted entirely to Taylor. It celebrated her life, career and her upcoming 75th birthday.

On December 1, 2007, Taylor acted onstage again, appearing opposite James Earl Jones in a benefit performance of the A. R. Gurney play Love Letters. The event's goal was to raise $1 million for Taylor's AIDS foundation. Tickets for the show were priced at $2,500, and more than 500 people attended. The event happened to coincide with the 2007 Writers Guild of America strike and, rather than cross the picket line, Taylor requested a "one night dispensation". The Writers Guild agreed not to picket the Paramount Pictures lot that night to allow for the performance.

Personal life

Marriages, romances, and children

Taylor was married eight times to seven husbands. When asked why she married so often, she replied, "I don't know, honey. It sure beats the hell out of me," but also said that, "I was taught by my parents that if you fall in love, if you want to have a love affair, you get married. I guess I'm very old-fashioned." Taylor's husbands were:

• Conrad "Nicky" Hilton (May 6, 1950 - January 29, 1951): Taylor believed that she was in love with the young hotel heir, but also wanted to escape her mother. Hilton's "gambling, drinking, and abusive behavior", however, horrified her and her parents, caused a miscarriage, and ended the marriage in divorce after nine months.

• Michael Wilding (February 21, 1952 - January 26, 1957): The "gentle" Wilding, 20 years older than Taylor, comforted her after leaving Hilton. After their divorce Taylor admitted that "I gave him rather a rough time, sort of henpecked him and probably wasn't mature enough for him."

• Mike Todd (February 2, 1957 - March 22, 1958): Todd's death ended Taylor's only marriage not to result in divorce. Although their relationship was tumultuous, she later called him one of the three loves of her life, along with Burton and jewelry.

• Eddie Fisher (May 12, 1959 - March 6, 1964): Fisher, Todd's best friend, consoled Taylor after Todd's death. They began an affair while Fisher was still married to Debbie Reynolds, causing a scandal; Reynolds eventually forgave Taylor; she voted for her when Taylor was nominated for an Oscar for BUtterfield 8, and starred with her in These Old Broads.

• Richard Burton (March 15, 1964 - June 26, 1974; October 10, 1975 - July 29, 1976): The Vatican condemned Burton and Taylor's affair, which began when both were married to others, as "erotic vagrancy". The press closely followed their relationship before, during, and after their ten years of marriage, due to great public interest in "the most famous film star in the world and the man many believed to be the finest classical actor of his generation." Taylor wanted to focus on her marriage rather than her career, and gained weight in an unsuccessful attempt to not receive film roles. Sixteen months after divorcing - Burton said, "You can't keep clapping a couple of sticks [of dynamite] together without expecting them to blow up" - they remarried in a private ceremony in Kasane, Botswana, but soon separated and redivorced in 1976.

• John Warner (December 4, 1976 - November 7, 1982): As with Burton, Taylor sought to be known as the wife of her husband, a Republican United States Senator from Virginia. Unhappy with her life in Washington, however, Taylor became depressed and entered the Betty Ford Center.

• Larry Fortensky (October 6, 1991 - October 31, 1996): Taylor and Fortensky met during another stay at the Betty Ford Center and were married at the Neverland Ranch.

Taylor had many romances outside her marriages. Before marrying Hilton, she was engaged to Heisman Trophy winner Glenn Davis - who did not know until the relationship ended that Taylor's mother had encouraged it to build publicity for her daughter - and also to the son of William D. Pawley, the United States Ambassador to Brazil. Howard Hughes promised Taylor's parents that if they would encourage her to marry him, the enormously wealthy industrialist and film producer would finance a movie studio for her; Sara Taylor agreed, but Taylor refused. After she left Hilton, Hughes returned, proposing to Taylor by suddenly landing a helicopter nearby and sprinkling diamonds on her. Other dates included Frank Sinatra, Henry Kissinger, and Malcolm Forbes. In 2007 Taylor denied rumors of a ninth marriage to her partner Jason Winters, but referred to him as "one of the most wonderful men I've ever known."

Taylor had two sons, Michael Howard (born January 6, 1953) and Christopher Edward (born February 27, 1955; her own 23rd birthday), with Michael Wilding. She had a daughter, Elizabeth Frances "Liza" (born August 6, 1957), with Michael Todd. During her marriage to Eddie Fisher, Taylor started proceedings to adopt a two-year-old girl from Germany, Maria (born August 1, 1961); the adoption process was finalized in 1964 following their divorce. Richard Burton later adopted Taylor's daughters Liza and Maria.

In 1971, Taylor became a grandmother at the age of 39. At the time of her death, she was survived by her four children, ten grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren.

Religion and identity

In 1959, at age 27, after nine months of study, Taylor converted from Christian Science to Judaism, taking the Hebrew name Elisheba Rachel. She stated that her conversion was something she had long considered and was not related to her marriages. After Mike Todd's death, Taylor said that she "felt a desperate need for a formalized religion", and explained that neither Catholicism nor Christian Science were able to address many of the "questions she had about life and death".

Biographer Randy Taraborrelli notes that after studying the philosophy of Judaism for nine months, "she felt an immediate connection to the faith." Although Taylor rarely attended synagogue, she stated, "I'm one of those people who think you can be close to God anywhere, not just in a place designed for worship. . . ." At the conversion ceremony, with her parents present as witnesses and in full support of her decision, Taylor repeated the words of Ruth:

["]. . . for whither thou goest, I will go; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge; thy people shall be my people and thy God my God.["]

Taylor was a follower of Kabbalah and a member of the Kabbalah Centre.

During an interview when she was 55, Taylor described how her inner sense of identity, when a child actress, kept her from giving in to many of the studio's demands, especially with regard to altering her appearance to fit in:

["]God forbid you do anything individual or go against the fad. But I did. I figured this looks absurd. And I agreed with my dad: God must have had some reason for giving me bushy eyebrows and black hair. I guess I must have been pretty sure of my sense of identity. It was me. I accepted it all my life and I can't explain it. Because I've always been very aware of the inner me that has nothing to do with the physical me.["]

Taylor added that she began to recognize her "inner being" during her adulthood:

["]Eventually the inner you shapes the outer you, especially when you reach a certain age, and you have been given the same features as everybody else, God has arranged them in a certain way. But around 40 the inner you actually chisels your features. . . . Life is to be embraced and enveloped. Surgeons and knives have nothing to do with it. It has to do with a connection with nature, God, your inner being - whatever you want to call it - it's being in contact with yourself and allowing yourself, allowing God, to mold you.["]

Her impressions of career and marriage

In 1964, at the age of 32, Taylor described herself as an actress: "The Elizabeth Taylor who's famous, the one on film, really has no depth or meaning to me. She's a totally superficial working thing, a commodity." She was also able to explain her acting skills as "minuscule - it's not technique. It's instinct and a certain ability to concentrate." Although most of her film roles during the previous decade portrayed her beauty and sexuality, Taylor claimed they merely exaggerated or contradicted who she was in real life, stating, "I am not a 'sex queen' or a 'sex symbol.' I don't think I want to be one. . . . If my husband thinks I'm sexy, that's good enough for me." She also implied that the reverse is also true:

["]I can tell you what I think is sexy in a man. It has to do with warmth, a personal givingness, not self-awareness. Richard [Burton] is a very sexy man. He's got that sort of jungle essence that one can sense. It's not the way he combs his hair, not the things he wears; he doesn't think about having muscles. It's what he says and thinks.["]

By this point Taylor was married for the fifth time, to Richard Burton. Except for her third husband, Mike Todd, who died in a plane accident, she partly blamed her young romances and divorces on her "puritanical upbringing and beliefs":

["]At first, I guess I didn't know what was love and what was not. I always chose to think I was in love and that love was synonymous with marriage. I couldn't just have a romance; it had to be a marriage. . . . When I was first divorced, I was 18 and I had only been married nine months. I was very naive and really totally crushed. It was the first divorce in my family.["]

Taylor credited Burton's strong relationship with their children as a factor in expecting their marriage to last, stating that he was the "absolute boss of the household and they respect him for that." She was surprised in hindsight by how they became romantically involved, recalling one of their first meetings:

["]The first day I saw Richard on the Cleopatra set, there was a lot of hemming and hawing, and he said hello to Joe Mankiewicz and everyone. And then he sort of sidled over to me and said, "Has anybody ever told you that you're a very pretty girl?" I said to myself, oy gevaldt, here's the great lover, the great wit, the great intellectual of Wales, and he comes out with a line like that. I couldn't believe it. I couldn't wait to go back to the dressing room where all the girls were and tell them.["]

Jewelry and retail

Taylor had a passion for jewelry. At her death, Taylor's jewelry collection was reportedly worth $150 million.

Over the years she owned a number of well-known pieces, two of the most famous being the 33.19-carat (6.638 g) Krupp Diamond, which she wore daily, and the 69.42-carat (13.884 g) pear-shaped Taylor-Burton Diamond; both were among many gifts from husband Richard Burton. Taylor also owned the 50-carat (10 g) La Peregrina Pearl, purchased by Burton at a Sotheby's auction for $37,000; as a Valentine's Day present in 1969, and formerly owned by Mary I of England. La Peregrina is one of the most famous pearls in the world and remains one of the largest perfectly symmetrical pear-shaped pearls in the world.

Her collection of jewelry has been documented in her book My Love Affair with Jewelry (2002).

Taylor was a fashion icon during her years as an active film star. In addition to her own purchases, MGM costumers Edith Head and Helen Rose helped Taylor choose clothes that emphasized her face, chest, and waist. Taylor helped popularize Valentino and Halston's designs, and in the 1980s Schering-Plough developed violet contact lenses, citing Taylor's eyes as inspiration.



Taylor devoted consistent and generous humanitarian time, advocacy efforts, and funding to HIV and AIDS-related projects and charities, helping to raise more than $270 million for the cause. She was one of the first celebrities and public personalities to do so at a time when few acknowledged the disease, organizing and hosting the first AIDS fundraiser in 1984, to benefit AIDS Project Los Angeles.

Taylor was cofounder of the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) with Dr. Michael Gottlieb and Dr. Mathilde Krim in 1985. Her longtime friend and former co-star Rock Hudson had disclosed having AIDS and died of it that year. She also founded the Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation (ETAF) in 1993, created to provide critically needed support services for people with HIV/AIDS. For example, in 2006 Taylor commissioned a 37-foot (11 m) "Care Van" equipped with examination tables and xray equipment, the New Orleans donation made by her Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation and Macy's. That year, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, Taylor donated $500,000 to the NO/AIDS Task Force, a non-profit organization serving the community of those affected by HIV/AIDS in and around New Orleans. The donation was shared by Taylor in celebration of her 74th birthday and to help NO/AIDS Task Force continue their work fighting AIDS.

Taylor was honored with a special Academy Award, the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award, in 1992 for her HIV/AIDS humanitarian work. Speaking of that work, former President Bill Clinton said at her death, "Elizabeth's legacy will live on in many people around the world whose lives will be longer and better because of her work and the ongoing efforts of those she inspired."

Jewish causes

After her conversion to Judaism, Taylor worked for Jewish causes throughout her life. In 1959, her large-scale purchase of Israeli Bonds caused Arab boycotts of her films. In 1962, she was barred from entering Egypt to complete Cleopatra; its government announcing that she would not be allowed to come to Egypt because she had adopted the Jewish faith and "supports Israeli causes". However the ban was lifted in 1964 after it was considered that the film had brought favourable publicity to Egypt.

In 1974 Taylor and Richard Burton considered marrying in Israel, but were unable to do so because Burton was not Jewish. Taylor helped to raise money for organizations such as the Jewish National Fund; advocated for the right of Soviet Jews to emigrate to Israel and canceled a visit to the USSR because of its condemnation of Israel due to the Six-Day War, along with signing a letter protesting the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 of 1975.

She offered herself as a replacement hostage after more than 100 Israeli civilians were taken hostage in the Entebbe skyjacking in 1976. After the success of the operation in which the hostages were freed, she acted with Kirk Douglas in a TV special, Victory at Entebbe, broadcast in January 1977. Of her role, she stated, "I couldn't pass up this opportunity. I have strong ties to Israel and I firmly believe in the courage and dedication of the Entebbe mission."

Illnesses and death

Taylor struggled with health problems much of her life; starting with her divorce from Hilton, Taylor experienced serious medical issues whenever she faced problems in her personal life. Taylor was hospitalized more than 70 times and had at least 20 major operations. Many times newspaper headlines erroneously announced that Taylor was close to death; she herself only claimed to have almost died on four occasions.

At 5'4", Taylor constantly gained and lost significant amounts of weight (known as yo-yo dieting), reaching both 119 pounds and 180 pounds in the 1980s. She smoked cigarettes into her mid-fifties, and feared she had lung cancer in October 1975 after an X-ray showed spots on her lungs, but was later found not to have the disease. Taylor broke her back five times, had both her hips replaced, had a hysterectomy, suffered from dysentery and phlebitis, punctured her esophagus, survived a benign brain tumor operation in 1997 and skin cancer, and faced life-threatening bouts with pneumonia twice, one in 1961 requiring an emergency tracheotomy. In 1983 she admitted to having been addicted to sleeping pills and painkillers for 35 years. Taylor was treated for alcoholism and prescription drug addiction at the Betty Ford Center for seven weeks from December 1983 to January 1984, and again from the autumn of 1988 until early 1989.

On May 30, 2006, Taylor appeared on Larry King Live to refute the claims that she had been ill, and denied the allegations that she was suffering from Alzheimer's disease and was close to death. Near the end of her life, however, she was reclusive and sometimes failed to make scheduled appearances due to illness or other personal reasons. She used a wheelchair and, when asked about it, stated that she had osteoporosis and was born with scoliosis.

The mutation that gave Taylor her striking double eyelashes may also have contributed to her history of heart trouble. In November 2004, Taylor announced a diagnosis of congestive heart failure, a progressive condition in which the heart is too weak to pump sufficient blood throughout the body, particularly to the lower extremities such as the ankles and feet. In 2009 she underwent cardiac surgery to replace a leaky valve. In February 2011, new symptoms related to heart failure caused her to be admitted to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles for treatment, where she remained until her death at age 79 on March 23, 2011, surrounded by her four children.

She was buried in a private Jewish ceremony, presided over by Rabbi Jerry Cutler, the day after she died, at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California. Taylor is entombed in the Great Mausoleum, where public access to her tomb is restricted. At her request, the funeral began 15 minutes after it was scheduled to begin; as her representative told the media "She even wanted to be late for her own funeral."


Taylor has been called the "greatest movie star of all." A child-star at the age of 12, she was soon after launched into public awareness by MGM and a string of successful films, many of which are today considered "classics". Her resulting celebrity made her into a Hollywood icon, as she set the "gold standard" for Hollywood fame, and "created the model for stardom," adds Mann.

Other observers, such as social critic Camille Paglia, similarly describe Taylor as "the greatest actress in film history," partly as a result of the "liquid realm of emotion" she expressed on screen. Paglia describes the effect Taylor had in some of her films:

["]An electric, erotic charge vibrates the space between her face and the lens. It is an extrasensory, pagan phenomenon.["]

Taylor had a major role in sparking the sexual revolution of the 1960s, as she pushed the envelope on sexuality: she was one of the first major stars to pose (mostly) nude in Playboy, and among the first to remove her clothes onscreen. In A Place in the Sun, filmed when she was 17, her surprising maturity shocked Hollywood columnist Hedda Hopper, who wrote of her precocious sexuality. Film historian Andrew Sarris describes her love scenes in the film with Montgomery Clift as "unnerving - sybaritic - like gorging on chocolate sundaes."

In real life, she was considered "a star without airs," notes Mann. Writer Gloria Steinem likewise described her as a "movie queen with no ego . . . expert at what she does, uncatty in her work relationships with other actresses". Mike Nichols, who directed her in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), said that of all the actors he's worked with, Taylor had the "most democratic soul." Mann adds that she treated electricians and studio crew the "same way she would a Rothschild at a charity gala." Director George Cukor told Taylor that she possessed "that rarest of virtues - simple kindness."

Taylor's ex-husband, actor Richard Burton, who co-starred with her in eleven films, expressed great admiration for her talent as an actress. Burton said, "I think she's one of the most underrated screen actresses that ever lived, and I think she's one of the best ones who ever lived. At her finest she's incomparable."

(2) Social Security Death Index:

Name: Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor . . .
Last Residence: 90025 Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California
Born: 27 Feb 1932
Died: 23 Mar 2011
State (Year) SSN issued: California (Before 1951)


Elizabeth Taylor
Birth: Feb. 27, 1932, Hampstead, Greater London, England
Death: Mar. 23, 2011, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California, USA . . .

Family links: Parents: Francis Lenn Taylor (1897 - 1968), Sara Southern Taylor (1895 - 1994); Spouses: Conrad Nicholson Hilton (1926 - 1969), Michael Wilding (1912 - 1979), Michael Todd (1903 - 1958), Eddie Fisher (1928 - 2010), Richard Burton (1925 - 1984)

Burial: Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Glendale), Glendale, Los Angeles County, California, USA
Plot: Great Mausoleum, inside main entrance, next to Last Supper window display entrance.

Maintained by: Find A Grave
Originally Created by: treerpgmo
Record added: Mar 23, 2011
Find A Grave Memorial# 67312270 
TAYLOR, Dame Elizabeth Rosemond (I36221)
25408 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

George Fox

George Fox (September 1624 - 13 January 1691) was an English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.

The son of a Leicestershire weaver, Fox lived in a time of great social upheaval and war. He rebelled against the religious and political authorities by proposing an unusual and uncompromising approach to the Christian faith. He travelled throughout Britain as a dissenting preacher, for which he was often persecuted by the authorities who disapproved of his beliefs.

Fox married Margaret Fell, the widow of one of his wealthier supporters; she was a leading Friend. His ministry expanded and he undertook tours of North America and the Low Countries. Between these tours, he was imprisoned for more than a year. He spent the final decade of his life working in London to organize the expanding Quaker movement.

While his movement attracted disdain from some, others such as William Penn and Oliver Cromwell viewed Fox with respect.

Early life

George Fox was born in the strongly puritan village of Drayton-in-the-Clay, Leicestershire, England (now known as Fenny Drayton), 15 miles (24 km) west-south-west of Leicester. He was the eldest of four children of Christopher Fox, a successful weaver, called "Righteous Christer" by his neighbours, and his wife, Mary née Lago. Christopher Fox was a churchwarden and was relatively wealthy; when he died in the late 1650s he left his son a substantial legacy. From childhood Fox was of a serious, religious disposition. There is no record of any formal schooling but he learned to read and write. "When I came to eleven years of age", he said, "I knew pureness and righteousness; for, while I was a child, I was taught how to walk to be kept pure. The Lord taught me to be faithful, in all things, and to act faithfully two ways; viz., inwardly to God, and outwardly to man." Known as an honest person, he also proclaimed, "The Lord taught me to be faithful in all things . . . and to keep to Yea and Nay in all things."

As he grew up, his relatives "thought to have made me a priest" but he was instead apprenticed to a local shoemaker and grazier, George Gee of Mancetter. This suited his contemplative temperament and he became well known for his diligence among the wool traders who had dealings with his master. A constant obsession for Fox was the pursuit of "simplicity" in life, meaning humility and the abandonment of luxury, and the short time he spent as a shepherd was important to the formation of this view. Toward the end of his life he wrote a letter for general circulation pointing out that Abel, Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Moses and David were all keepers of sheep or cattle and therefore that a learned education should not be seen as a necessary qualification for ministry.

George Fox knew people who were "professors" (followers of the standard religion), but by the age of 19 he had begun to look down on their behaviour, in particular drinking alcohol. He records that, in prayer one night after leaving two acquaintances at a drinking session, he heard an inner voice saying, "Thou seest how young people go together into vanity, and old people into the earth; thou must forsake all, young and old, keep out of all, and be as a stranger unto all."

First travels

Driven by his "inner voice", Fox left Drayton-in-the-Clay in September 1643, moving toward London in a state of mental torment and confusion. The English Civil War had begun and troops were stationed in many towns through which he passed. In Barnet, he was torn by depression (perhaps from the temptations of the resort town near London). He alternately shut himself in his room for days at a time or went out alone into the countryside. After almost a year he returned to Drayton, where he engaged Nathaniel Stephens, the clergyman of his hometown, in long discussions on religious matters. Stephens considered Fox a gifted young man but the two disagreed on so many issues that he later called Fox mad and spoke against him.

Over the next few years Fox continued to travel around the country as his particular religious beliefs took shape. At times he actively sought the company of clergy but found no comfort from them as they seemed unable to help with the matters troubling him. One, in Warwickshire, advised him to take tobacco (which Fox disliked) and sing psalms; another, in Coventry, lost his temper when Fox accidentally stood on a flower in his garden; a third suggested bloodletting. He became fascinated by the Bible, which he studied assiduously. He hoped to find among the "English Dissenters" a spiritual understanding absent from the established church but fell out with one group, for example, because he maintained that women had souls:

["]as I had forsaken the priests, so I left the separate preachers also, and those esteemed the most experienced people; for I saw there was none among them all that could speak to my condition. And when all my hopes in them and in all men were gone, so that I had nothing outwardly to help me, nor could tell what to do, then, oh, then, I heard a voice which said, "There is one, even Christ Jesus, that can speak to thy condition"; and when I heard it my heart did leap for joy. Then the Lord let me see why there was none upon the earth that could speak to my condition, namely, that I might give Him all the glory; for all are concluded under sin, and shut up in unbelief as I had been, that Jesus Christ might have the pre-eminence who enlightens, and gives grace, and faith, and power. Thus when God doth work, who shall let (i.e. prevent) it? And this I knew experimentally.["]

He thought intensely about the Temptation of Christ, which he compared to his own spiritual condition, but drew strength from his conviction that God would support and preserve him. In prayer and meditation he came to a greater understanding of the nature of his faith and what it required from him; this process he called "opening". He also came to what he deemed a deep inner understanding of standard Christian beliefs. Among his ideas were:

• Rituals can be safely ignored, as long as one experiences a true spiritual conversion.

• The qualification for ministry is given by the Holy Spirit, not by ecclesiastical study. This implies that anyone has the right to minister, assuming the Spirit guides them, including women and children.

• God "dwelleth in the hearts of his obedient people": religious experience is not confined to a church building. Indeed, Fox refused to apply the word "church" to a building, using instead the name "steeple-house", a usage maintained by many Quakers today. Fox would just as soon worship in fields and orchards, believing that God's presence could be felt anywhere.

• Though Fox used the Bible to support his views, Fox reasoned that, because God was within the faithful, believers could follow their own inner guide rather than rely on a strict reading of Scripture or the word of clerics.

• Fox also made no clear distinction between Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

Society of Friends

In 1647 Fox began to preach publicly: in market-places, fields, appointed meetings of various kinds or even sometimes "steeple-houses" after the service. His powerful preaching began to attract a small following. It is not clear at what point the Society of Friends was formed but there was certainly a group of people who often travelled together. At first, they called themselves "Children of the Light" or "Friends of the Truth", and later simply "Friends". Fox seems to have had no desire to found a sect but only to proclaim what he saw as the pure and genuine principles of Christianity in their original simplicity, though he afterward showed great prowess as a religious legislator in the organization he gave to the new society.

There were a great many rival Christian denominations holding very diverse opinions; the atmosphere of dispute and confusion gave Fox an opportunity to put forward his own beliefs through his personal sermons. Fox's preaching was grounded in scripture but was mainly effective because of the intense personal experience he was able to project. He was scathing about immorality, deceit and the exacting of tithes and urged his listeners to lead lives without sin, avoiding the Ranter's antinomian view that a believer becomes automatically sinless. By 1651 he had gathered other talented preachers around him and continued to roam the country despite a harsh reception from some listeners, who would whip and beat them to drive them away. As his reputation spread, his words were not welcomed by all. As an uncompromising preacher, he hurled disputation and contradiction to the faces of his opponents. The worship of Friends in the form of silent waiting seems to have been well-established by this time, though it is not recorded how this came to be.


Fox complained to judges about decisions he considered morally wrong, as in his letter on the case of a woman due to be executed for theft. He campaigned against the paying of tithes, which funded the established church and often went into the pockets of absentee landlords or religious colleges far away from the paying parishioners. In his view, as God was everywhere and anyone could preach, the established church was unnecessary and a university qualification irrelevant for a preacher. Conflict with civil authority was inevitable. Fox was imprisoned several times, the first at Nottingham in 1649. At Derby in 1650 he was imprisoned for blasphemy; a judge mocked Fox's exhortation to "tremble at the word of the Lord", calling him and his followers "Quakers". Following his refusal to fight against the return of the monarchy (or to take up arms for any reason), his sentence was doubled. The refusal to swear oaths or take up arms came to be a much more important part of his public statements. Refusal to take oaths meant that Quakers could be prosecuted under laws compelling subjects to pledge allegiance, as well as making testifying in court problematic. In a letter of 1652 (That which is set up by the sword), he urged Friends not to use "carnal weapons" but "spiritual weapons", saying "let the waves [the power of nations] break over your heads".

In 1652, Fox preached for several hours under a walnut tree at Balby, where his disciple Thomas Aldham was instrumental in setting up the first meeting in the Doncaster area. In June that year Fox felt that God led him to ascend Pendle Hill where he had a vision of many souls coming to Christ. From there he travelled to Sedbergh in Westmorland, where he had heard a group of Seekers were meeting, and preached to over a thousand people on Firbank Fell, convincing many, including Francis Howgill, to accept that Christ might speak to people directly. At the end of the month he stayed at Swarthmoor Hall, near Ulverston, the home of Thomas Fell, vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and his wife, Margaret. At around this time the ad hoc meetings of Friends began to be formalized and a monthly meeting was set up in County Durham. Margaret became a Quaker and, although Thomas did not convert, his familiarity with the Friends proved influential when Fox was arrested for blasphemy in October. Fell was one of three presiding judges, and had the charges dismissed on a technicality.

Fox remained at Swarthmoor until summer 1653 then left for Carlisle where he was arrested again for blasphemy.[3] It was even proposed to put him to death but Parliament requested his release rather than have "a young man . . . die for religion". Further imprisonments came at London in 1654, Launceston in 1656, Lancaster in 1660, Leicester in 1662, Lancaster again and Scarborough in 1664-66 and Worcester in 1673-75. Charges usually included causing a disturbance and travelling without a pass. Quakers fell foul of irregularly enforced laws forbidding unauthorized worship while actions motivated by belief in social equality - refusing to use or acknowledge titles, take hats off in court or bow to those who considered themselves socially superior - were seen as disrespectful. While imprisoned at Launceston Fox wrote, "Christ our Lord and master saith 'Swear not at all, but let your communications be yea, yea, and nay, nay, for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.' . . . the Apostle James saith, 'My brethren, above all things swear not, neither by heaven, nor by earth, nor by any other oath. Lest ye fall into condemnation.'"

In prison George Fox continued writing and preaching, feeling that imprisonment brought him into contact with people who needed his help - the jailers as well as his fellow prisoners. In his journal, he told his magistrate, "God dwells not in temples made with hands." He also sought to set an example by his actions there, turning the other cheek when being beaten and refusing to show his captors any dejected feelings.

Encounters with Oliver Cromwell

Parliamentarians grew suspicious of monarchist plots and fearful that the group travelling with Fox aimed to overthrow the government: by this time his meetings were regularly attracting crowds of over a thousand. In early 1655 he was arrested at Whetstone, Leicestershire and taken to London under armed guard. In March he was brought before the Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell. After affirming that he had no intention of taking up arms Fox was able to speak with Cromwell for most of the morning about the Friends and advised him to listen to God's voice and obey it so that, as Fox left, Cromwell "with tears in his eyes said, 'Come again to my house; for if thou and I were but an hour of a day together, we should be nearer one to the other'; adding that he wished [Fox] no more ill than he did to his own soul."

This episode was later recalled as an example of "speaking truth to power", a preaching technique by which subsequent Quakers hoped to influence the powerful. Although not used until the 20th century, the phrase is related to the ideas of plain speech and simplicity which Fox practiced, but motivated by the more worldly goal of eradicating war, injustice and oppression.

Fox petitioned Cromwell over the course of 1656, asking him to alleviate the persecution of Quakers. Later that year, they met for a second time at Whitehall. On a personal level, the meeting went well; despite disagreements between the two men, they had a certain rapport. Fox invited Cromwell to "lay down his crown at the feet of Jesus" - which Cromwell declined to do. Fox met Cromwell again twice in March 1657. Their last meeting was in 1658 at Hampton Court, though they could not speak for long or meet again because of the Protector's worsening illness - Fox even wrote that "he looked like a dead man". Cromwell died in September of that year.

James Nayler

One early Quaker convert, the Yorkshireman James Nayler, arose as a prominent preacher in London around 1655. A breach began to form between Fox's and Nayler's followers. As Fox was held prisoner at Launceston, Nayler moved south-westwards towards Launceston intending to meet Fox and heal any rift. On the way he was arrested himself and held at Exeter. After Fox was released from Launceston gaol in 1656, he preached throughout the West Country. Arriving at Exeter late in September, Fox was reunited with Nayler. Nayler and his followers refused to remove their hats while Fox prayed, which Fox took as both a personal slight and a bad example. When Nayler refused to kiss Fox's hand, Fox told Nayler to kiss his foot instead. Nayler was offended and the two parted acrimoniously. Fox wrote, "there was now a wicked spirit risen amongst Friends".

After Nayler's own release later the same year he rode into Bristol triumphantly playing the part of Jesus Christ in a re-enactment of Palm Sunday. He was arrested and taken to London, where Parliament defeated a motion to execute him by 96-82. Instead, they ordered that he be pilloried and whipped through both London and Bristol, branded on his forehead with the letter B (for blasphemer), bored through the tongue with a red-hot iron and imprisoned in solitary confinement with hard labour. Nayler was released in 1659, but he was a broken man. On meeting Fox in London, he fell to his knees and begged Fox's forgiveness. Shortly afterward, Nayler was attacked by thieves while travelling home to his family, and died.

Suffering and growth

The persecutions of these years - with about a thousand Friends in prison by 1657 - hardened George Fox's opinions of traditional religious and social practices. In his preaching, he often emphasized the Quaker rejection of baptism by water; this was a useful way of highlighting how the focus of Friends on inward transformation differed from what he saw as the superstition of outward ritual. It was also deliberately provocative to adherents of those practices, providing opportunities for Fox to argue with them on matters of scripture. This pattern was also found in his court appearances: when a judge challenged him to remove his hat, Fox riposted by asking where in the Bible such an injunction could be found.

The Society of Friends became increasingly organized towards the end of the decade. Large meetings were held, including a three-day event in Bedfordshire, the precursor of the present Britain Yearly Meeting system. Fox commissioned two Friends to travel around the country collecting the testimonies of imprisoned Quakers, as evidence of their persecution; this led to the establishment in 1675 of Meeting for Sufferings, which has continued to the present day.

The 1650s, when the Friends were most confrontational, was one of the most creative periods of their history. During the Commonwealth, Fox had hoped that the movement would become the major church in England. Disagreements, persecution and increasing social turmoil, however, led Fox to suffer from a severe depression, which left him deeply troubled at Reading, Berkshire, for ten weeks in 1658 or 1659. In 1659, he sent parliament his most politically radical pamphlet, Fifty nine Particulars laid down for the Regulating things, but the year was so chaotic that it never considered them; the document was not reprinted until the 21st century.

The Restoration

With the restoration of the monarchy, Fox's dreams of establishing the Friends as the dominant religion seemed at an end. He was again accused of conspiracy, this time against Charles II, and fanaticism - a charge he resented. He was imprisoned in Lancaster for five months, during which he wrote to the king offering advice on governance: Charles should refrain from war and domestic religious persecution, and discourage oath-taking, plays, and maypole games. These last suggestions reveal Fox's Puritan leanings, which continued to influence Quakers for centuries after his death. Once again, Fox was released after demonstrating that he had no military ambitions.

At least on one point, Charles listened to Fox. The seven hundred Quakers who had been imprisoned under Richard Cromwell were released, though the government remained uncertain about the group's links with other, more violent, movements. A revolt by the Fifth Monarchists in January 1661 led to the suppression of that sect and the repression of other Nonconformists, including Quakers. In the aftermath of this attempted coup, Fox and eleven other Quakers issued a broadside proclaiming what became known among Friends in the 20th century as the "peace testimony": they committed themselves to oppose all outward wars and strife as contrary to the will of God. Not all his followers accepted this statement; Isaac Penington, for example, dissented for a time arguing that the state had a duty to protect the innocent from evil, if necessary by using military force. Despite the testimony, persecution against Quakers and other dissenters continued.

Penington and others, such as John Perrot and John Pennyman, were uneasy at Fox's increasing power within the movement. Like Nayler before them, they saw no reason why men should remove their hats for prayer, arguing that men and women should be treated as equals and if, as according to the apostle Paul, women should cover their heads, then so could men. Perrot and Penington lost the argument. Perrot emigrated to the New World, and Fox retained leadership of the movement.

Parliament enacted laws which forbade non-Anglican religious meetings of more than five people, essentially making Quaker meetings illegal. Fox counseled his followers to openly violate laws that attempted to suppress the movement, and many Friends, including women and children, were jailed over the next two and a half decades. Meanwhile, Quakers in New England had been banished (and some executed), and Charles was advised by his councillors to issue a mandamus condemning this practice and allowing them to return. Fox was able to meet some of the New England Friends when they came to London, stimulating his interest in the colonies. Fox was unable to travel there immediately: he was imprisoned again in 1664 for his refusal to swear the oath of allegiance, and on his release in 1666 was preoccupied with organizational matters - he normalized the system of monthly and quarterly meetings throughout the country, and extended it to Ireland.

Visiting Ireland also gave him the opportunity to preach against what he saw as the excesses of the Roman Catholic Church, in particular the use of ritual. More recent Quaker commentators have noted points of contact between the denominations: both claim the actual presence of God in their meetings, and both allow the collective opinion of the church to augment Biblical teaching. Fox, however, did not perceive this, brought up as he was in a wholly Protestant environment hostile to "Popery".

Fox married Margaret Fell of Swarthmoor Hall, a lady of high social position and one of his early converts, on 27 October 1669 at a meeting in Bristol. She was ten years his senior and had eight children (all but one of them Quakers) by her first husband, Thomas Fell, who had died in 1658. She was herself very active in the movement, and had campaigned for equality and the acceptance of women as preachers. As there were no priests at Quaker weddings to perform the ceremony, the union took the form of a civil marriage approved by the principals and the witnesses at a meeting. Ten days after the marriage, Margaret returned to Swarthmoor to continue her work there while George went back to London. Their shared religious work was at the heart of their life together, and they later collaborated on a great deal of the administration the Society required. Shortly after the marriage, Margaret was imprisoned at Lancaster; George remained in the south-east of England, becoming so ill and depressed that for a time he lost his sight.

Travels in America and Europe

By 1671 Fox had recovered and Margaret had been released by order of the King. Fox resolved to visit the English settlements in America and the West Indies, remaining there for two years, possibly to counter any remnants of Perrot's teaching there. After a voyage of seven weeks, during which dolphins were caught and eaten, the party arrived in Barbados on 3 October 1671. From there, Fox sent an epistle to Friends spelling out the role of women's meetings in the Quaker marriage ceremony, a point of controversy when he returned home. One of his proposals suggested that the prospective couple should be interviewed by an all-female meeting prior to the marriage to determine whether there were any financial or other impediments. Though women's meetings had been held in London for the last ten years, this was an innovation in Bristol and the north-west of England, which many there felt went too far.

Fox wrote a letter to the governor and assembly of the island in which he refuted charges that Quakers were stirring up the slaves to revolt and tried to affirm the orthodoxy of Quaker beliefs. After a stay in Jamaica, Fox's first landfall on the North American continent was at Maryland, where he participated in a four-day meeting of local Quakers. He remained there while various of his English companions travelled to the other colonies, because he wished to meet some Native Americans who were interested in Quaker ways - though he relates that they had "a great dispute" among themselves about whether to participate in the meeting. Fox was impressed by their general demeanour, which he said was "courteous and loving". He resented the suggestion (from a man in North Carolina) that "the Light and Spirit of God . . . was not in the Indians", a proposition which Fox refuted. Fox left no record of encountering slaves on the mainland.

Elsewhere in the colonies, Fox helped to establish organizational systems for the Friends, along the same lines as he had done in Britain. He also preached to many non-Quakers, some but not all of whom were converted.

Following extensive travels around the various American colonies, George Fox returned to England in June 1673 confident that his movement was firmly established there. Back in England, however, he found his movement sharply divided among provincial Friends (such as William Rogers, John Wilkinson and John Story) who resisted establishment of women's meetings and the power of those who resided in or near London. With William Penn and Robert Barclay as allies of Fox, the challenge to Fox's leadership was eventually put down. But in the midst of the dispute, Fox was imprisoned again for refusing to swear oaths after being captured at Armscote, Worcestershire. His mother died shortly after hearing of his arrest and Fox's health began to suffer. Margaret Fell petitioned the king for his release, which was granted, but Fox felt too weak to take up his travels immediately. Recuperating at Swarthmoor, he began dictating what would be published after his death as his journal and devoted his time to his written output: letters, both public and private, as well as books and essays. Much of his energy was devoted to the topic of oaths, having become convinced of its importance to Quaker ideas. By refusing to swear, he felt that he could bear witness to the value of truth in everyday life, as well as to God, who he associated with truth and the inner light.

For three months in 1677 and a month in 1684, Fox visited the Friends in the Netherlands, and organized their meetings for discipline. The first trip was the more extensive, taking him into what is now Germany, proceeding along the coast to Friedrichstadt and back again over several days. Meanwhile, Fox was participating in a dispute among Friends in Britain over the role of women in meetings, a struggle which took much of his energy and left him exhausted. Returning to England, he stayed in the south in order to try to end the dispute. He followed the foundation of the colony of Pennsylvania, where Penn had given him over 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) of land, with interest. Persecution continued, with Fox arrested briefly in October 1683. Fox's health was becoming worse, but he continued his activities - writing to leaders in Poland, Denmark, Germany, and elsewhere about his beliefs, and their treatment of Quakers.

Last years

In the last years of his life, Fox continued to participate in the London Meetings, and still made representations to Parliament about the sufferings of Friends. The new King, James II, pardoned religious dissenters jailed for failure to attend the established church, leading to the release of about 1500 Friends. Though the Quakers lost influence after the Glorious Revolution, which deposed James II, the Act of Toleration 1689 put an end to the uniformity laws under which Quakers had been persecuted, permitting them to assemble freely.

Two days after preaching, as usual, at the Gracechurch Street Meeting House in London, George Fox died between 9 and 10 p.m. on 13 January 1691. He was interred in the Quaker Burying Ground, Bunhill Fields, three days later in the presence of thousands of mourners.

Journal and letters

Fox's journal was first published in 1694, after editing by Thomas Ellwood - a friend and associate of John Milton - with a preface by William Penn. Like most similar works of its time the journal was not written contemporaneously to the events it describes, but rather compiled many years later, much of it dictated. Parts of the journal were not in fact by Fox at all but are constructed by its editors from diverse sources and written as if by him. The dissent within the movement and the contributions of others to the development of Quakerism are largely excluded from the narrative. Fox portrays himself as always in the right and always vindicated by God's interventions on his behalf. As a religious autobiography, Rufus Jones compared it to such works as Augustine's Confessions and John Bunyan's Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. It is, though, an intensely personal work with little dramatic power that only succeeds in appealing to readers after substantial editing. Historians have used it as a primary source because of its wealth of detail on ordinary life in the 17th century, and the many towns and villages which Fox visited.

Hundreds of Fox's letters - mostly intended for wide circulation, along with a few private communications - were also published. Written from the 1650s onwards, with such titles as Friends, seek the peace of all men or To Friends, to know one another in the light, they give enormous insight into the detail of Fox's beliefs, and show his determination to spread them. These writings, in the words of Henry Cadbury, Professor of Divinity at Harvard University and a leading Quaker, "contain a few fresh phrases of his own, [but] are generally characterized by an excess of scriptural language and today they seem dull and repetitious". Others point out that "Fox's sermons, rich in biblical metaphor and common speech, brought hope in a dark time." Fox's aphorisms have found an audience beyond Quakers, with many other church groups using them to illustrate principles of Christianity.

Fox is described by Ellwood as "graceful in countenance, manly in personage, grave in gesture, courteous in conversation". Penn says he was "civil beyond all forms of breeding". We are told that he was "plain and powerful in preaching, fervent in prayer", "a discerner of other men's spirits, and very much master of his own", skilful to "speak a word in due season to the conditions and capacities of most, especially to them that were weary, and wanted soul's rest"; "valiant in asserting the truth, bold in defending it, patient in suffering for it, immovable as a rock".


Fox's influence on the Society of Friends was tremendous, and his beliefs have largely been carried forward by that group. Perhaps his most significant achievement, other than his predominant influence in the early movement, was his leadership in overcoming the twin challenges of government prosecution after the Restoration and internal disputes that threatened its stability during the same period. Not all of his beliefs were welcome to all Quakers: his Puritan-like opposition to the arts and rejection of theological study, forestalled development of these practices among Quakers for some time.

The name of George Fox is often invoked by traditionalist Friends who dislike modern liberal attitudes to the Society's Christian origins. At the same time, Quakers and others can relate to Fox's religious experience, and even those who disagree with many of his ideas regard him as a pioneer.

Walt Whitman, who was raised by parents inspired by Quaker thought, later wrote: "George Fox stands for something too - a thought - the thought that wakes in silent hours - perhaps the deepest, most eternal thought latent in the human soul. This is the thought of God, merged in the thoughts of moral right and the immortality of identity. Great, great is this thought - aye, greater than all else."

George Fox University in Oregon, founded as Pacific College in 1891, was renamed for him in 1949. He also has a building named after him at Lancaster University. James Harcourt played Fox in the 1941 film Penn of Pennsylvania. Fox's relationship with Margaret Fell is novelized in Jan de Hartog's The Peaceable Kingdom: An American Saga. 
FOX, George (I38959)
25409 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Jethro Sumner

Jethro Exum Sumner (c. 1733 - c. March 18, 1785) was a North Carolina landowner and businessman, and an officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Born in Virginia, Sumner's military service began in the French and Indian War as a member of the state's Provincial forces. After the conclusion of that conflict, he moved to Bute County, North Carolina, where he acquired a substantial area of land and operated a tavern. He served as Sheriff of Bute County, but with the coming of the American Revolution, he became a strident Patriot, and was elected to North Carolina's Provincial Congress.

Sumner was named the commanding officer of the 3rd North Carolina Regiment of the North Carolina Line, a formation of the Continental Army, in 1776, and served in both the Southern theater and Philadelphia campaign. He was one of five brigadier generals from North Carolina in the Continental Army, in which capacity he served between 1779 and 1783. He served with distinction in the battles of Stono Ferry and Eutaw Springs, but recurring bouts of poor health often forced him to play an administrative role, or to convalesce in North Carolina. Following a drastic reduction in the number of North Carolinians serving with the Continental Army, Sumner became a general in the state's militia but resigned in protest after the North Carolina Board of War awarded overall command of the militia to William Smallwood, a Continental Army general from Maryland. After the end of the war in 1783, Sumner helped to establish the North Carolina Chapter of the Society of the Cincinnati, and became its first president. He died in 1785 with extensive landholdings and 35 slaves.

Early life

Sumner was born in Nansemond County, Virginia, in 1733 to Jethro and Margaret Sullivan Sumner. His family had originally settled in Nansemond County in 1691. Between 1758 and 1761, during the French and Indian War, he was a lieutenant in the Virginia Provincial forces in Pennsylvania under the command of William Byrd III. On November 25, 1758, Sumner participated in the capture of Fort Duquesne. He was made commander at Pennsylvania's Fort Bedford in 1760. After his regiment was disbanded in 1761, he returned home to Nansemond County. Between 1761 and 1764, he moved to Bute County in North Carolina, and married Mary Hurst of Granville County, with whom he would have three children. One daughter went on to marry Thomas Blount, who would later serve multiple terms in the United States House of Representatives.

Sumner owned substantial property inherited through his wife's family in Bute County, where he also owned and possibly operated a tavern on land that he leased for £36 annually. Like many former Virginians who moved across the border into North Carolina during the colonial era, it is likely that Sumner would have retained close business ties with the province of his birth. Between 1772 and 1776, he served as sheriff of Bute County, resigning when he became an officer during the American Revolutionary War. Sumner was active in pre-Revolution protests and politics, as he believed a separation from Great Britain was inevitable.

American Revolutionary War

In 1775, the North Carolina Provincial Congress passed legislation to raise militia forces throughout the state, and to that end it organized six militia districts, including one, centered on the town of Halifax, which contained Sumner's home. The soldiers comprising the militia throughout the state were to enlist for six-month periods. Sumner was chosen to be a major in the Halifax District militia, and was instructed to drill his men so that they would be prepared for the expected conflict. Between August and September of 1775, he served as Bute County's representative at the Third North Provincial Congress. In November 1775, Sumner summoned his militia into active service, and marched north to join Robert Howe in capturing (and later burning) Norfolk, Virginia.

Southern theater, 1776

On April 4, 1776, after the American Revolutionary war had been raging in Massachusetts for nearly a year, the Provincial Congress at Halifax chose Sumner to be colonel, and thus commanding officer, of the 3rd North Carolina Regiment. He likely participated in the defense of Charleston against a British invasion attempt in 1776, after which he was involved in the aborted plans of Major General Charles Lee to invade British Florida. During the planning stages for the Florida invasion, Sumner disagreed with Peter Muhlenberg of the 8th Virginia Regiment over which of the two was to be given command over Lee's Virginia and North Carolina troops while the commanding general was traveling in advance of his men. This dispute was resolved only when a military court of inquiry awarded Muhlenberg temporary command after Sumner failed to appear and plead his case. By August 18, 1776, Sumner's 3rd Regiment had reached Savannah, Georgia, where they joined Lee, who had arrived earlier in the month. The planned invasion of Florida did not materialize, though, and Sumner left his regiment at Savannah in September 1776 to recruit more soldiers from North Carolina.

Philadelphia campaign and Valley Forge

In early 1777, Sumner resumed command of the 3rd North Carolina regiment, and marched the unit north to serve under George Washington in the Philadelphia campaign. In the spring and summer of 1777, he remained encamped with the main portion of the Continental Army at Morristown, New Jersey. He and his men drilled regularly and had their supplies and arms inspected and repaired, although many of the North Carolinians had such poor muskets that a substantial number were discarded. Sumner and his regiment fought in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown, and spent the winter of 1777 to 1778 in Valley Forge with Washington's army.

After the death at Germantown of General Francis Nash, the regiments of his North Carolina brigade were left without a commanding general. Generals Alexander McDougall of New York and Lachlan McIntosh of Georgia were appointed in succession to temporary command of the North Carolinians while in winter quarters. Many North Carolina officers believed the state was due the appointment of two additional brigadier generals based on the number of soldiers it provided to the Continental Army. At Valley Forge, the North Carolina brigade had a total strength of 1,051, but 353 were ill, and 164 lacked sufficient clothes to be fit for service. Sumner himself became ill in the spring of 1778, and was forced to return home to recuperate; he continued to recruit soldiers in North Carolina during his recovery. Despite his recruitment efforts, in February 1778, North Carolina's regiments were consolidated due to a lack of available soldiers, and Sumner's 3rd Regiment absorbed the 5th North Carolina Regiment.

Promotion and campaigning in the Carolinas

Although North Carolina believed it was owed additional general officer positions, conflicts between members of the North Carolina General Assembly over who was to be considered for the positions, and Thomas Burke, one of North Carolina's leading delegates to the Continental Congress, apparently lacked interest in any of the suggested candidates stalled the appointment of officers to assume those positions. To complicate matters further, Alexander Martin, once a leading candidate for generalship, resigned after charges of cowardice were leveled against him, and was no longer seen as an appropriate candidate. The General Assembly deferred discussion of possible replacement generals for more than a month after convening on November 7, 1777. By December 15, the North Carolina General Assembly instructed its representatives in the Second Continental Congress to nominate Sumner for promotion to general. It was not until January 9, 1779, though, that the Continental Congress commissioned Sumner as brigadier general (along with fellow North Carolinian James Hogun), and ordered him to join General Benjamin Lincoln in South Carolina. Sumner received the highest number of congressional votes, thirteen to Hogun's nine and Thomas Clark's four.

On June 20, 1779, Sumner led a Continental Army brigade at the Battle of Stono Ferry, assaulting the British right flank and routing the Hessian von Trümbach Regiment. The Continentals and the Patriot militia began to run out of ammunition during the battle, and Lincoln was forced to order a general retreat. At least seven Continental officers under Sumner's command were wounded, and future United States President Andrew Jackson's brother Hugh was among ten North Carolinians killed. After the engagement at Stono Ferry, Sumner experienced another bout of poor health. He returned to North Carolina to recover, continuing to recruit troops during his convalescence. He suffered financially during his recovery, as a monetary crisis at the time left many officers in his position barely able to support themselves at home. He was also tasked by Lincoln with finding deserters in North Carolina and pressing them back into service. Sumner was on a leave of absence in September and October 1779, during the Patriot defeat at the Siege of Savannah.

Militia command

Between the Siege of Charleston in May 1780 and the Battle of Camden in August that year, the North Carolina Line (a loose organizational structure that encompassed all of North Carolina's Continental Army units) was virtually annihilated, suffering substantial casualties and the loss of many men as prisoners of war. During at least part of the intervening time, Sumner was in North Carolina on a recruiting mission. Rather than rebuild the Line, the North Carolina General Assembly determined to rely on militia for the defense of the state. In September 1780, Sumner temporarily transferred to command of the Hillsborough District militia, under the statewide leadership of Richard Caswell. As commander of a brigade of North Carolina militia, Sumner was tasked with defending the state from the advances of British General Charles Cornwallis, but the militiamen were poorly equipped and ill-trained.

In late 1780, the North Carolina Board of War removed Caswell from command of North Carolina's militia, and the General Assembly awarded command of the militia to Continental Army Brigadier General William Smallwood of Maryland, citing the Assembly's lack of confidence in their own state's military commanders. Sumner was further offended when command of the dwindling number of North Carolina Continentals in the southern theater was given to Smallwood as well. Despite persistent urging from Alexander Martin and others, Sumner resigned from his militia command in October 1780, and returned to the Continental service. A political backlash by prominent militia commanders like Caswell and Martin and their supporters led to the abolition of the Board of War by the General Assembly soon after Sumner's resignation, and Caswell in particular came back to power on the Board's replacement organ, called the "Council Extraordinary".

Return to the Continental Army

Sumner next served under General Nathanael Greene, who arrived in the southern theater in December 1780 and directed Sumner to recruit further Continental soldiers from North Carolina. On June 2, 1781, Greene ordered Sumner to join him in South Carolina, which he did along with 350 new recruits on August 1. Despite the passage of a draft law in North Carolina, the number of men under his command fluctuated from day to day because of both temporary and permanent desertions. These desertions eventually elicited his personal apology to Greene, as Sumner felt unable to control the ebb of soldiers in camp. On September 8, his regiments were positioned on the right flank of the Continental Army at the Battle of Eutaw Springs, where his units served a vital role in halting several British assaults. Greene commented on the North Carolinians' actions at Eutaw Springs, stating that they "fought with a degree of obstinacy that would do honor to the best of veterans".

Following his success at Eutaw Springs, Sumner was made commanding officer of Continental Army forces in North Carolina by Greene in 1781. Greene primarily wanted him to regain control of the military situation in the state, as then-Governor and former Continental Congress delegate Thomas Burke had been captured by David Fanning in a stunning daylight raid on Hillsborough, North Carolina on September 12, 1781. Combat between the British and Continental armies effectively ceased in late 1781. After that point, Sumner failed to make any reports to Greene, who remained his commanding officer, for several months at a time, due in part to Sumner's recurring bouts of illness.

Post-war activities, death, and legacy

Following the war's end in 1783, Sumner returned to Bute County, which had been renamed Warren County after Joseph Warren, the hero of the Battle of Bunker Hill. It appears that Sumner's wife died at some point between 1781 and 1785. For his service in the Continental Army, he received a land warrant on October 23, 1783, which represented compensation for 84 months of service. Sumner helped create North Carolina's chapter of the Society of the Cincinnati in October 1783, and served as its first president.

Sumner died in Warren County between March 15 and March 19, 1785 at the age of 52. At his death, he owned approximately 20,000 acres of land in North Carolina and Tennessee (much of which in the latter was part of the Continental Army land warrant he received), as well as 35 slaves. He was originally buried approximately eight miles outside of Warrenton, but in 1891 his remains were moved to the Guilford Courthouse Battlefield, where they were interred under a monument intended as part of a "shrine to patriots". In March 2012, a driver struck Sumner's monument after going off-road to avoid hitting a deer, nearly destroying the stone structure. The monument was restored by May 2012, and Sumner was reburied in a public ceremony. Sumner County, Tennessee, originally in the western portion of North Carolina, was named for him, although Sumner never visited the county.


Gen Jethro Exum Sumner
Birth: 1733, Virginia, USA
Death: Mar. 18, 1785, USA

Brig. Gen. Jethro Sumner
Born in the year 1733
Died March 18, 1785

Colonel of the Third North Carolina
Continental Troops
April 15, 1776
Charleston, June 28, 1776
Brandywine, Sept. 11, 1777
Germantown, Oct. 4, 1777
Monmouth, June 20, 1778
Stono Ferry, June 20, 1779
Eutaw Springs, Sept. 8, 1781

Spotless in character, pure in patriotism, the most eminent soldier among the North Carolina Troops. Sumner County, Tennessee named in his honor.

Inscription: To the memory of General Jethro Sumner, one of the Heroes of 76

Burial: Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, Greensboro, Guilford County, North Carolina, USA

Created by: grave hunter
Record added: Dec 22, 2011
Find A Grave Memorial# 82278066 
SUMNER, Jethro Exum Jr. (I37712)
25410 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

John Ayer

John Ayer (1582-1657) was one of the original European settlers to Massachusetts, settling in Ipswich, Haverhill, and Salisbury.

Early years

John was born on September 2, 1582 to father Thomas Eyre (Ayer) and Elizabeth Rogers, in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. He married once prior to 1619, but it is unclear what happened to her.

In 1620 Ayer married Hannah Evered als. Webb, daughter of John & Mary (Webb) Evered, in Cockfield, Durhamshire, England. Their first son, John, died as an infant. Their second son, Thomas, was born in Lavenham, Suffolk.

On June 3, 1635, John Ayer set sail for the New World with his family, including his two brothers-in-law, John and Stephen, aboard the ship James. As they approached New England, a hurricane struck, and they were forced to ride it out just off the coast of modern-day Hampton, New Hampshire. According to the ship's log and the journal of Increase Mather, whose father Richard Mather and family were passengers, the following was recorded:

"At this moment, . . . their lives were given up for lost; but then, in an instant of time, God turned the wind about, which carried them from the rocks of death before their eyes . . . her sails rent in sunder, and split in pieces, as if they had been rotten ragges. . . ."

They tried to stand down during the storm just outside the Isles of Shoals, but lost all three anchors, as no canvas or rope would hold, but on Aug 13, 1635, torn to pieces, and not one death, all one hundred plus passengers of the James managed to make it to Boston Harbor.

New World settlements

It is reported that John and Hannah first moved to Ipswich before being part of the new settlement of the "plantation at Merrimack" on September 6, 1638. A year later the plantation was named "Colchester", then finally Salisbury in 1640. The idea was to establish a plantation-style settlement with the following criteria, as reported to the General Court in March 1638:

"At a meeting at merrimack of Mr Simone Bradstreet, Mr Samuell Dudly, Mr Danniell Dennisonn, Christopher Batt, Samuell Winsley, John Sanders: "It was ordered that there shall be 2 divisions of Meadow, the one nerrer, the other farther, the nerrest shall haue fower Acres to Each 100h(£), the other left to farther Consideration. "It was further ordered that vpland for planting lotts shall be divided so as he that hath vnder 50h shall haue 4 Acres, and he that hath aboue 50h to 150h shall haue 6 Acres, and all aboue shall haue 4 Acres to Euerie 100h. "Allso, it was ordered that all lotts granted to singlemen are on Condition that they shall inhabit here before the 6 of may next, and such as haue families that they shall inhabitt here before the last of october next."

"The names of those yt have lotts & proportions granted pr the Toune of Colchester in the first division; Mr. Sam: Dudley, Mr. Willj Hooke, Mr Willj Worcester, Mr. Christopher Batt, Mr Sam: Winsley, Mr. Henry Biley, John Sanders, Mr Francis Doue, Jno Rolfe, Mr. Tho: Dummer, Mr Henry Monday, George Carr, Mr Tho. Bradbury, Jno Harrison, Mr John Hodges, Abra: Morrell, Jno Fullar, Phili.Challis, Luke Heard, Josiah Cobbet, Jarret Haddon, Anthony Colby, John Bayly Sen, John Stephens, John Seuerans, Robert Pike, Robt Ring, Richard Singleterry, Tho Macy, Tho. Hauxwell, Jno Clifford, John Eyres, Roger Eastman, Anthony Sadler, Fittz, Rowell, Widdow Browne. "This is A true copie of the originall list taken out of the old book of Reccords for Salisbury as Attests.2 "Vera copia Atest THO. BRADBURY rec. EDWARD RAWSON Secrety"

In the year's end report, dated December 25, 1650, it states that "John Ayres Sen:" was assigned land grant No. 52 of the original 71 plots of the plantations, but by this time was reporting no crops.[1]

Around 1646, Ayer and his family moved one settlement over, to the newly formed Puritan settlement of Haverhill. Haverhill, originally called Pentucket by the native Indians, was just granted by the General Court on May 13, 1640, but not official until the representatives of Passaconaway signed the purchase agreement on November 15, 1642 for 3 pounds, 10 shillings, as signed by Passaquo and Saggahew, of the local Pentucket tribe. After moving to Haverhill, John & Hannah had five more children:

Mary Ayer
Captain John Ayer Jr.
Nathanial Ayer
Hannah Ayer
Obadiah Ayer

Later years

John Ayer died in Haverhill on March 31, 1657. Thomas died in Havarhill in 1686. Hannah died in Haverhill in 1692. 
AYER, John (I29169)
25411 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville


John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, 7th Seigneur of Sark, KG, PC . . . ; 22 April 1690 - 02 January 1763), commonly known by his earlier title as Lord Carteret, was a British statesman and Lord President of the Council from 1751 to 1763; effectively leader of the country when Spencer Compton was Prime Minister. . . .


Carteret had inherited a one-eighth share in the Province of Carolina through his great-grandfather Sir George Carteret. In 1727 and 1728, John learned that the other inheritors of the original shares were planning to sell them back to the crown. Carteret declined to join them. After the others surrendered their claims in 1729, Carteret in 1730 agreed to give up any participation in government in order to keep ownership of his share. This share was later defined as a 60-mile wide strip of land in North Carolina adjoining the Virginia boundary, and became known as the Granville District. The lands of the Granville District remained in the Carteret family until the death of Carteret's son Robert in 1776. Following the American Revolution, Robert's heirs were compensated in part for the loss of the lands. 
CARTERET, 2nd Earl Granville John (I38142)
25412 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I36226)
25413 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I36227)
25414 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Margaret Fell

Margaret Fell or Margaret Fox (1614 - 23 April 1702) was a founder of the Religious Society of Friends. Known popularly as the "mother of Quakerism", she is considered one of the Valiant Sixty early Quaker preachers and missionaries.


She was born Margaret Askew in Dalton-in-Furness, Lancashire, a small town in the north of England. She married Thomas Fell, a barrister, in 1632, and became the lady of Swarthmoor Hall. In 1641, Thomas became a Justice of the Peace for Lancashire, then in 1645 he became a member of Parliament. Thomas Fell ceased to be a member from 1647 to 1649 when he disapproved of Oliver Cromwell's assumption of authority.

In late June 1652, George Fox visited Swarthmoor Hall. Margaret was away when he arrived, but upon her return in the evening, Margaret Fell met him who 'opened us a book that we had never read in, nor indeed had never heard that it was our duty to read in it (to wit) the Light of Christ in our consciences, our minds never being turned towards it before.' A day or two later it was lecture day at the parish church, and Margaret invited George Fox to attend with them. Initially he declined, but then came in after the singing and asked for liberty to speak. It was here that Margaret heard the ministry of George Fox and she was so stirred by the beginning of his speech, she stood up in her pew and wondered at his doctrine. Over the next weeks she and many of her household became convinced. Over the next six years, Swarthmoor Hall became a centre of Quaker activity; she served as an unofficial secretary for the new movement, receiving and forwarding letters from roving missionaries, and occasionally passing along admonitions to them from Fox, Richard Hubberthorne, James Naylor, and others. She wrote many epistles herself and collected and disbursed funds for those on missions. After her husband's death in 1658, she retained control of Swarthmoor Hall, which remained a meeting place and haven from persecution, even though it was sometimes, in the 1660s, raided by government forces.

Because she was one of the few founding members of the Religious Society of Friends who was an established member of the gentry, she was frequently called upon to intercede in cases of persecution or arrest of leaders such as Fox. After the Stuart Restoration, she travelled from Lancashire to London to petition King Charles II and his parliament in 1660 and 1662 for freedom of conscience in religious matters. A submission signed by George Fox and other prominent (male) Quakers was only made subsequently in November 1660. Although the structure and phraseology of these submissions were quite different, the import was similar, arguing that, although Friends wished to see the world changed, they would use persuasion rather than violence towards what they regarded as a "heavenly" (i.e. spiritual) end.

In 1664 Margaret Fell was arrested for failing to take an oath and for allowing Quaker Meetings to be held in her home. She defended herself by saying that "as long as the Lord blessed her with a home, she would worship him in it". She spent six months in Lancaster Gaol, whereafter she was sentenced to life imprisonment and forfeiture of her property. She remained in prison until 1668, during which time she wrote religious pamphlets and epistles. Perhaps her most famous work is "Women's Speaking Justified", a scripture-based argument for women's ministry, and one of the major texts on women's religious leadership in the 17th century. In this short pamphlet, Fell bases her argument for equality of the sexes on the basic premises of Quakerism that is spiritual equality. Her belief was that God created all human beings, therefore both men and women were capable of not only possessing the Inner Light but also the ability to be a prophet.

Having been released by order of the King and council, she married George Fox in 1669. On returning to Lancashire after her marriage, she was again imprisoned for about a year in Lancaster for breaking the Conventicle Act. Shortly after her release, George Fox departed on a religious mission to America, and he too was imprisoned again on his return in 1673. Margaret again travelled to London to intercede on his behalf, and he was eventually freed in 1675. After this, they spent about a year together at Swarthmoor, collaborating on defending the recently created organisational structure of separate women's meetings for discipline against their anti-Fox opponents.

George Fox spent most of the rest of his life thereafter abroad or in London until his death in 1691, while Margaret Fell spent most of the rest of her life at Swarthmoor. Surviving both husbands by a number of years, she continued to take an active part in the affairs of the Society including the changes in the 1690s following partial legal tolerance of Quakers, when she was well into her eighties. In the last decade of her life, she firmly opposed the effort of her fellow believers in Lancashire to maintain certain traditional Quaker standards of conduct (for example, in matters of dress). She died aged 88.

In literature

Margaret Fell's meeting with George Fox and her subsequent conversion are the subject of the first part of the novel The Peaceable Kingdom by Jan de Hartog.

(2) England & Wales, Quaker Birth, Marriage, and Death Registers, 1578-1837 [database online], Provo, UT: Operations, Inc., 2013

Name: Margarett Fox
Event Type: Burial
Birth Date: abt 1613
Death Date: 22 Apr 1702
Death Age: 89
Burial Date: 27 Apr 1702
Burial Place: Lancashire, England
Meeting: Quarterly Meeting of Lancashire
Burial Age: 89
Piece Description: Piece 1616A: Quarterly Meeting of Lancashire (1776-1794, 1644-1775) 
ASKEW, Margaret (I38960)
25415 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Michael Wilding (actor)

Michael Charles Gauntlet Wilding (23 July 1912 - 8 July 1979) was an English stage, television and film actor.

Early life

Born in Leigh-on-Sea, Essex, England, Wilding was a successful commercial artist when he joined the art department of a London film studio in 1933. He soon embarked on an acting career.


He appeared in numerous British films, often opposite Anna Neagle, but had a less productive career in Hollywood. His screen performances included Sailors Three (1940), In Which We Serve (1942), Undercover (1943), Piccadilly Incident (1946), Spring in Park Lane (1948), Stage Fright (1950), Torch Song (1953) and The World of Suzie Wong (1960).

In 1952, British exhibitors voted him the fourth most popular star at the local box office.

His last appearance was in an uncredited, non-speaking cameo in Lady Caroline Lamb (1972), which co-starred his last wife, Margaret Leighton.

He also appeared on television, including the title role in the 1957 episode "The Trial of Colonel Blood" of NBC's anthology series The Joseph Cotten Show.

Box-office ranking

At the peak of his career, British exhibitors voted him among the most popular stars in the country:

• 1947 - seventh most popular British star
• 1948 - fifth most popular star
• 1949 - second most popular star
• 1950 - sixth most popular British star
• 1951 - tenth most popular star
• 1952 - fourth most popular British star

Personal life

Wilding had four wives, Kay Young (married 1937, divorced 1951), actress Elizabeth Taylor (married 1952, divorced 1957), Susan Nell (married 1958, divorced 1962), and actress Margaret Leighton (married 1964 until her death in 1976).

He and Taylor had two sons, Michael Howard Wilding (born 1953) and Christopher Edward Wilding (born 1955). In 1957, he had a short-lived romance with actress Marie McDonald, who was nicknamed "The Body".

In the 1960s, he was forced to cut back on his film appearances because of illness related to his lifelong epilepsy.


Wilding died in Chichester, West Sussex, as a result of head injuries suffered from a fall down a flight of stairs during an epileptic seizure. His body was cremated and the ashes were scattered. 
WILDING, Michael Charles Gauntlet (I36222)
25416 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Mike Todd

Michael "Mike" Todd (June 22, 1909 - March 22, 1958) was an American theater and film producer, best known for his 1956 production of Around the World in 80 Days, which won an Academy Award for Best Picture. He is known as the third of Elizabeth Taylor's seven husbands and is the only one whom she did not divorce. He was the driving force behind the development of the eponymous Todd-AO widescreen film format.

Early life

Todd was born Avrom Hirsch Goldbogen in Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Chaim Goldbogen (an Orthodox rabbi) and Sophia Hellerman, both of whom were Polish Jewish immigrants. He was one of nine children in a poor family, the youngest son, and his siblings nicknamed him "Toat" to mimic his difficulty pronouncing the word "coat." It was from this that his name was derived.

The family later moved to Chicago, arriving on the day World War I ended. Todd was expelled in the sixth grade for running a game of craps inside the school. In high school, he produced the school play, The Mikado, which was considered a hit. (As Mike Todd, he would produce a jazz version of the musical on Broadway in 1939.)

He eventually dropped out of high school and worked at a variety of jobs, including shoe salesman and store window decorator. One of his first jobs was as a soda jerk. When the drugstore went out of business, Todd had acquired enough medical knowledge from his work there to be hired at Chicago's Michael Reese Hospital as a type of "security guard" to stop visitors from bringing in food that was not on the patient's diet.



Todd began his career in the construction business, where he made, and subsequently lost, a fortune. He opened the College of Bricklaying of America, buying the materials to teach bricklaying on credit. The school was forced to close when the Bricklayers' Union did not view the college as an accepted place of study. Todd and his brother, Frank, next opened their own construction company.

His first flirtation with the film industry was when he served as a contractor to Hollywood studios, soundproofing production stages during the transition from silent pictures to sound. The company he owned with his brother went bankrupt when its financial backing failed in early days of the Great Depression. Not yet twenty-one, Todd had lost over $1 million (equivalent to approximately $14,117,530 in today's funds). Having married the former Bertha Freshman on February 14, 1927, he was the father of an infant son and had no home for his family. Todd's subsequent business career was volatile, and failed ventures left him bankrupt many times.

Theatrical impresario

During the 1933-1934 Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago, Todd produced an attraction called the "Flame Dance." In this number, gas jets were designed to burn part of a dancer's costume off, leaving her naked in appearance. The act attracted enough attention to bring an offer from the Casino de Paris nightclub in New York City. Todd got his first taste of Broadway with the engagement and was determined to find a way to work there.

After seeing the Federal Theatre Project's Chicago run of The Swing Mikado, an adaptation of the Gilbert and Sullivan opera The Mikado with an all African-American cast conceived by Harry Minturn, Todd decided to do his own version on Broadway, The Hot Mikado, despite protests by the FTP. The Hot Mikado, starring Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, opened on Broadway March 23, 1939. The subsequent success of Todd's production, at the expense of the Chicago production, contributed to the financial crisis and ultimate demise of the Federal Theatre Project unit in Chicago.

Todd owned a Theatre Cafe in Chicago's Lake View neighborhood in the 1940s that provided dinner with live presentations and music.

Todd's Broadway success gave him the nerve to try taking on showman Billy Rose. Todd visited Grover Whalen, president of the 1939 New York World's Fair, with a proposal to bring the Broadway show to the Fair. Whelan, eager to have the show at the fair, covered Todd's Broadway early closing costs. Rose, who had an exclusivity clause in his fair contract, met Todd at Lindy's, where Rose learned his contract covered new forms of entertainment only. To avoid any head-to head competition, Rose quickly agreed to promote Todd's production along with his own.

Todd ultimately produced 17 Broadway shows during his career, including the immensely successful burlesque revue Star and Garter starring comedian Bobby Clark, The Naked Genius written by and starring stripper Gypsy Rose Lee, and a 1945 production of Hamlet starring Maurice Evans. His greatest successes were in musical comedy revues, typically featuring actresses in deshabillé, such as As the Girls Go (which also starred Clark) and Michael Todd's Peepshow.

In 1945, Todd floated the idea of holding the Major League Baseball All-Star Game in newly liberated Berlin. Although baseball's new commissioner Happy Chandler was reportedly "intrigued" by the idea, it was ultimately dismissed as impractical. The game was finally cancelled due to wartime travel restrictions.

In 1952, Todd made a production of the Johann Strauss II operetta A Night in Venice, complete with floating gondolas at the then-newly constructed Jones Beach Theatre in Long Island, New York. It ran for two seasons.

Widescreen cinema and film productions

In 1950, Mike Todd formed Cinerama with the broadcaster Lowell Thomas (who founded Capital Cities Communications) and the inventor Fred Waller. The company was created to exploit Cinerama, a widescreen film process created by Waller that used three film projectors to create a giant composite image on a curved screen. The first Cinerama feature, This is Cinerama, was released in September 1952.

Before its release, Todd left the Cinerama Company to develop a widescreen process which would eliminate some of Cinerama's flaws. The result was the Todd-AO process, designed by the American Optical Company. The process was first used commercially for the successful film adaptation of Oklahoma! (1955). Todd soon produced the film for which he is best remembered, Michael Todd's Around the World in 80 Days, which debuted in cinemas on October 17, 1956. Costing $6 million to produce (equivalent to approximately $52,046,512[7]), the movie earned $16 million at the box office. In 1957, Around the World in 80 Days won the Best Picture Academy Award.

In the 1950s Todd acquired the Harris and Selwyn Theaters in downtown Chicago. The Selwyn was renamed Michael Todd's Cinestage and made into a showcase for Todd-AO productions, while the Harris was renamed the Michael Todd Theatre and operated as a more conventional cinema. The facades of both theaters survive as part of the Goodman Theatre complex, although the interiors have been demolished.

A William Woolfolk novel from the early 1960s, entitled My Name Is Morgan, was considered to be loosely based on Todd's life and career.

Personal life

At age seventeen, Todd married Bertha Freshman in Crown Point, Indiana, on Valentine's Day 1927. He had been interested in Freshman since age fourteen, but needed to develop confidence before even asking her out. In 1929, the couple's son, Mike Todd, Jr., was born. The death of his father in 1931 was a turning point for Todd; he decided to change his name to Mike Todd on the day of his father's death. Todd's wife, Bertha, died of a pneumothorax (collapsed lung) on August 12, 1946 in Santa Monica, California, while undergoing surgery at St. John's Hospital for a damaged tendon in her finger. Todd and his wife were separated at the time of her death; less than a week before Freshman's death, he had filed for divorce.

On July 5, 1947, Todd married actress Joan Blondell. They were divorced on June 8, 1950, after Blondell filed for divorce on the grounds of mental cruelty.

Todd's third marriage was to the actress Elizabeth Taylor, with whom he had a tempestuous relationship. The couple exchanged vows on February 2, 1957. The ceremony took place in Mexico and was performed by the mayor of Acapulco. It was the third marriage for both the 24 year old bride and her 47 year old groom. Todd and Taylor had a daughter, Elizabeth Frances (Liza) Todd, who was born on August 6, 1957.


On March 22, 1958, Todd's private plane Lucky Liz crashed near Grants, New Mexico. The plane, a twin-engine Lockheed Lodestar, suffered engine failure while being flown, grossly overloaded, in icing conditions at an altitude which was too high to sustain flight with only one working engine under those conditions. The plane went out of control and crashed, killing all four on board. Five days before the crash, Todd flew on this plane to Albuquerque to promote a showing of Michael Todd's Around the World in 80 Days. The city is located 78 miles east of the crash site.

In addition to Todd, those who died in the crash were screenwriter and author Art Cohn, who was writing Todd's biography The Nine Lives of Michael Todd, pilot Bill Verner, and co-pilot Tom Barclay. When the plane's regular co-pilot did not show up, Tom Barclay was his substitute. Todd was on his way to New York to accept the New York Friars Club "Showman of the Year" award. Taylor, who had been given time off from the filming of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof for the event, wanted to fly to New York with her husband, but stayed home with a cold after her pleas to come along were overruled by Todd. Just hours before the crash, Todd described the plane as safe as he phoned friends, including Joseph Mankiewicz and Kirk Douglas, in an attempt to recruit a gin rummy player for the flight: "Ah, c'mon," he said. "It's a good, safe plane. I wouldn't let it crash. I'm taking along a picture of Elizabeth, and I wouldn't let anything happen to her."

His son, Mike Jr., wanted his father's body to be cremated after it was identified through dental records and brought to Albuquerque, New Mexico, but Taylor refused, saying he would not want cremation. Todd's mother, who was 91 and a sanitarium patient at the time of her son's death, was not told of the accident; it was felt that the shock would be detrimental to her fragile health. Todd was buried in Forest Park, Illinois, at Beth Aaron Cemetery in plot 66, which is part of Jewish Waldheim there. In his autobiography, Eddie Fisher, who considered himself to be Todd's best friend, stated:

["]There was a closed coffin, but I knew it was more for show than anything else. The plane had exploded on impact and whatever remains were found couldn't be identified. . . . The only items recovered from the wreckage were Mike's wedding ring and a pair of platinum cuff links I'd given him.["]

In 1977, Todd's remains were desecrated by robbers, who broke into his casket looking for a $100,000 diamond ring, which, according to rumor, Taylor had placed on her husband's finger prior to his burial. The bag containing Todd's remains was found under a tree near his burial plot. The bag and casket had been sealed in Albuquerque after Todd's remains were identified following the 1958 crash. Todd's remains were once more identified through dental records and were reburied in a secret location. 
TODD, Michael (I36223)
25417 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Richard Burton

Richard Burton, CBE (10 November 1925 - 5 August 1984) was a Welsh stage and cinema actor noted for his mellifluous baritone voice and his great acting talent. Establishing himself as a formidable Shakespearean actor in the 1950s, with a memorable performance of Hamlet in 1964, Burton was called "the natural successor to Olivier" by critic and dramaturg Kenneth Tynan. An alcoholic, Burton's failure to live up to those expectations disappointed critics and colleagues and fueled his legend as a great thespian wastrel.

Burton was nominated seven times for an Academy Award without ever winning. He was a recipient of BAFTA, Golden Globe and Tony Awards for Best Actor. In the mid-1960s Burton ascended into the ranks of the top box office stars, and by the late 1960s was one of the highest-paid actors in the world, receiving fees of $1 million or more plus a share of the gross receipts.

Burton remains closely associated in the public consciousness with his second wife, actress Elizabeth Taylor. The couple's turbulent relationship was rarely out of the news.

Childhood and education

Richard Burton was born Richard Walter Jenkins in the village of Pontrhydyfen, Neath Port Talbot, Wales. He grew up in a working class, Welsh-speaking household, the twelfth of thirteen children. His father, also named Richard Walter Jenkins, was a short, robust coal miner, a "twelve-pints-a-day man" who sometimes went off on drinking and gambling sprees for weeks. Burton later claimed, by family telling, that "He looked very much like me. . . . That is, he was pockmarked, devious, and smiled a great deal when he was in trouble. He was, also, a man of extraordinary eloquence, tremendous passion, great violence."

Burton was less than two years old in 1927 when his mother, Edith Maude (née Thomas), died at age 43 after giving birth to her 13th child. His sister Cecilia and her husband Elfed took him into their Presbyterian mining family in nearby Port Talbot (an English-speaking steel town). Burton said later that his sister became "more mother to me than any mother could have ever been. . . . I was immensely proud of her . . . she felt all tragedies except her own". Burton's father would occasionally visit the homes of his grown daughters but was otherwise absent. Also important in young Burton's life was Ifor (Ivor), his brother, 19 years his senior. A miner and rugby player, Ifor "ruled the household with the proverbial firm hand".

Burton showed a talent for English and Welsh literature at grammar school, demonstrating an excellent memory, though his consuming interest was sports - rugby (in fact famous Welsh centre Bleddyn Williams said in his autobiography that Burton could have gone far as a player), cricket, and table tennis. He later said, "I would rather have played for Wales at Cardiff Arms Park than Hamlet at the Old Vic." He earned pocket money by running messages, hauling horse manure, and delivering newspapers. He started to smoke at the age of eight and drink regularly at twelve.

Inspired by his schoolmaster, Philip H. Burton, he excelled in school productions, his first being The Apple Cart. Philip Burton could not legally adopt young Richard due to their age difference; Burton was one year short of the minimum twenty years required. Richard Jenkins (as the young man was still known) displayed early-on an excellent speaking and singing voice, winning an Eisteddfod prize as a boy soprano. He left school at age 16 for full-time work. He worked for the local wartime Co-operative committee, handing out supplies in exchange for coupons, but then considered other professions for his future, including boxing, religion and singing.

When he joined the Port Talbot Squadron of the Air Training Corps as a cadet, he re-encountered Burton, his former teacher, who was the commander. He joined a youth drama group led by Leo Lloyd, a steel worker and avid amateur thespian, who taught him the fundamentals of acting. Burton, who recognised the youth's talent, then adopted him as his ward and Richard returned to school. Being older than most of the other boys, he was very attractive to some of the girls. Philip Burton later said, "Richard was my son to all intents and purposes. I was committed to him." Philip Burton tutored his charge intensely in school subjects, and also worked at developing the youth's acting voice, including outdoor voice drills which improved his projection.

In 1943, at age 18, Richard Burton (who had taken his teacher's surname but would not change it by deed poll for several years), was allowed into Exeter College, Oxford, for a special term of six months study, made possible because he was an air force cadet obligated to later military service. He subsequently served in the RAF (1944-1947) as a navigator. Burton's eyesight was too poor for him to be considered pilot-material.

Early acting career

In the 1940s and early 1950s Burton worked on stage and in cinema in the United Kingdom. Before his war service with the Royal Air Force, he starred as Professor Higgins in a YMCA production of Pygmalion. He earned his first professional acting fees with radio parts for the BBC. He had made his professional acting debut in Liverpool and London, appearing in Druid's Rest, a play by Emlyn Williams (who also became a guru), but his career was interrupted by conscription in 1944. Early on as an actor, he developed the habit of carrying around a book-bag filled with novels, dictionaries, a complete Shakespeare, and books of quotations, history, and biography, and he enjoyed solving crossword puzzles. Burton could, given any line from Shakespeare's works, recite from memory the next several minutes of lines. His love of language was paramount, as he famously stated years later, with a tearful Elizabeth Taylor at his side, "The only thing in life is language. Not love. Not anything else."

In 1947, after his discharge from the RAF, Burton went to London to seek his fortune. He immediately signed up with a theatrical agency to make himself available for casting calls. His first film was The Last Days of Dolwyn, set in a Welsh village about to be drowned to provide a reservoir. His reviews praised him for his "acting fire, manly bearing, and good looks."

Burton met his future wife, the young actress Sybil Williams, on the set, and they married in February 1949. They had two daughters, but divorced in 1963 after Burton's widely reported affair with Elizabeth Taylor. In the years of his marriage to Sybil, Burton appeared in the West End in a highly successful production of The Lady's Not for Burning, alongside Sir John Gielgud and Claire Bloom, in both the London and New York productions. He had small parts in various British films: Now Barabbas Was A Robber; Waterfront (1950) with Robert Newton; The Woman with No Name (1951); and a bigger part as a smuggler in Green Grow the Rushes, a B-movie.

Reviewers took notice of Burton: "He has all the qualifications of a leading man that the British film industry so badly needs at this juncture: youth, good looks, a photogenic face, obviously alert intelligence, and a trick of getting the maximum of attention with a minimum of fuss." In the 1951 season at Stratford, he gave a critically acclaimed performance and achieved stardom as Prince Hal in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 1 opposite Anthony Quayle's Falstaff. Philip Burton arrived at Stratford to help coach his former charge, noting in his memoir that Quayle and Richard Burton had their differences about the interpretation of the Prince Hal role. Richard Burton was already demonstrating the same independence and competitiveness as an actor that he displayed off-stage in drinking, sport, or story-telling.

Kenneth Tynan said of Burton's performance, "His playing of Prince Hal turned interested speculation to awe almost as soon as he started to speak; in the first intermission local critics stood agape in the lobbies." Suddenly, Richard Burton had fulfilled his guardian's wildest hopes and was admitted to the post-War British acting circle which included Anthony Quayle, John Gielgud, Michael Redgrave, Hugh Griffith and Paul Scofield. He even met Humphrey Bogart, a fellow hard drinker, who sang his praises back in Hollywood. Lauren Bacall recalled, "Bogie loved him. We all did. You had no alternative." Burton bought the first of many cars and celebrated by increasing his drinking. The following year, Burton signed a five-year contract with Alexander Korda at £100 a week, launching his Hollywood career.

Hollywood and later career

In 1952, Burton successfully made the transition to a Hollywood star; on the recommendation of Daphne du Maurier, he was given the leading role in My Cousin Rachel opposite Olivia de Havilland. Burton arrived on the Hollywood scene at a time when the studios were struggling. Television's rise was drawing away viewers and the studios looked to new stars and new film technology to staunch the bleeding. 20th Century Fox negotiated with Korda to borrow him for this film and a further two at $50,000 a film. The film was a critical success. It established Burton as a Hollywood leading man and earned him his first Academy Award nomination and the Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year - Actor. In Desert Rats (1953), Burton plays a young English captain in the North African campaign during World War II who takes charge of a hopelessly out-numbered Australian unit against the indomitable Field Marshal Erwin Rommel (James Mason). Mason, another actor known for his distinctive voice and excellent elocution, became a friend of Burton's and introduced the new actor to the Hollywood crowd. In short order, he met Judy Garland, Greta Garbo, Stewart Granger, Jean Simmons, Deborah Kerr, and Cole Porter, and Burton met up again with Humphrey Bogart. At a party, he met a pregnant Elizabeth Taylor (then married to Michael Wilding) whose first impression of Burton was that "he was rather full of himself. I seem to remember that he never stopped talking, and I had given him the cold fish eye."

The following year he created a sensation by starring in The Robe, the first film to premiere in the wide-screen process CinemaScope, winning another Oscar nomination. He replaced Tyrone Power, who was originally cast in the role of Marcellus, a noble but decadent Roman in command of the detachment of Roman soldiers that crucified Jesus Christ. Haunted by his guilt from this act, he is eventually led to his own conversion. Marcellus' Greek slave (played by Victor Mature) guides him as a spiritual teacher, and his wife (played by Jean Simmons) follows his lead, although it will mean both their deaths. The film marked a resurgence in Biblical blockbusters. Burton was offered a seven-year, $1 million contract by Darryl F. Zanuck at Fox, but he turned it down, though later the contract was revived and he agreed to it. It has been suggested that remarks Burton made about blacklisting Hollywood while filming The Robe may have explained his failure to ever win an Oscar, despite receiving seven nominations.

In 1954, Burton took his most famous radio role, as the narrator in the original production of Dylan Thomas's Under Milk Wood, a role he would reprise in the film version twenty years later. He was also the narrator, as Winston Churchill, in the highly successful 1960 television documentary series The Valiant Years.

Stage career

Burton was still juggling theatre with film, playing Hamlet and Coriolanus at the Old Vic theatre in 1953 and alternating the roles of Iago and Othello with the Old Vic's other rising matinee idol John Neville. Hamlet was a challenge that both terrified and attracted him, as it was a role many of his peers in the British theatre had undertaken, including John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier. Bogart, on the other hand, warned him as Burton left Hollywood, "I never knew a man who played Hamlet who didn't die broke." Once again, Philip Burton provided expert coaching. Claire Bloom played Ophelia, and their work together led to a turbulent affair. His reviews in Hamlet were good but he received stronger praise for Coriolanus. His fellow actor Robert Hardy said, "His Coriolanus is quite easily the best I've ever seen" but Hamlet was "too strong".

Burton appeared on Broadway, receiving a Tony Award nomination for Time Remembered (1958) and winning the award for playing King Arthur in the musical Camelot (1960), directed by Moss Hart and written by Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe. Julie Andrews, fresh from her triumph in My Fair Lady, played Guenevere to Burton's King Arthur, with Robert Goulet as Lancelot completing the love triangle. The production was troubled, with both Loewe and Hart falling ill, numerous revisions upsetting the schedule and the actors, and the pressure building due to great expectations and huge advance sales. The show's running time was nearly five hours. Burton took it all in his stride and calmed people down with statements like "Don't worry, love." Burton's intense preparation and competitive desire served him well. He was generous and supportive to others who were suffering in the maelstrom. According to Lerner, "he kept the boat from rocking, and Camelot might never have reached New York if it hadn't been for him." As in the play, both male stars were enamoured of their leading lady, newly married Andrews. When Goulet turned to Burton for advice, Burton had none to offer, but later he admitted, "I tried everything on her myself. I couldn't get anywhere either." Burton's reviews were excellent, Time magazine stated that Burton "gives Arthur the skilful and vastly appealing performance that might be expected from one of England's finest young actors." The show's album was a major seller. The Kennedys, newly in the White House, also enjoyed the play and invited Burton for a visit, establishing the link of the idealistic young Kennedy administration with Camelot.

He then put his stage career on hold to concentrate on film, although he received a third Tony Award nomination when he reprised his Hamlet under John Gielgud's direction in 1964 in a production that holds the record for the longest run of the play in Broadway history (136 performances). The performance was immortalised both on record and in a film, which played in US theatres for a week in 1964, as well as being the subject of books written by cast members William Redfield and Richard L. Sterne. Burton took the role on just after his marriage to Taylor. Since Burton disliked wearing period clothing, Gielgud conceived a production in a "rehearsal" setting with a half-finished set and actors wearing their street clothes (carefully selected while the production really was in rehearsal). Burton's basic reading of Hamlet, which displeased some theatre-goers, was of a complex manic-depressive personality, though during the long run he varied his performance considerably, as a self-challenge and to keep his acting fresh. On the whole, Burton had good reviews. Time said that Burton "put his passion into Hamlet's language rather than the character. His acting is a technician's marvel. His voice has gem-cutting precision." The opening night party was a lavish affair, attended by six hundred celebrities who paid homage to the couple. The most successful aspect of the production was generally considered to be Hume Cronyn's performance as Polonius, winning Cronyn the only Tony Award he would ever receive in a competitive category.

After his Hamlet, Burton did not return to the stage for twelve years, until 1976 in Equus. (He did accept the role of Humbert Humbert in Alan Jay Lerner's musical adaptation of Lolita entitled Lolita, My Love; however, he withdrew and was replaced by his friend and fellow Welshman John Neville.) His performance as psychiatrist Martin Dysart in Equus won him a special Tony Award for his appearance, but he had to make Exorcist II: The Heretic - a film he hated - before Hollywood producers would allow him to repeat his role in the 1977 film version. His final starring stage performance was in a critically reviled 1983 production of Noël Coward's Private Lives, opposite his ex-wife Elizabeth Taylor. Most reviewers dismissed the production as a transparent attempt to capitalise on the couple's celebrity, although they grudgingly praised Burton as having the closest connection to Coward's play of anyone in the cast.

Hollywood career in the 1950s and 1960s

In terms of critical success, Burton's Hollywood roles throughout the 1950s did not live up to the early promise of his debut. Burton returned to Hollywood to star in Prince of Players, another historical Cinemascope film, this time concerning Edwin Booth, the famous American actor and brother of Abraham Lincoln's assassin, John Wilkes Booth. A weak script undermined a valiant effort by Burton, although the view of director Philip Dunne was that "The fire and intensity were there, but that was all. He hadn't yet mastered the tricks of the great movie stars, such as Gary Cooper." Next came Alexander the Great (1956), written, directed, and produced by Robert Rossen, with Burton in the title role, on loan to United Artists, again with Claire Bloom co-starring. Contrary to Burton's expectations, the "intelligent epic" was a wooden, slow-paced flop.

In The Rains of Ranchipur, Burton plays a noble Hindu doctor who attempts the spiritual recovery of an adulteress (Lana Turner). Critics felt that the film lacked star chemistry, with Burton having difficulty with the accent, and relied too heavily on Cinemascope special effects including an earthquake and a collapsing dam. Burton returned to the theatre in Henry V and Othello, alternating the roles of Iago and Othello. He and Sybil then moved to Switzerland to avoid high British taxes and to try to build a nest-egg, for themselves and for Burton's family. He returned to film again in Sea Wife, shot in Jamaica and directed by Roberto Rossellini. A young Joan Collins (then called by the tabloids "Britain's bad girl") plays a nun shipwrecked on an island with three men. But Rossellini was let go after disagreements with Zanuck. According to Collins, Burton had a "take-the-money-and-run attitude" toward the film.

Then in 1958, he was offered the part of Jimmy Porter, "an angry young man" role, in the film version of John Osborne's play Look Back in Anger, a gritty drama about middle-class life in the British Midlands, directed by Tony Richardson, again with Claire Bloom as co-star. Though it didn't do well commercially (many critics felt Burton, at 33, looked too old for the part) and Burton's Hollywood box-office aura seemed to be diminishing, Burton was proud of the effort and wrote to his mentor Philip Burton, "I promise you that there isn't a shred of self-pity in my performance. I am for the first time ever looking forward to seeing a film in which I play". Next came The Bramble Bush and Ice Palace in 1960, neither important to Burton's career.

After playing King Arthur in Camelot on Broadway for six months, Burton replaced Stephen Boyd as Mark Antony in the troubled production Cleopatra (1963). Twentieth Century-Fox's future appeared to hinge on what became the most expensive movie ever made until then, reaching almost $40 million. The film proved to be the start of Burton's most successful period in Hollywood; he would remain among the top 10 box-office earners for the next four years. During the filming, Burton met and fell in love with Elizabeth Taylor, who was married to Eddie Fisher. The two would not be free to marry until 1964 when their respective divorces were complete. On their first meeting on the set, Burton said "Has anyone ever told you that you're a very pretty girl?" Taylor later recalled, "I said to myself, Oy gevalt, here's the great lover, the great wit, the great intellectual of Wales, and he comes out with a line like that." In their first scenes together, he was shaky and missing his lines, and she soothed and coached him. Soon the affair began in earnest and Sybil, seeing this as more than a passing fling with a leading lady, was unable to bear it. She fled the set, first for Switzerland, then for London.

The gigantic scale of the troubled production, Taylor's bouts of illness and fluctuating weight, the off-screen turbulence - all generated enormous publicity, which by-and-large the studio embraced. Zanuck stated, "I think the Taylor-Burton association is quite constructive for our organization." But not necessarily for Burton. "Make up your mind, dear heart", cabled Laurence Olivier to him at this time. "Do you want to be a great actor or a household word?" Burton replied "Both". The six-hour film was cut to under four, eliminating many of Burton's scenes, but the result was viewed the same - a film long on spectacle dominated by the two hottest stars in Hollywood. Their private lives turned out to be an endless source of curiosity for the media, and their marriage was also the start of a series of on-screen collaborations. Eventually, the film did well enough to recoup its great cost.

Burton played Taylor's tycoon husband in The V.I.P.s, an all-star film set in the VIP lounge of London Airport which proved to be a box-office hit. Then Burton portrayed the archbishop martyred by Henry II in the title role of Becket, turning in an effective, restrained performance, contrasting with Peter O'Toole's manic portrayal of Henry.

In 1964, Burton triumphed as defrocked Episcopal priest Dr. T. Lawrence Shannon in Tennessee Williams' The Night of the Iguana directed by John Huston, a film which became another critical and box-office success. Richard Burton's performance in The Night of the Iguana may be his finest hour on the screen, and in the process helped put the town of Puerto Vallarta on the map (the Burtons later bought a house there). Part of Burton's success was due to how well he varied his acting with the three female characters, each of whom he tries to seduce differently: Ava Gardner (the randy hotel owner), Sue Lyon (the nubile American tourist), and Deborah Kerr (the poor, repressed artist).

Against his family's advice, Burton married Elizabeth Taylor on Sunday 15 March 1964, in Montreal. Ever optimistic, Taylor proclaimed, "I'm so happy you can't believe it. This marriage will last forever". At the hotel in Boston, the rabid crowd clawed at the newlyweds, Burton's coat was ripped and Taylor's ear was bloodied when someone tried to steal one of her earrings.

After an interruption playing Hamlet on Broadway, Burton returned to film as British spy Alec Leamas in The Spy Who Came in from the Cold. Burton and Taylor continued making films together though the next one The Sandpiper (1965) was poorly received. Following that, he and Taylor had great success in Mike Nichols's film (1966) of the Edward Albee play Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, in which a bitter erudite couple spend the evening trading vicious barbs in front of their horrified and fascinated guests, played by George Segal and Sandy Dennis. Burton was not the first choice for the role of Taylor's husband. Jack Lemmon was offered the role first, but when he backed off, Jack Warner, with Taylor's insistence, agreed on Burton and paid him his price. Albee preferred Bette Davis and James Mason, fearing that the Burtons' strong screen presence would dominate the film. Nichols, in his directorial debut, managed the Burtons brilliantly. The script, adapted from Albee's play by Hollywood veteran Ernest Lehman, broke new ground for its raw language and harsh depiction of marriage. Although all four actors received Oscar nominations for their roles in the film (the film received a total of thirteen), only Taylor and Dennis went on to win. So immersed had the Burtons become in the roles of George and Martha over the months of shooting that, after the wrap, Richard Burton said, "I feel rather lost." Later the couple would state that the film took its toll on their relationship, and that Taylor was "tired of playing Martha" in real life.

Their lively version of Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew (1967), directed by Franco Zeffirelli, was a notable success. Later collaborations, however, The Comedians (1967), Boom! (1968), and the Burton-directed Doctor Faustus (1967) (which had its genesis from a theatre production he staged and starred in at the Oxford University Dramatic Society) were critical and commercial failures. Another box office failure was the 1969 movie Staircase, in which he and his "Cleopatra" co-star Rex Harrison appeared as a bickering homosexual couple. His fee for Staircase, $1.25 million (equivalent to approximately $8,477,273 in today's funds) plus a share of the gross, made him the highest-paid actor in the world.

He did enjoy a final commercial blockbuster with Clint Eastwood in the 1968 World War II picture Where Eagles Dare, a major hit in 1969, for which he received a $1 million fee plus a share of the gross. His last film of the decade, Anne of the Thousand Days (1969), was a commercial and critical disappointment. In spite of those failures, it performed remarkably well at that year's Academy awards (receiving ten nominations, including one for Burton's performance as Henry VIII), which many thought to be largely the result of an expensive advertising campaign by Universal Studios.

Later career

Because of Burton and Taylor's extravagant spending and his support of his family and others (42 people at one point), Burton agreed to work in mediocre films, which hurt his career. He recognised his financial need to do so, and that in the New Hollywood era of cinema, neither he nor Taylor would be paid as well as at the height of their stardom. Films he made during this period included Bluebeard (1972), Hammersmith Is Out (1972), The Klansman (1974), and Exorcist II: The Heretic (1977). He did enjoy one major critical success in the 1970s in the film version of his stage hit Equus, winning the Golden Globe Award as well as an Academy Award nomination. Public sentiment towards his perennial frustration at not winning an Oscar made many pundits consider him the favourite to finally win the award, but on Oscar Night he lost to Richard Dreyfuss in The Goodbye Girl.

In 1976 Burton received a Grammy in the category of Best Recording for Children for his narration of The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. He also found success in 1978, when he narrated Jeff Wayne's Musical Version of The War of the Worlds. His distinctive performance became a necessary part of the concept album - so much so that a hologram of Burton was used to narrate the live stage show (touring in 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010) of the musical. In 2011, however, Liam Neeson was cast in the part for a "next generation" rerecording, and subsequently also replaced Burton as the hologram character in the stage show.

Burton had an international box-office hit with The Wild Geese (1978), an adventure tale about mercenaries in Africa. The film was a success in the UK and Europe but had only limited distribution in the U.S. owing to the collapse of the studio that funded it and the lack of an American star in the movie. He returned to films with The Medusa Touch (1978), Circle of Two (1980), and the title role in Wagner (1983), a role he said he was born to play, after his success in Equus. His last film performance, as O'Brien in Nineteen Eighty-Four, was critically acclaimed, though he was not the first choice for the part. According to the film's director, Michael Radford, Paul Scofield was originally contracted to play the part, but had to withdraw due to a broken leg, then Sean Connery, Marlon Brando and Rod Steiger were all approached before Burton was cast. He had "heard stories" about Burtons heavy drinking, which had concerned the producers.

At the time of his death, Burton was preparing to film Wild Geese II, the sequel to The Wild Geese, which was eventually released in 1985. Burton was to reprise the role of Colonel Faulkner, while his friend Sir Laurence Olivier was cast as Rudolf Hess. After his death, Burton was replaced by Edward Fox, and the character changed to Faulkner's younger brother.


He was nominated six times for an Academy Award for Best Actor and once for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor - but he never won. His first nomination, for My Cousin Rachel (1952), was for Best Supporting Actor. His subsequent nominations all came in the Best Actor category.

He was nominated as Best Actor for The Robe in 1954, but did not receive another nomination until 1965, for Becket, at which time he was one of the most famous actors in the world, due to his relationship with Elizabeth Taylor. Considered a favorite in the 1966 and '67 contests for The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1965) and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), he lost to Lee Marvin and Paul Scofield, respectively. His performance in Anne of the Thousand Days (1969) was bested by John Wayne in True Grit and his comeback performance in Equus (1977) was topped by Richard Dreyfuss in The Goodbye Girl.

In contrast to the Oscars, where he was an also-ran, Burton was a recipient of BAFTA, Golden Globe and Tony Awards for Best Actor.

From 1982, he and Becket co-star Peter O'Toole shared the record for the male actor with the most nominations (7) for a competitive acting Oscar without ever winning. In 2007, O'Toole was nominated for an eighth time (and subsequently lost), for Venus (however, O'Toole received an Academy Honorary Award in 2003).


Burton rarely appeared on television, although he gave a memorable performance as Caliban in a televised production of The Tempest for The Hallmark Hall of Fame in 1960. Later appearances included the television film Divorce His - Divorce Hers (1973) opposite then-wife Elizabeth Taylor (a prophetic title, since their first marriage would be dissolved less than a year later), a remake of the classic film Brief Encounter (1974) that was considered vastly inferior to the 1945 original, and a critically applauded performance as Winston Churchill in The Gathering Storm (1974). Wagner, a film he made about the life of Richard Wagner (noted for having the only onscreen teaming of Laurence Olivier, John Gielgud and Ralph Richardson in the same scenes) was shown as a television miniseries in 1983 after failing to achieve a theatrical release in most countries due to its nine-hour running time. Burton enjoyed a personal triumph in the American television miniseries Ellis Island in 1984, receiving a posthumous Emmy Award nomination for his final television performance.

Television played an important part in the fate of his Broadway appearance in Camelot. When the show's run was threatened by disappointing reviews, Burton and co-star Julie Andrews appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show to perform the number What Do The Simple Folk Do?. The television appearance renewed public interest in the production and extended its Broadway run.

Burton showed a subtle flair for comedy in a 1970 guest appearance with Elizabeth Taylor on the sitcom Here's Lucy, where he recited, in a plumber's uniform, a haunting excerpt of a speech from Shakespeare's Richard II. He later parodied this role in an episode of the television show The Fall Guy.

In 1997, archive footage of Burton was used in the first episode of the television series Conan.[26 
BURTON, Richard (I36225)
25418 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Richard Stockton (Continental Congressman)

Richard Stockton (October 1, 1730 - February 28, 1781) was an American lawyer, jurist, legislator, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence.

Early life

A son of John Stockton, one of the founders of the College of New Jersey at Princeton (now Princeton University), he was born near Princeton, New Jersey, attended Samuel Finley's academy at Nottingham, which later became West Nottingham Academy, and the College of New Jersey located in Newark, graduating in 1748. He studied law with David Ogden, of Newark, who was at that time the head of the legal profession in the province. Stockton was admitted to the bar in 1754 and soon rose to great distinction. In 1763 he received the degree of Sergeant at law the highest degree of law at that time. He was a longtime friend of George Washington. His wife was poet Annis Boudinot Stockton, sister of New Jersey statesman Elias Boudinot. The Stocktons had six children. Their son Richard Stockton became an eminent lawyer and prominent Federalist leader. Elias Boudinot was married to Stockton's sister Hannah Stockton (1736-1808).

Stockton initially showed little interest in politics. He once wrote, "The public is generally unthankful, and I never will become a Servant of it, till I am convinced that by neglecting my own affairs I am doing more acceptable Service to God and Man." Stockton did, however, take an active role as a trustee of the College of New Jersey.

Political career

Stockton served the College, afterwards known as Princeton University, as a trustee 26 years. In 1766 and 1767, he gave up his law practice for the purpose of visiting England, Scotland, and Ireland. His fame preceded him and he was received by the most eminent men of the kingdom. Stockton had the honor of personally presenting to King George III an address of the trustees of the College of New Jersey, acknowledging the repeal of the Stamp Act, and his address was favorably received by the king.

He was consulted on the state of American affairs by such notable men as the Marquis of Rockingham with whom he spent a week at his country esate. He met with Edmund Burke, the Earl of Chatham, and many other distinguished members of Parliament who were friendly to the American Colonies.

In Scotland, his personal efforts resulted in the acceptance of the presidency of the College by the Reverend John Witherspoon. Witherspoon's wife had opposed her husband's taking the position but her objections were overcome with the aid of his future son-in-law Benjamin Rush, who was a medical student in Edinburgh. This was an exceedingly important event in the history of higher education in America. One night in Edinburgh, Stockton was attacked by a robber and he defended himself skillfully with a small sword, the surprised and wounded robber fled. Stockton returned to America in August 1767.

In 1768, Stockton had his first taste of government service when he was elevated to a seat in the New Jersey Provincial Council; he was later (1774) appointed to the provincial New Jersey Supreme Court.

He first took a moderate stance in the troubles between the colonies and Great Britain. In 1774 he drafted and sent to Lord Dartmouth "a plan of self-government for America, independent of Parliament, without renouncing the Crown." This Commonwealth approach was not acceptable to the King, had it been the British could have avoided the war that freed the colonies and deprived the King of the fairest jewel in his crown.

When Parliament resolved to raise revenue in the colonies in 1775, Stockton declared the colonies "must each of them send one or two of their most ingenious fellows, and enable them to get into the House of Commons, maintain them there till they can maintain themselves, or else we shall be fleeced to some purpose."

Revolutionary War

In 1776, Stockton was elected to the Second Continental Congress, where he took a very active role. That August, when elections were held for the state governments of the new nation, Stockton and William Livingston each received the same number of votes to be the Governor of New Jersey on the first ballot. Although Livingston later won the election by one vote, Stockton was unanimously elected to serve as the Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court, but he turned down that position to remain in the Congress. Stockton was the first person from New Jersey to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Stockton was appointed by Congress, along with fellow signer George Clymer, to an exhausting two-month journey to Fort Ticonderoga, Saratoga and Albany, New York to assist the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. On his return to Princeton, he traveled 30 miles east to the home of a friend, John Covenhoven, to evacuate his family to safety, and away from the path of the British army. While there, on November 30, 1776, he and Covenhoven were captured in the middle of the night, dragged from their beds by loyalists, stripped of their property and marched to Perth Amboy and turned over to the British. The day Stockton was captured, General William Howe had written a Proclamation offering protection papers and a full and free pardon to those willing to remain in peaceable obedience to the King. George III. Although many took the pardon, Stockton never did and was marched to Perth Amboy where he was put in irons, and brutally treated as a common criminal.

He was then moved to Provost Prison in New York where he was intentionally starved and subjected to freezing cold weather. After nearly five weeks of brutal treatment, Stockton was released on parole, his health ruined.

Over 12,000 prisoners died in the prison ships and prisons in New York compared to 4,435 soldiers that died in combat over the six years of war. His estate, Morven, in Princeton was occupied by General Cornwallis during Stockton's imprisonment; his furniture, all household belongings, crops and livestock were taken or destroyed by the British. His library, one of the finest in the colonies, was burned. "Morven the home of the Hon. Richard Stockton, was denuded of its library and furniture."

Stockton's treatment in the New York prison prompted Continental Congress to pass a resolution directing George Washington to inquire into the circumstances and not long afterward, Stockton was paroled on January 13, 1777. The U.S. National Archives contains other messages showing that Washington duly contacted General Howe in New York regarding the exchange or release of Stockton and others.

Dr. Benjamin Rush wrote "At Princeton I met my wife's father who had been plundered of all his household furniture and stock by the British army, and carried a prisoner to New York, from whence he was permitted to return to his family upon parole."

Howe's Document that Stockton signed giving his word of honor not to meddle in the American affairs during the war was the parole Benjamin Rush said Richard Stockton was given when he was released from prison in New York.

On March 25, 1777 General Howe and his brother Lord Howe wrote to Lord George Germain (Secretary of State for the Colonies)in England "My Lord, We have the honor to enclose to your Lordship a state of the Declarations subscribed in consequence of our Proclamation of the 30th of November. Although none of the Leaders, nor principal Instigators and Abettors of the Rebellion, thought fit to avail themselves of the opportunity given them to return to their Duty, we have some satisfaction in observing that so considerable a number of His Majesty's deluded Subjects, of inferior Rank, in those Provinces where the Proclamation could be expect to have Effect, were disposed to relinquish the unjust Cause they had been once induced to support." 4,836 Declarations were subscribed but Stockton as a Signer of the Declaration of Independence and a leading rebel never did according to General Howe.

In 1777, all members of Congress and Washington's Army were required to take the oath of allegiance to the United States. Richard Stockton as a prisoner of war, and taken behind enemy lines was also required to take the oath. He was called before the Board, took the Oath and was dismissed (It is noted that Stockton did not turn in any protection papers as was required if you signed Howe's Proclamation and were given a pardon).

Later days and legacy

Because of the parole document Stockton signed with General Howe to gain his freedom, and giving his word of honor not to meddle in the war (required to be given a parole), Stockton resigned from Congress. It took nearly two years to regain his health according to Dr. Rush.

In Princeton a rumor started by Mr. Cochran, a Tory, claiming Stockton had taken General Howe's protection caused Stockton to be spoken against for a short time, but "Mr Cochran's known quarrel with him makes it very doubtful to candid persons" Rev. John Witherspoon wrote in a letter to his son David. "Common report, moreover, may be attributed to Judge Stockton some of the exploits of a distant cousin, Major Richard Stockton an obnoxious Tory, who did take Howe's protection and went over to the British until he was captured in Feb. 1777."

Nothing was ever written about doubts of Stockton's loyalty in any of the papers of members of Congress, or in any newspapers or books of the time.

When his health permitted, Stockton attempted to earn a living by reopening his law practice and teaching new students. Two years after his parole from prison he developed cancer of the lip that spread to his throat. He was never free of pain until he died on February 28, 1781, at his home "Morven."

His remains were conveyed to Nassau Hall, where a large audience of citizens, friends and students of the college were in attendance. The eulogy was delivered by Rev. Doctor Samuel Smith, vice president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University)and son-in-law of Rev. John Witherspoon. "The remains of a man who hath been long among the foremost of his country, for power, for wisdom, and for fortune; and who, if what honors this young country can bestow, if many and great personal talents, could save man from the grave, would not thus have been lamented here by you. Behold here 'the end of all perfection.' The office of a judge of the province, was never filled with more integrity and learning than it was by him, for several years before the revolution. Since that period, he hath represented New-Jersey in the congress of the United States. But a declining health, and a constitution worn out with application and with service, obliged him, shortly after, to retire from the line of public duty, and hath at length dismissed him from the world."

On March 7, 1781 The New Jersey Gazette acknowledged his worth to his country: "The ability, dignity, and integrity, with which this gentleman discharged the duties of the several important offices to which he was called by the voice of this country are well known."

For two generations his family had been Quakers, and it was his wish to be buried at the Stoney Brook Meeting House Cemetery in Princeton.

Stockton and his wife, Annis, were close friends of General George Washington. After Stockton's death, Annis, one of America's first published female poets, became a favorite correspondent of General Washington. Washington and his wife, Martha, were frequent visitors to Morven.

In 1888, the state of New Jersey donated a marble statue of Stockton to the National Statuary Hall Collection at the United States Capitol. He is one of only six signers to be honored.

In 1969, the New Jersey Legislature passed legislation establishing a state college which was named after Stockton, to honor the memory of New Jersey's signer of the Declaration of Independence. Previously known as "Stockton State College" and "Richard Stockton State College", it is now known as "Richard Stockton College of New Jersey".

A rest area on the southbound New Jersey Turnpike, south of Interstate 195, is named after Stockton.


Stockton and his wife had six children, four daughters and two sons: Julia Stockton (married to Benjamin Rush, also a signer of the Declaration), Mary, Susan, Richard, Lucius and Abigail.

Stockton's oldest son Richard was an eminent lawyer and later a Senator from New Jersey. His son, Commodore Robert Field Stockton, was a hero of the War of 1812, and in 1846 became the Military Governor of California and later a Senator from New Jersey.


Richard was born to John Stockton (born 1701) & Abigail Phillips. John's father was Richard Stockton. Abigail is the daughter of Phillip Phillips and Hannah Stockton. Richard and Hannah were brother and sister, making Richard Stockton's (born 1730) parents 1st cousins.


Richard Stockton
Birth: Oct. 1, 1730
Death: Feb. 28, 1781 . . .

Family links: Spouse: Annis Boudinot Stockton (1736 - 1801); Children: Richard Stockton (1764 - 1828)

Burial: Stony Brook Quaker Meeting House Burial Ground, Princeton, Mercer County, New Jersey, USA

Maintained by: Find A Grave
Record added: Jan 01, 2001
Find A Grave Memorial# 2732 
STOCKTON, Signer of the Declaration of Independence Richard (I32483)
25419 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Thomas Fell

Thomas Fell (1598-1658), was a lawyer, member of parliament and vice-chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster.



Fell was born at Hawkeswell, near Ulverston. He was the son of George Fell, a gentleman of ancient Lancashire family. He was admitted student of Gray's Inn in 1623, called to the bar in 1631, and practised successfully for several years. In 1632 he married Margaret Askew, by whom he had nine children, and resided at Swarthmoor Hall, near Dalton-in-Furness, his paternal property. In 1641 he was placed on the commission of the peace for Lancashire, when some royalists were removed, and in the following year he was appointed one of the parliamentary sequestrators for the county.


In 1645, he was elected to parliament for the city of Lancaster. In the following year, on the newly remoulded section of the local church, his name appears on the list of laymen for the presbytery of Furness. In 1648, Oliver Cromwell named him a commissioner for the safety of the county, and in 1649 he was nominated vice-chancellor of the duchy and attorney for the county palatine. From 1650-1 he was chosen as bencher of Gray's Inn, and is recorded as being at that time a judge of assize for the Chester and North Wales circuit.

Fell was considered a leading puritan in the district of Furness, and practised hospitality with his wife's assistance. When, during his absence on circuit in 1652, the family was converted by George Fox, Fell hastened home and was met by Fox, who explained his doctrines. Although Fell never embraced Quakerism, he granted the use of Swarthmoor Hall for friends to meet in, and frequently sat in an adjoining room with the door open, so as to afford them the protection of his presence. His wife says, 'He was very loving to Friends.'

In 1652 he worked the northern circuit with President John Bradshaw. In 1653 he was, with certain other justices, directed to prevent royalists landing or gathering in Cumberland or Lancashire, and at the end of that year he was, with Bradshaw, appointed a commissioner for reviving the duchy jurisdiction at Westminster. In 1654, he was appointed one of the commissioners for keeping the seal of the county of Lancaster.

From a letter written to him by Thomas Aldam in 1654, it appears that his favouritism toward Quakers made him unpopular; but in 1655 he was directed to proceed to London to determine cases in the duchy court at Westminster. For several years before his death, Fell withdrew from parliamentary life, disapproving of the Protector's assumption of authority in civil and religious matters. Although Cromwell is believed to have made several overtures to him, he still declined to take any active part in the government.


He died at Swarthmoor on 8 October 1658, and was buried in Ulverston Church by torchlight. The record of his burial states that he was chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. He left one son and seven daughters, one of whom, Sarah Fell, a Quaker minister, was noted not only for her beauty, but also for her eloquence and knowledge of Hebrew. She married one Mead. By his will Fell founded the Town Bank grammar school at Ulverston, and left a number of legacies to the poor.


Will of Thomas Fell of Swarthmore, Lancashire

Reference: PROB 11/285/145
Description: Will of Thomas Fell of Swarthmore, Lancashire
Date [proved]: 04 December 1658
Held by: The National Archives, Kew
Legal status: Public Record

(3) Webb, Maria, The Fells of Swarthmoor Hall, 2nd Ed., Philadelphia, PA: Henry Longstreth, 1884, pp. 169-172:

"The will of THOMAS FELL, of Swarthmore Hall, in the parish of Ulverston, in the county of Lancaster, esquire, proved 4th December, 1658."

(Extracted from the Registry of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.)

"The twenty-third day of September, in the year of our Lord God one thousand six hundred fifty and eight. Be it remembered that the day and year before written Thomas Fell, of Swarthmore in the county of Lancaster, esquire, being sick and weak in body, but of a perfect memory and understanding, blessed be the Lord for the same, doth hereby declare and publish his last Will and Testament in manner and form following, That is to say, I do hereby appoint nominate and ordain Richard Radcliffe, yeoman, and Thomas Coulton, yeoman, both my menial servants, to be my Executors, jointly and severally; nevertheless upon this trust and confidence and to the end and purpose following; That is to say, that after my debts legacies and funeral expenses be discharged, then they shall dispose and give the residue and overplus of all my real and personal estate, unto my seven daughters, Margrett, Bridget, Issabell, Sarah, Mary, Susana, and Ratchell, equally to be divided amongst them. To whom I do hereby give and bequeath the residue and remainder of all my real and personal estate, equally amongst them, my debts, legacies, and funeral expenses being first discharged as aforesaid. First, I give and bequeath unto the most aged impotent and necessitous persons within the parish of Ulverstone, the sum of Ten pounds, to be distributed by my executors, taking the information and assistance of the overseers of the poor within the said parish. Secondly, I give and bequeath unto the overseers of the said parish for the time being, Thirty pounds, with the interest whereof they are to put forth one or more yearly of the poorest children born within the town of Ulverston, excluding such as are born within the hamlet or elsewhere, save only those that are born within the precinets of the said town, and the overseers of the poor for the time being shall have the consent and allowance of such person and persons as shall be heir or owner of my estate at Swarthmore, for the putting forth of such impotent persons yearly. I likewise give and bequeath Thirty pounds, the interest whereof yearly is to go towards the maintenance of a school-master, to be kept at Ulverston, for the teaching of poor children, which sum of Thirty pounds my executors are to pay within one year after my decease, to such person or persons as will give unto them good security for answering yearly the interest thereof, to the end and purpose aforesaid. Item, I give and bequeath Five pounds unto the most aged impotent and necessitous persons within the parish of Dalton, to be distributed by my executors, taking the information and assistance of the overseers of the poor within the said parish. I likewise give and bequeath unto my very honorable and noble friend the Lord Bradshaw, Ten pounds to buy a ring therewith, whom I humbly beseech to accept thereof, as all the acknowledgment I can make, and thankfulness, for his ancient and continued favors and kindness undeservedly vouchsafed unto me since our first acquaintanee. I likewise give and bequeath unto Mary Askewe Twenty pounds, for her faithful and careful service performed unto my wife and children in all their extremities. I further give and bequeath unto Joseph Sharpe, my faithful and careful servant at the Marsh Graynges, Fifty shillings, and the like sum unto Ann Jaykes, who hath approved herself a very honest and careful servant ever since she came to the Marsh. I do hereby likewise give and bequeath unto my dear careful and entirely beloved Margaret Fell, my wife, Fifty pounds, as a token and testimony of my dearest affection unto her. I likewise give unto James Fell, my servant, Twenty shillings, to buy him a ring therewith as a token of my love unto him. I likewise give unto Thomas Knype of the Manor gentleman, my old true friend, Twenty shillings, to buy him a ring therewith, as a small token of the remembrance of my love unto him. As for my executors, who are to have no other benefit nor advantage by this my Will and Testament than is hereafter expressed; That is to say, I give to each of them Five pounds apiece, for the pains and care they are to undergo in the discharge and trust hereby imposed on them; and as concerning the charges they or either of them shall be put to, in proving this Will and other necessaries incident thereunto, or in recovering or suing for any debts, or defending any suits commenced against them as my executors, the same is to be deducted and taken forth out of the residue and remainder of my personal estate, my debts and legacies being first discharged. I desire my very true friends Anthony Pearson of Rampshaw in the county of Durham, gentleman, and Jarvise Benson of Heay-Garth in the county of York, gentleman, to endeavor what in them lies to see this my last Will and Testament truly performed by my executors, to whom, scilicet, to the said Anthony and Jarvise, I do give Forty shillings apiece, desiring them to accept of it to buy each cf them a ring therewith. I do hereby revoke and make void all former Wills and Testaments by me made, and I do hereby give unto my beloved son George Fell, so many of my Law-books as will make those which he hath the complete body of the law, and wherein they shall prove defective, my executors shall sell so many of the rest of my law-books as will buy those that are wanting. I do hereby in further token of my love and affection unto my dear wife, give and bequeath unto her, my Dwelling-house, onsett, with all the buildings, stables, barns, orchards, gardens, therewith all used and occupied, with Fifty acres of ground, lying most conveniently unto the said house, and to be set out and divided by my executors; all which I give and bequeath unto my said loving wife, so long as she shall continue and remain in my name, and as my widow, and unmarried to any other, and no longer, in hopes that she will be careful and loving unto my poor fatherless children. And lastly I do publish and declare this to he my last Will and Testament. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal, the day and year first above written:

Tho: ffell {Seal}


"This Will was proved at London, before the Judges for Probate of Wills and granting Administrations, the fourth day of December, 1658, by the oath of Richard Radcliffe, and Thomas Coulton, executors, to whom was committed administration, they being first legally sworn truly to administer."


"December the 1st, 1658.

"Thomas Coulton, one of the executors within named was sworn before me,

"JA: MASTER.["] 
FELL, Thomas (I38961)
25420 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I36283)
25421 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Willits, California . . .

The Little Lake Election Day Shootout of 1867

Little Lake was the scene of a legendary family feud between the Frost and Coates families. The Frost family supported the South during the war, and the Coates family supported the Union. Both families were passionate in their beliefs. On October 16, 1867, Election Day, the long-running feud came to a head. A brawl turned into a shootout in front of Baechtel's store, leaving Abraham Coates, Henry Coates, Albert Coates, Thomas Coates and Elisha Frost dead on the street. Three others were wounded.


Elisha Frost
Birth: Dec. 22, 1826, Missouri, USA
Death: Oct. 16, 1867, Willits, Mendocino County, California, USA

Son of Elijah Frost 1802-1891 and Elizabeth Brown 1805-1879. He was a farmer in Missouri, a sheep and hog farmer in California. Husband of Amanda Melvina McCully, married February 7, 1848 in Davies County, Missouri.

Father of: Elijah Frost 1849 - 1879, Taylor Frost 1852 - 1930, Sarah Frost McKindley 1854 - 1886, Asbury Frost 1857 - 1936, David Frost 1859 - 1937, James Frost 1861 - 1885, Mary Frost Smith 1864 - 1941.

Elisha Frost was the lone member of his family killed in the Frost-Coates street duel in Willits against the Coates clan on October 16, 1867. The fight was started by Elisha and his brother in law, Frank Duncan. Record has it that he was killed by Abner C Coates who shot his double barreled shotgun at Elisha. It is also said that Elisha was able to kill three of the Coates after he fell.

Source: "Redwood Empire" by Stuart Nixon

From the Mendocino Robin, January 1965:

The Little Lake Vendetta - On the 11th of October, 1865, one of the bloodiest and most fatal affrays occurred at Little Lake that ever has occurred in the annals of the State of California. Two families, named Coates and Frost, resided in that vicinity, between whom a feud gradually grew into existence until it reached a culmination under the following circumstances, as recorded in the newspapers of that date:

"On the day of the fight, Wesley Coates bantered one Mr. Duncan, a brother-in-law of the Frosts, to fight. They went out into the road and began fighting, when the following parties came rushing up and took part in the fray; - on one side were Mr. [Frank] Duncan and Martin Frost, Isham Frost and Elisha Frost - all brothers: on the other side were Wesley Coates, Albert Coates, Henry Coates, Thomas Coates, James Coates, Abraham Coates and Abner C. Coates. Wesley, Henry and James were brothers, Abner Coates was the father of Albert and uncle to the three brothers. Abraham was a cousin of all except Thomas, who was his uncle. All the Frosts and Duncan had Colt Navy revolvers; Duncan, however, broke his fight with Wesley Coates and he did no shooting. Wesley and Abraham Coates has pistols, and Abner C. Coates a double barrel shotgun, one barrel of which was rifled and one (worn?) smooth for shot; Wesley also had a knife; Martin Frost was seen to shoot Wesley, Abraham and Henry Coates; Isham Frost was seen to shoot Thomas Coates; and Elisha was seen to shoot Albert Coates. Abner C. Coates killed Elisha Frost with his shot gun, both barrels of which discharged at him and took effect. Abner Coates was shot through the shoulder, but by whom is not known. James Coates received a pistol shot through the abdomen, and it is not known who fired it. Duncan was dangerously stabbed, and it is presumed that Wesley Coates did it for the fact that a knife was found very near him, the blade of which was very bloody. Five of them were instantly killed and never spoke, except Albert Coates exclaimed - "My God!" Abraham Coates lived until noon the next day, when he expired. The shooting could not have lasted more than a quarter of a minute, but in that extremely short space of time twenty shots were fired. Elisha Frost received four or five mortal wounds, and about forty others. Thomas Coates leaves a widow and two small children; Elisha Frost leaves a widow and five or six small children; Abner C. Coates had a family, but all the others were single men. The dead were taken into the hall and laid out side by side, where they remained until they were placed in their coffins. As the coffins lay in front of the hall, just before the funeral procession moved away, there was a scene rarely witnessed in the day and age of the world. The parents children, wives, brothers and sister of the slain and their slayers mingled their tears together over those who but a few short hours before were grappling in fierce combat, but now were cold and still, and lay peacefully side by side.

The killed were as follows: Thomas J. Coates, 63, native of Pennsylvania; William W. Coates, 25, native of Wisconsin; Henry H. Coates, 25, native of Wisconsin; P. Albert Coates, 21, native of Wisconsin; Abraham T. Coates, 21, native of Wisconsin; Elisha Frost, 41, native of Missouri.

Please note: the article reads this happened on the 11th, the gravestones all read the 16th. Some of the ages are also incorrect.

According to a letter written by a Willits neighbor, the feud started in Virginia over the shooting of a Frost dog. The Frosts moved to Missouri to get away from their cousins, the Coates, who followed them not only there, but to California as well. There was a school playground shuffle between the Frost and Coates boys, the schoolteacher saw fit to interfere, bringing the wrath of the Frost family who became intent on removing the teacher. The Board of Trustees disagreed, and the day of their meeting, October 11th, the trouble began. The 11th is well documented, yet the gravestones read the 16th.

Family links: Parents: Elijah Frost (1802 - 1891), Elizabeth Brown Frost (1805 - 1879); Spouse: Amanda Melvina McCully Frost (1826 - 1870); Children: Elijah Frost (1849 - 1879), Taylor Frost (1850 - 1930), Asbury Frost (1857 - 1936), David Frost (1859 - 1937), James Frost (1861 - 1885), Mary Frost Smith (1863 - 1941); Siblings: Elisha Frost (1826 - 1867), Mary Frost McCulley (1834 - 1912); Lavisa Frost Gilliam (1839 - 1919), Martin VanBuren Frost (1845 - 1883).


Thy memory shall ever be, a guiding star to Heaven

Burial: Little Lake Cemetery, Willits, Mendocino County, California, USA
Plot: Section 1

Maintained by: Anne Shurtleff Stevens
Originally Created by: Sandra Tyler Duncan
Record added: Aug 17, 2004
Find A Grave Memorial# 9331738 
FROST, Elisha (I36069)
25422 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Willits, California . . .

Triple Lynching of 1879

Elijah Frost, who had witnessed the death of his father in the Little Lake Election Day Shootout of 1867, grew up to be a criminal. Sentenced to four years in San Quentin Prison for horse theft, Elijah was released after serving thirty-two months. Teaming up with prison buddies Abijah Gibson and Thomas McCracken, the trio terrorized the residents of Willits, California. The men committed petty thievery, break-ins, random assaults, and senseless vandalism. They enjoyed shooting their pistols in the air while drunk and generally made a nuisance of themselves to the people of Willits. In September 1879, the trio were caught stealing a set of harnesses and were taken to Brown's Hotel where they were put in shackles while waiting for the circuit judge to come to Willits on September 4, 1879. The townspeople were terrified that the men would be released and decided to take matters into their own hands.A meeting was held in the Willits Masonic Temple and during the early morning hours of September 4, 1879, a group of masked men seized the prisoners and marched them to the bridge on North Main Street at the base of Sherwood Road where the three men were thrown over the bridge with rocks in their pockets and their feet left dangling in the Creek, symbolic of a Masonic hanging of the Time. Their bodies dangled there until the next afternoon.

(2) Daily Alta California, San Francisco, CA, 27 January 1886:

[Elijah Frost], . . . one of the sons of Elisha[,] was lynched at Willits some five years ago. He had a short time previous to his death been released from San Quentin, where he had served a long term for horse stealing. After his release he reopened his criminal career, and engaged as accessories Thomas Gibson, a half witted fellow, and Frank McCracken. The trio was arrested for stealing a saddle, and while in care of a constable at Willits over night, they were taken from a room in the hotel by a number of masked men and hanged from a bridge just out from the Village. The three were ironed together, and the men unable to get them apart, and, although desiring to save the life of Gibson, finally swung the three from the bridge where they were found dangling dead in the morning.


Elijah Frost
Birth: Oct. 21, 1849, USA
Death: Sep. 4, 1879, USA

Husband of Mary

Family links: Parents: Elisha Frost (1826 - 1867), Amanda Melvina McCully Frost (1826 - 1870); Siblings: Elijah Frost (1849 - 1879), Taylor Frost (1850 - 1930), Asbury Frost (1857 - 1936), David Frost (1859 - 1937), James Frost (1861 - 1885), Mary Frost Smith (1863 - 1941).


Gone before us, O our brother.
To the spiritland!
Vainly look for another
In thy place to stand.

Burial: Little Lake Cemetery, Willits, Mendocino County, California, USA
Plot: Section 1

Maintained by: Anne Shurtleff Stevens
Originally Created by: Sandra Tyler Duncan
Record added: Aug 17, 2004
Find A Grave Memorial# 9331671 
FROST, Elijah (I36084)
25423 (1) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Zsa Zsa Gabor

The native form of this personal name is Gábor Zsazsa. This article uses the Western name order.

Zsa Zsa Gabor . . . ; born Sári Gábor . . . ; February 6, 1917 - December 18, 2016) was a Hungarian-American actress and socialite. Her sisters were actresses Eva and Magda Gabor.

Gabor began her stage career in Vienna and was crowned Miss Hungary in 1936. She emigrated from Hungary to the United States in 1941. Becoming a sought-after actress with "European flair and style", she was considered to have a personality that "exuded charm and grace". Her first film role was a supporting role in Lovely to Look At. She later acted in We're Not Married! and played one of her few leading roles in the John Huston-directed film, Moulin Rouge (1952). Huston would later describe her as a "creditable" actress.

Outside her acting career, Gabor was known for her extravagant Hollywood lifestyle, her glamorous personality, and her many marriages. In total, Gabor had nine husbands, including hotel magnate Conrad Hilton and actor George Sanders. She once stated, "Men have always liked me and I have always liked men. But I like a mannish man, a man who knows how to talk to and treat a woman - not just a man with muscles."

Early life and ancestry

Zsa Zsa Gabor was born Sári Gábor on February 6, 1917 in Budapest, Hungary, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The middle of three daughters, her parents were Vilmos, a soldier, and Jolie Gabor (née Janka Tilleman). Her parents were both of Jewish ancestry. While her mother escaped Hungary during the same time period of the Nazi occupation of Budapest, Gabor left the country in 1941, three years prior to the takeover.

Gabor's elder sister, Magda, eventually became an American socialite and her younger sister, Eva, became an American actress and businesswoman. The Gabor sisters were first cousins of Annette Lantos, wife of Tom Lantos (D-CA), who had escaped Hungary, and became the first Holocaust survivor elected to the U.S. Congress.


According to Gabor, she was discovered by operatic tenor Richard Tauber on a trip to Vienna in 1934, following her time as a student at the Swiss boarding school. Tauber invited Gabor to sing the soubrette role in his new operetta, Der singende Traum (The Singing Dream), at the Theater an der Wien. This would mark her first stage appearance. In 1936, she was crowned Miss Hungary.

In 1944, she co-wrote a novel with writer Victoria Wolf titled, "Every Man For Himself". According to Gabor, the fictional story was derived, in a small part, from Gabor's life experiences. The book was subsequently bought by an American magazine. In 1949, Gabor declined an offer to play the leading role in a film version of the classic book Lady Chatterley's Lover. According to an article written the Cedar Rapids Gazette in 1949, she turned down the role of Lady Chatterley due to the story's controversial theme.

Her more serious film acting credits include Moulin Rouge, Lovely to Look At and We're Not Married!, all from 1952, and 1953’s Lili. In 1958, she ran the gamut of moviemaking, from Touch of Evil (1958) to the camp oddity Queen of Outer Space (1958). Later, she appeared in such films as Won Ton Ton, the Dog Who Saved Hollywood (1976) and Frankenstein's Great Aunt Tillie (1984). She did cameos for A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors (1987), The Beverly Hillbillies (1993) and A Very Brady Sequel (1996) and voiced a character in the animated Happily Ever After (1990).

She was also a regular guest on television shows, appearing with Milton Berle, Jack Paar, Johnny Carson, Howard Stern, David Frost, Arsenio Hall, Phil Donahue, and Joan Rivers. She was a guest on the Bob Hope specials, the Dean Martin Roasts, Hollywood Squares, Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In, Batman, and It's Garry Shandling's Show. She appeared on the Late Night show where she told host David Letterman about her blind date with Henry Kissinger, which was arranged by Richard Nixon.

Author Gerold Frank, who helped Gabor write her autobiography in 1960, describes his impressions of her:

["]Zsa Zsa is unique. She's a woman from the court of Louis XV who has somehow managed to live in the 20th century, undamaged by the PTA. . . . She says she wants to be all the Pompadours and Du Barrys of history rolled into one, but she also says, 'I always goof. I pay all my own bills. . . . I want to choose the man. I do not permit men to choose me.'["]

In his autobiography, television host Merv Griffin, who was known to spend time with Gabor's younger sister Eva socially, wrote of the Gabor sisters' initial presence in New York and Hollywood: "All these years later, it's hard to describe the phenomenon of the three glamorous Gabor girls and their ubiquitous mother. They burst onto the society pages and into the gossip columns so suddenly, and with such force, it was as if they'd been dropped out of the sky."

In 1973 she was the guest roastee on the Dean Martin Roast show, and in 1998, film historian Neal Gabler called her kind of celebrity "The Zsa Zsa Factor".

Personal life

Gabor was married nine times. She was divorced seven times, and one marriage was annulled. "All in all - I love being married", she wrote in her autobiography. "I love the companionship, I love cooking for a man (simple things like chicken soup and my special Dracula's goulash from Hungary), and spending all my time with a man. Of course I love being in love - but it is marriage that really fulfills me. But not in every case." Her husbands, in chronological order, were:

• Burhan Asaf Belge (1937-1941; divorced).

• Conrad Hilton (April 10, 1942 - 1947; divorced). "Conrad's decision to change my name from Zsa Zsa to Georgia symbolized everything my marriage to him would eventually become. My Hungarian roots were to be ripped out and my background ignored. . . . I soon discovered that my marriage to Conrad meant the end of my freedom. My own needs were completely ignored: I belonged to Conrad."

• George Sanders (April 2, 1949 - April 2, 1954; divorced).

• Herbert Hutner (November 5, 1962 - March 3, 1966; divorced). "Herbert took away my will to work. With his kindness and generosity, he almost annihilated my drive. I have always been the kind of woman who could never be satisfied by money - only excitement and achievement."

• Joshua S. Cosden, Jr. (March 9, 1966 - October 18, 1967; divorced).

• Jack Ryan (January 21, 1975 - August 24, 1976; divorced).

• Michael O'Hara (August 27, 1976 - 1983; divorced).

• Felipe de Alba (April 13-14, 1983; annulled).

• Frédéric Prinz von Anhalt (August 14, 1986 - December 18, 2016; her death).

Gabor's divorces inspired her to make numerous quotable puns and innuendos about her marital (and extramarital) history. She commented: "I am a marvelous housekeeper: Every time I leave a man I keep his house." When asked, "How many husbands have you had?", she was quoted as responding, "You mean other than my own?" Gabor later claimed to have had a sexual encounter with her stepson, Nicky.

In 1970, Gabor purchased a nearly 9,000-square-foot Hollywood Regency-style home in Bel Air, which once belonged to Elvis Presley, and where the Beatles visited him in 1965. It was originally built by Howard Hughes and featured a unique-looking French style roof.

Gabor's only child, daughter Constance Francesca Hilton, was born on March 10, 1947. According to Gabor's 1991 autobiography One Lifetime Is Not Enough, her pregnancy resulted from rape by then-husband Conrad Hilton. She was the only Gabor sister who had a child. In 2005, a lawsuit was filed accusing her daughter of larceny and fraud, alleging that she had forged her signature to get a US$2 million loan on her mother's Bel Air house. However, the Los Angeles County Superior Court, Santa Monica, threw out the case due to Gabor's failure to appear in court or to sign an affidavit that she indeed was a co-plaintiff on the original lawsuit filed by her husband, Frédéric von Anhalt. Francesca Hilton died in 2015 at the age of 67 from a stroke. Gabor's husband never told her about her daughter's death, out of concern for her physical and emotional state.

Gabor and her last husband, Frédéric Prinz von Anhalt, adopted at least ten adult males who paid them a fee of up to $2,000,000 to become descendants by adoption of Princess Marie-Auguste of Anhalt. Prinz von Anhalt had paid Marie-Auguste to adopt him when he was 36 years old.

Legal and financial difficulties

On June 14, 1989, in Beverly Hills, California, Gabor was accused of slapping the face of Beverly Hills police officer Paul Kramer when he stopped her for a traffic violation at 8551 Olympic Boulevard. At trial three months later, a jury convicted her of slapping Kramer. They also found her guilty of driving without a license and possessing an open container of alcohol - a flask of Jack Daniel's - in her $215,000 Rolls-Royce, but acquitted her of the charge of disobeying Kramer when she drove away from the traffic stop. On October 25, 1989, Beverly Hills Municipal Judge Charles G. Rubin sentenced Gabor to serve three days in jail, to pay fines and restitution totaling $12,937, to perform 120 hours of community service, and to undergo a psychiatric evaluation. On June 14, 1990, Gabor dropped her conviction appeal and agreed to serve her sentence. However, she refused to take part in community service and served three days in jail from July 27 to July 30, 1990.

Gabor had a long-running feud with German-born actress Elke Sommer that began in 1984 when both appeared on Circus of the Stars and escalated into a multi-million dollar libel suit by 1993. The suit resulted in an order for Gabor and her husband to pay Sommer $3.3 million in general and punitive damages.

On January 25, 2009, the Associated Press reported that her attorney stated that forensic accountants determined that Gabor may have lost as much as $10 million invested in Bernie Madoff's company, possibly through a third-party money manager.

Later life and health

On November 28, 2002, Gabor was a front seat passenger in an automobile crash in Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, from which she remained partially paralyzed and reliant on a wheelchair for mobility. She survived strokes in 2005 and 2007 and underwent surgeries. In 2010, she fractured her hip and underwent a successful hip replacement.

In August 2010, Gabor was admitted to Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center in serious condition and received last rites from a Catholic priest.

In 2011, her right leg was amputated above the knee to save her life from an infection. She was hospitalized again in 2011 for a number of emergencies.

On February 8, 2016, two days after her 99th birthday, Gabor was rushed to hospital after suffering from breathing difficulties. She was diagnosed with a feeding tube-related lung infection and was scheduled to undergo surgery to have her feeding tube removed.

In April 2016, Gabor expressed her wish to move back to Hungary in 2017 and live out the rest of her life there. Her husband stated that he was determined to make her wish come true and he intended to arrange for "a big party in the summer" to celebrate the actress' 100th birthday, after which she would return to Budapest.


Gabor died at the age of 99 of a heart attack at her home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, on December 18, 2016, less than two months before she would have become a centenarian. She had been on life support for the previous five years. She is survived by husband Frédéric Prinz von Anhalt, whom she wed in 1986. 
GABOR, Zsa Zsa (I36206)
25424 (1) Wilcox, David F., and McCarl, Judge Lyman, Quincy and Adams County - History and Representative Men, Vol. I, Chicago, IL: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1919, p. 272:

Samuel Hunsaker, the youngest son of John and Magdalena (Birg) Hunsaker, was born in Pennsylvania November 22, 1777, and was married to Hannah Rhoades (Rohde?), who was born January 4, 1786. Their children were: John, Rachel, Andrew, Hiram, Margaret, Daniel, Susannah, Elizabeth, Katherine, Samuel Y. and Joseph, Samuel Y. Hunsaker being the father of the above mentioned Robert Hunsaker.

(2) A household headed by Samuel HUNSUCKER is listed in the 1830 census of Adams County, IL. [His surname is listed as HIMSUCKER in the index to the 1830 census.]

Listed in Samuel's household in the 1830 census are 1 free white male between 5 and 10 years of age; 1 free white male between 10 and 15 years of age; 1 free white male between 15 and 20 years of age; 1 free white male between 20 and 30 years of age; 1 free white male between 50 and 60 years of age; 2 free white females between 10 and 15 years of age; and 1 free white female between 40 and 50 years of age.

Assuming that Samuel is the free white male listed in the 1830 census as then being between 50 and 60 years of age, he would have been born between 1770 and 1780, according to the 1830 census.

Assuming that Samuel's wife is the free white female listed in the 1830 census as then being between 40 and 50 years of age, she would have been born between 1780 and 1790, according to the 1830 census.

Assuming that the other persons in Samuel's household are children of Samuel and/or his wife, those children would have consisted of 4 sons (1 of which sons would have been born between 1820 and 1825, 1 of which sons would have been born between 1815 and 1820, 1 of which sons would have been born between 1810 and 1815, and 1 of which sons would have been born between 1800 and 1810, according to the 1830 census) and 2 daughters (which daughters would have been born between 1815 and 1820, according to the 1830 census).

(3) A household headed by Samuel HUNSAKER is listed in the 1840 census of Adams County, IL.

Listed in Samuel's household are 1 free white male between 15 and 20 years of age; 1 free white male between 20 and 30 years of age; 1 free white male between 60 and 70 years of age; 1 free white female between 15 and 20 years of age; and 1 free white female between 50 and 60 years of age.

Assuming that Samuel is the free white male listed in the 1840 census as then being between 60 and 70 years of age, he would have been born between 1770 and 1780, according to the 1840 census.

Assuming that Samuel's wife is the free white female listed in the 1840 census as then being between 50 and 60 years of age, she would have been born between 1780 and 1790, according to the 1840 census.

Assuming that the other persons in Samuel's household are children of Samuel and/or his wife, those children would have consisted of 2 sons (1 of which sons would have been born between 1820 and 1825, and 1 of which sons would have been born between 1810 and 1820, according to the 1840 census) and 1 daughter (which daughter would have been born between 1820 and 1825, according to the 1840 census).

(4) A household headed by Samuel HUNSAKER is listed in the 1850 census of Liberty, Adams County, IL.

Samuel is listed in the 1850 census as a farmer who was then 72 years of age; therefore, according to the 1850 census, he was born in about 1778. According to the 1850 census, he was born in PA.

Listed with Samuel is his wife, Hannah, who was then 64 years of age; therefore, according to the 1850 census, she was born in about 1786. According to the 1850 census, the place of her birth was unknown.

(5) Samuel HUNSAKER [Sr.] is listed in a household headed by his son, Samuel Y. HUNSAKER, in the 1860 census of Liberty, Adams County, IL.

Samuel [Sr.] is listed in the 1860 census as a person who was then 82 years of age; therefore, according to the 1860 census, he was born in about 1778. According to the 1860 census, he was born in PA.

(6) Illinois, Wills and Probate Records, 1772-1999 [database online], Provo, UT: Operations, Inc., 2015:

Name: Samuel G Hunsaker
Probate Date: 23 Jan 1866
Probate Place: Adams, Illinois, USA
Inferred Death Year: Abt 1866
Inferred Death Place: Illinois, USA
Item Description: Estate Records, County Court, Box 295-298


Samuel Hunsaker
Birth: Nov. 22, 1777, Franklin County, Pennsylvania, USA
Death: Feb. 27, 1864, Adams County, Illinois, USA

Son of Johannes 'John' and Magdalena Berry Hunsaker.

He married Hannah Rhoads April 29, 1802 [?] in Kentucky

Family links: Parents: Johannes Hunsaker (1728 - 1815), Magdalena Bieri Hunsaker (1732 - 1796); Spouse: Hannah Rhoades Hunsaker (1786 - 1854); Children: Margaret Hunsaker (1802 - ____), John Brown Hunsaker (1803 - 1873), Rachel Hunsaker Daugherty (1804 - 1833), Andrew Hunsaker (1806 - 1890), Hiram Wike Hunsaker (1807 - 1867), Margaret Hunsaker McBride (1809 - 1849), Daniel Hunsaker (1811 - 1879), Susannah Hunsaker Rhoades (1813 - 1896), Elizabeth Hunsaker Pond (1815 - 1906), Katherine Hunsaker (1818 - 1834), Samuel Young Hunsaker (1820 - 1864), Joseph Rhoades Hunsaker (1822 - 1905); Siblings: John Hunsaker (1752 - 1792), Nicholas Honsaker (1756 - 1843), Jacob Hunsaker (1759 - 1831), Joseph Hunsaker (1761 - 1844), Abraham Hunsaker (1763 - 1841), George Hunsaker (1766 - 1845), Magdalena Hunsaker Lesley (1770 - 1825), Andrew Hunsaker (1772 - 1843), Samuel Hunsaker (1777 - 1864)

Burial: Kimmons Cemetery, Burton, Adams County, Illinois, USA

Created by: cj
Record added: May 03, 2008
Find A Grave Memorial# 26572282 
HUNSAKER, Samuel G. (I40575)
25425 (1) Wilcox, David F., and McCarl, Judge Lyman, Quincy and Adams County - History and Representative Men, Vol. I, Chicago, IL: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1919, pp. 271-272:

The Hunsaker family is well represented in Adams County. They are of German origin, and probably came from Switzerland. In the year 1730 Hartmann Hunsaker came to America with his wife and one son John, who was born in the old fatherland May 22, 1728. They settled down in Pennsylvania, where the following children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Hartmann Hunsaker: Verena, wife of John Roth; Elizabeth, wife of Jacob Guth; Orschel (Ursula), who was married twice, her first husband's name being Landis, the second Kopf; Marie, wife of Caspar Roland; Anna, wife of Louis Mohler, Half-sisters were: Catherine, wife of John Birg; Eva, wife of John Weldy; Elizabeth, wife of Abraham Birg. This would indicate that Hartmann Hunsaker was married twice.

John Hunsaker, who came to this country with his father in 1730, was married to Miss Magdalena Birg, May 15, 1750; she was the eldest daughter of Nikolaus Birg, and was born January 3, 1732. The children of John and Magdalena (Birg) Hunsaker were: Abraham, John, Barbara, Nikolaus, Hartmann, Jacob, Joseph, George, Catharine, Magdalena, Andrew and Samuel.

On July 27, 1788, occurred the death of Barbara Birg, née Miller, the mother of Magdalena Hunsaker, née Birg, in the eighty-first year of her life, leaving 120 children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren. The data given in this story concerning Hartmann Hunsaker and his descendants were gleaned from the old family Bible, printed in Philadelphia in 1818, and in possession of Robert Hunsaker, a son of Samuel Y. Hunsaker, and born in this county in 1855.


Johannes "Hannes" Hunsaker
Birth: May 22, 1728, Wiesbaden, Hessen, Germany
Death: Jul. 18, 1815, Jonesboro, Union County, Illinois, USA

Johannes "Hannes" later called John was born in Wiesbaden Germany to Hartman Hunsaker b: 27 Jan 1690 in Katzbach, Bern, Switzerland and Anna Stirtz Hunsaker b: 1694 in Katzbach, Bern, Switzerland.

He was the brother of:

• Verene Hunsaker b: ABT 1714 in Switzerland
• Elizabeth Hunsaker b: ABT 1715 in Switzerland
• Ursula Hunseker b: ABT 1717 in Switzerland
• Anna Hunsaker b: ABT 1718 in Switzerland
• Mary Meyer Hunsaker b: ABT 1720 in Katzbach, Bern, Switzerland
• Catherine Hunsaker b: ABT 1733 in Wiesbaden, Germany
• Ursel Hunsaker b: 1717 and
• John Hunsaker b: 22 May 1728 in Weisbaden, East Laben, Germany

Hannes married Magdalena Bieri b: 3 Jan 1732 in East Manchester, York County, Pennsylvania on the 15th of May 1750 in East Manchester, York County, Pennsylvania.

Children of Hannes and Magdalena are:

• Abraham Hunsaker b: 13 Jan 1751 in Manchester, York County, Pennsylvania
• Johannes Hunsaker b: 16 Sep 1752 in Manchester, York County, Pennsylvania
• Barbara Hunsaker b: 6 May 1754 in East Manchester, York County, Pennsylvania
• Nicholas Hunsaker b: 3 Feb 1756 in East Manchester, York County, Pennsylvania
• Hartman Hunsaker b: 20 Aug 1757 in Manheim Twp, York County, Pennsylvania
• Jacob Hunsaker b: 6 May 1759 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
• Joseph Hunsaker b: 20 May 1761 in Manheim Twp, York County, Pennsylvania
• Abraham Hunsaker b: 25 Apr 1763 in Manheim Twp, York County, Pennsylvania
• George Hunsaker b: 12 Mar 1766 in Manchester, York County, Pennsylvania
• Catherine Hunsaker b: 5 Mar 1769 in Pipe Creek, Frederick County, Maryland
• Magdalena Hunsaker b: 24 Mar 1770 in Pipe Creek, Frederick County, Maryland
• Andrew Hunsaker b: 5 Jul 1772 in Pipe Creek, Frederick County, Maryland and
• Samuel Hunsaker b: 2 Nov 1777 in Washington, Franklin County, Pennsylvania

Family links: Parents: Hartmann Hunsaker (1689 - 1733); Spouse: Magdalena Bieri Hunsaker (1732 - 1796); Children: John Hunsaker (1752 - 1792), Nicholas Honsaker (1756 - 1843), Jacob Hunsaker (1759 - 1831), Joseph Hunsaker (1761 - 1844), Abraham Hunsaker (1763 - 1841), George Hunsaker (1766 - 1845), Magdalena Hunsaker Lesley (1770 - 1825), Andrew Hunsaker (1772 - 1843), Samuel Hunsaker (1777 - 1864)

Burial: Kimmel Cemetery, Jonesboro, Union County, Illinois, USA

Created by: Tahnee Sue Harkins
Record added: May 05, 2007
Find A Grave Memorial# 19245723 
HUNSAKER, Johannes Sr. (I40579)
25426 (1) Wilcox, David F., and McCarl, Judge Lyman, Quincy and Adams County - History and Representative Men, Vol. I, Chicago, IL: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1919, pp. 271-273:

While John Hunsaker, the second son of . . . John and Magdalena (Birg) Hunsaker, with his wife and child were traveling overland from Pennsylvania to Illinois, they were killed by Indians. This occurred April 18, 1792, while they were on their way to Union County, Ill. The wife was Elizabeth, a daughter of Andrew Huber.


John Hunsaker, Jr
Birth: Sep. 16, 1752, East Manchester Township, York County, Pennsylvania, USA
Death: Apr. 18, 1792, Monongalia County, West Virginia, USA

Nicholas [John?] was killed by Indians along with his mother and father in what is now West Virginia.

Family links: Parents: Johannes Hunsaker (1728 - 1815), Magdalena Bieri Hunsaker (1732 - 1796); Spouse: Elizabeth Huber Hunsaker (1752 - 1792); Children: Isaac Hunsaker (1779 - 1819), Nicholas Hunsaker (1790 - 1792); Siblings: John Hunsaker (1752 - 1792), Nicholas Honsaker (1756 - 1843), Jacob Hunsaker (1759 - 1831), Joseph Hunsaker (1761 - 1844), Abraham Hunsaker (1763 - 1841), George Hunsaker (1766 - 1845), Magdalena Hunsaker Lesley (1770 - 1825), Andrew Hunsaker (1772 - 1843), Samuel Hunsaker (1777 - 1864)

Burial: Unknown

Created by: Chad Kendell
Record added: Jul 06, 2014
Find A Grave Memorial# 132404448 
HUNSAKER, Johannes Jr. (I40584)
25427 (1) Will County, Illinois Biographical Dictionary [database online], Provo, UT: Operations Inc, 2003, p. 35:

REV. STEPHEN R. BEGGS was born in Rockingham County, Va., in 1801. His father removed to Kentucky when the son was only four years of age, and two years later settled on the Ohio River in Clark County, Ind. His earliest recollections were therefore of frontier scenes. He was seven years old before he had a pair of shoes, and in after years he was wont to recall the delight experienced in the possession of his first shoes. In early manhood he entered the ministry of the Methodist Church, and afterward preached as an itinerant in Indiana, Illinois and Missouri. No salary was attached to his work. He was supported by the gratuitous contributions of his hearers, who, being poor in purse, could make but small contributions to his support. His entire receipts in cash one year amounted to only $23.

In the summer of 1831 Mr. Beggs came to Plainfield, and was afterward connected with the history of Will County. In 1836 he was appointed to the Joliet circuit, and commenced the work of building the first Methodist church in Joliet, which was, in fact, the first edifice built by any denomination in the city. Upon the breaking out of the Sac war his house was considered the best adapted for a fort. It was accordingly fortified and all the settlers gathered there. However, they finally left for Chicago, which was deemed a safer refuge, and their effects were mostly taken or destroyed before they could with safety return to Will County.

In September, 1831, Mr. Beggs married Elizabeth L. Heath, who was born in Muskingum County, Ohio, and died in Will County, April 7, 1866. His second marriage, December 30, 1868, united him with Mrs. Sarah R. (Dibble) Frost, a native of New York state. He had four children by his first marriage Mary E.,
James W., George W. and Charles W.


Rev Stephen R. Beggs
Birth: Mar. 30, 1801, Rockingham County, Virginia, USA
Death: Aug. 8, 1895, Washington, Tazewell County, Illinois, USA

Methodist clergyman and pioneer settler in Plainfield, IL; Fort Beggs (built during the Black Hawk War of 1832) was named after him.

Family links: Parents: Mary Custer Beggs; Spouses: Sarah R. DeBell/Frost Beggs (1816 - 1909), Elizabeth Heath Beggs (1813 - 1866); Children: Mary E. Beggs (1832 - 1833), James W. Beggs (1835 - 1906), George W. Beggs (1837 - 1906), Charles W. Beggs (1840 - 1931)

Burial: Plainfield Township Cemetery, Plainfield, Will County, Illinois, USA

Created by: T W Zimmerman
Record added: May 09, 2004
Find A Grave Memorial# 8734661 
BEGGS, Rev. Stephen R. (I41994)
25428 (1) Will of Anthony ALEXANDER :

In the Name of God Amen the twenty ninth day of July 1741 I Anthony Alexander of ye provance of North Carolina and County of Tyrell husbandman being Sick and weak in body but of perfict mind and memory Thanks be given to God therefore calling unto mind the mortality of my body and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to dye do make and ordain this my Last will and Testament that is to say principally and first of all I give and recommend my Soul into ye hands of God that gave it and my body I recommend to ye Earth to be buried in decent Christian burial at ye discretion of my Executors nothing doubting but at the General Resurrection I shall receive ye same again by ye mighty power of God and as touching such worldy Estate where with it hath pleased God to bless me in this life I give devise and dispose of ye same in ye following manner and form.

Imprismis I give and bequeath unto my loving son Anthony Alexander Junior one Shiling Sterling

Item: I give and bequeath to my son Joseph Alexander one Shiling Sterling

Item: I give and bequeath unto my daughter Anne one shilin Sterling.

Item: I give and bequeath unto my son Lamuel Alexander one Shiling Sterling

Item: I give and bequeath unto my son Benjamin Alexander one Shiling Sterling

Item: I give and bequeath to my daugher Raehel one shiling Sterling

Item: I give to my daughter Prisilla one shilng sterling.

Item: I give to my son Isaac Alexander one shiling sterling

Item: I give to my daughter Sarah one shiling sterling.

Item: I give to my my son in law Thomas Bateman one shiling sterling.

Item: I give and bequeath unto my son John Alexander ye plantation known by the name of ye Mocason containing one hunderd and forty acres to him and his heirs for Ever and all ye female of cow kind that I have in my stock of his mark and a young Mare.

Item. I give my son Josiah my plantation knone by ye name of Huttell fields containing ninty fore acres to him and his heirs forever and all ye female Cow kind that shall be found with his mark in my stock and a young mare more over I give and bequeath unto John Alexander and Josiah my two sones one negro women named Rilly and * * * and if either of them should dye without heir then ye other to inherit and if both should dye without heir then to fall among my youngest children to be equally divided at ye discression of my Executors as I shall name hereafter.

Item I give and bequeath unto my Son Giddion one negro girl Dyna Except ye first child that she should bring that shall live then which I give to my daughter Jane and if ye sd. Giddion should offer to make sail of ye sd. negro girl when he comes 40 years of discression to any person then my Executors may lawfully by force and virtue of this my last will and testyment take ye negro or ye fair money and put it to what use he or they shall think fit that shall be Servicable(?) to his generation

Item I give unto my sons John and Josias one large fether bed that is at ye plantation of Alexander Hopkins

Item I give my neigro fellow named Cato to the discression of my Executor for ye good and bringin up of my young children which he shall have under his care during ye fellows life.

Item I give and bequeath unto my son Giddyon and my fore younger daughters Naomie Pasiate Jane and Selk(?) all ye remainer of house goods and stock of chalel sheep and hogs that shall be found after my deth to be equaly divided at ye discression of my Executors amongst them five

Item I give and bequeath unto my well beloved son Joshua Allexander my neigro fellow named Gorge to him and his heirs for Ever

Home(?) I likewise constitute mak and ordain will Othemas(?) Ludford to be my hole and Sole executors of this my Last will and testement and I do hereby utterly dissallow revoke and disannul all and every other former testaments wills Legacies and bequets and Executors by me in any way before named willed and bequeathed rattifing and confirming this and no other to be my last will and Testament in witness whereof I have hear unto set my hand and seal ye day and year above writen. Signed Sealed published pronounced and Declared by ye sd. Anthony Alexander Sener as his last will and testement in ye presents of us ye subscribers

Anthony (his -A- mark) Alexander

Benj. Bidgood
Thomas (his -T- mark) Best
Christian (her -x- mark) Alexander

Benjamin Bidgood one of the subscribing Evidences tothe execution of the within will this day made oath before me that he saw Anthony Alexander the testator Sign, Seal, and publish the within W * * * ing as his last will & Tesament and that he the sd. Anthony was then of sound & disposing mind & memory.

__ November anno 1741

J. Montgomery 
ALEXANDER, Anthony (I37603)
25429 (1) Will of Giles Frost, Malster of Bury Saint Edmund, Suffolk :

Reference: PROB 11/193/548
Description: Will of Giles Frost, Malster of Bury Saint Edmund, Suffolk
Date [proved]: 26 August 1645
Held by: The National Archives, Kew
Legal status: Public Record(s)
Closure status: Open Document, Open Description
FROST, Giles (I42957)
25430 (1) Will of Isaac ALEXANDER :

In the name of God amen: The twentey fifth day of March 1780 I Isaac Alexander of the County of Tyrrel Planter being very sick & weak in body but of perfect mind and memory thanks be given unto God therefore caling unto mind the mortality of my body and knowing that it appointed for all men once to die do make and ordain this my last Will and Testament that is to say principally and first of all I give and recomend my soul into the hands of God that gave it and my body I recommend to the Earth to be buried in decent Christian burial at the discretion of my Executors nothing doubting but at the General Resurrection I shall receive the same again by the mighty power of God and as touching such worldly Estate wherewith it hath pleased God to bless me in this life, I give demise and dispose of the same in the following manner and form -

Imprimus - I give and bequeath to Zilpha Alexander my dearly beloved wife the one third part of all my movable Estate wherever to be found during her natural life with the use of my plantation whereon I now dwell during her widowhood and then to be and remain as after specified -

Item - I give and bequeath to my well beloved son John Alexander the now called Sound Side Plantation for two hundred acres of land as the Sundry Lines round the same will make apear with one good hunting gun -

Item - I give to my well beloved son Joseph Alexander the Black Walnut land being two hundred and twenty acres lying and being on the south side and near the head of Aligator Creek with one good hunting gun and one feather bead.

Item - I give to my well beloved son Abner Alexander one sertain pece of land lying on the south side of the new rode comonly called the wood yard as the Sundry lines round the same will make a pear with one good hunting gun and one feather bead -

Item - I give to my well bloved son Jesse Alexander the plantation and land appertaining to the same whereon I now dwell as the sundry lines round the same will make apear with one good hunting gun and one feather bead and furniture and half a good still my now property with one good cow and calf -

Item - I give to my beloved daughter Mary Alexander one good feather bead and one chest -

Item - I give to beloved daughter Elisabeth Devenport one good feather bead now in her own prossion -

Item - I give to my beloved daughter Ann Alexander one good feather bed and furniture and one cow and calf -

Item - I give to my beloved daughter Sarah Alexander one feather bed and furniture and one cow and calf -

Item - I give to my beloved daughter Jamima Alexander one feather bed and furniture and one cow and calf -

Item - I give to my beloved daughter Zilpha Alexander one feather bed and furniture and one cow and calf -

Item - I give to my beloved daughter Millae Alexander one feather bed and furniture and one cow and calf -

Item - I give to my beloved daughter Clarca Alexander one feather bed and furniture and one cow and calf - and as touching my negroes I dispose of them as follows: one negro girl called Judah to be and remain in the prosision and custody of my beloved wife Zilpha Alexander during her natural life wome I constitute and appoint Executrix with my well beloved son John Alexander wome I constitute and appoint Executor of this my last Will and Testament and as to my other negroes that is now to say - Rose one negro woman Joan and Hestur negroes to remain in the care and custody of my Executor till the year of 1790 and then to be equally or as near as posable devided or proportioned with increase to and among my before mentioned children and the remaining part of my Estate not before left in Legacies or mentioned to be equally devided at my decease excepting my well beloved son Jesse Alexander wome is to have no parte of the said negroes or increase to him I give the still in lieu -

And I do hereby utterly disallow revoke and disanull all and every other former Testament Wills Legacies and bequests and Executors by me in any ways before named and willed and bequeathed ratifying and confirming this and no other to be my last Will and Testament in witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal the day and date above written -

Isaac Alexander (Seal)

Pronounced Signed Sealed and delivered in presents of us.

Test Jos. Alexander
Mathew (his -x- mark) Brickhouse
Levin Rhoads 
ALEXANDER, Isaac (I37639)
25431 (1) Will of Isaac ALEXANDER, Sr. :

In the name of God amen: I Isaac Alexander Senior of Tyrrel County and State of North Carolina Planter being sick and weak of body, but of perfect and sound mind and memory thanks be to the Almighty God, but calling to minde the un the unsertainty of death and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to die desire to make and ordain this my last Will and Testament, in manner and form following, first and principally, I recommend my soul into the hands of God that gave it, nothing doubting but at the General Resurrection at the last day to receive the same again by the mighty power of God hoping through the death and passion of my blessed Savour Jesus Christ to have full pardon of all my sins and my body I recommend to the earth to be buried at the discretion of my executors hereafter mentioned and as touching such worley estate as it hath pleased God to bestow on me in this life I give and dispose and demise in manner and form following -

Imprimis - My will and desire is that all my just debts and funeral expenses be all satisfyed and paid -

Item - I give and bequeath unto my well beloved son Joseph Alexander three acres of land lying on the Eastermost end of my land joyning on the line to him and his heirs forever.

Item - I give and bequeath unto my well beloved daughter Mary Norman one ewe to her and her heirs forever -

Item - I give and bequeath unto the heirs of my dear & loving daughters body Ann Hooker deces'd one ewe lamb to be equally devided amongst them as an acknowledgment to them -

Item - I give and bequeath unto my well beloved son Anthony Alexander one half * * * (torn out) of powder.

Item - I give and bequeath unto my well beloved daughter Sarah Alexander one * * * (torn out) calf one sow and pigs and what house holde goods as my executors here * * * (torn out) named shall think proper to bestow on her -

Item - I give and bequeath unto my well beloved son John Alexander aparte of my * * * (torn out) plantation begining at a white oake on John Batemans line thence * * * (torn out) Easte to a gum in the Branch near the house thence South to the river * * * (torn out) is to say the Westermost part of my plantation and land all the benefits prevelidges thereunto belonging to him and his heirs forever -

Item - My will and desire is that my back land shall be devided between my two sons John Alexander and Joshua Alexander as follows they shall begin at a pine a corner tree known by the name of the Bee tree pine from thence to the to the back line running by the side of the bridge where Oliver killed a wolf leaving the bridge to the eastermost side of the line my son son John Alexander shall have the Westermost part of the said land and my son Joshua Alexander shall have the Eastermost part of the said land containing one hundred acres land to each of them and to their heirs forever -

Item - My will and desire is that neither of my two sons John and Joshua them nor their heirs at any time forever hereafter shall sell lett mortgage any part or parsell of the within mentioned lands to any person or persons whatsoever only from one brother to the other I likewise desire that my said lands to Eastward of my said sons shall be and remain in the name and family of their heirs forever and if either of my two sons should at any time hereafter see fit to move or to sell his land that my desire is that he shall have no power to sell or exchange his land neither to make any right or title of such land to any person but his * * * (torn out).

Item - I give and bequeath unto my well beloved John Alexander and Joshua Alexander all other part and parsell of my whole estate not before given all my stock and stocks of what kind soever all my house hold goods moveables utentials and every thing thereunto belonging to me booth reall personal to be equally divided between them two John and Joshua and heirs forever.

Lastly I nomenate constitute and appoint my two sons John Alexander and Joshua Alexander my whole and sole executors of this my * * * (torn out) Testament revoking all other wills by me heretofore made * * * (torn out) and confirming thiss only to be my Last Will and Testament * * * (torn out) money whereof I have hereunto set my hand and fixed my seal this twenty eight day of October in the year of our Lord 1777.

Isaac (his -x- mark) Alexander (Seal)

Signed Sealed Published and and Pronounced by the said Isaac Alexander as his last Will and Testament in the presence of us.

J. Frasier
John (his -x- mark) Bateman
Jesse (his -x- mark) Bateman 
ALEXANDER, Isaac Sr. (I37585)
25432 (1) Will of John Forst otherwise Sparham or Frost, Yeoman of Brundish, Suffolk :

Reference: PROB 11/242/694
Description: Will of John Forst otherwise Sparham or Frost, Yeoman of Brundish, Suffolk
Date [proved]: 28 September 1654
Held by: The National Archives, Kew
Legal status: Public Record(s)
Closure status: Open Document, Open Description
FROST, John (I42959)
25433 (1) Will of John Frost, Gentleman of Whepstead, Suffolk :

Reference: PROB 11/232/211
Description: Will of John Frost, Gentleman of Whepstead, Suffolk
Date [proved]: 20 September 1653
Held by: The National Archives, Kew
Legal status: Public Record(s)
Closure status: Open Document, Open Description
FROST, John (I42958)
25434 (1) Will of John Frost, Yeoman of Ingham, Suffolk :

Reference: PROB 11/296/452
Description: Will of John Frost, Yeoman of Ingham, Suffolk
Date [proved]: 16 December 1659
Held by: The National Archives, Kew
Legal status: Public Record(s)
Closure status: Open Document, Open Description
FROST, John (I42962)
25435 (1) Will of John ROSEMAN, dated 7 August 1778 and proved 12 January 1789 in Prince George's County, MD [copy furnished to the compiler by Jimmy Rosamond ]:

In the Name of God Amen, I, John Roseman of Prince Georges County being very sick and weak but of sound and disposing mind and memory do make and Ordain this my last Will and Testament as follows first and principally commending my soul into the mercifull hands of Almighty God and my Body to the earth in Christian Burial.

I do hereby dispose of my worldly Estate in the following manner vizt.

Imprimis. I do give and bequeath unto Elizabeth Glasgow one of my plantations her choice That is to say as long as she lives Single, but at her Marriage or death to be disposed of as hereafter mentioned.

Item. I give and bequeath unto Theodore Glasgow and Henry Glasgow Sons to the said Elizabeth Glasgow all my real estate to be equally divided between the said Theodore and Henry. The Plantation bequeathed to Elizabeth Glasgow is also to fall into the division after her death or marriage to their heirs and assignees forever.

Item. I give and bequeath unto William Glasgow and Allison Glasgow when they shall arrive to the age of twenty years one Negro girl named Nell and her Increase, but the said Negro Nell and her increase if any shall remain in the Possession of Elizabeth Glasgow until they arrive to the age above mentioned but in the case of the death or marriage of the said Elizabeth Glasgow the said Negro Nell shall fall into the hands of my executor untill the said William and Allison arrive to the age above mentioned.

Item. I give and bequeath unto Theodore Glasgow and Henry Glasgow one Negro Girl named Rachael to remain in the hands of my Executor until the Boys arrive to the age of twenty one years but if Negro Rachel shall have any Increase her first Child shall be the right and Estate of Theodore Glasgow and the said Rachel and the rest of her Increase shall be the Right and Estate of Henry Glasgow. I also give and bequeath unto Theodore Glasgow and Henry Glasgow Two Cows and Two Calves.

Item. I give and bequeath unto William Roseman Stephens and Leon[?] Stephens sons to Thomas Darnal Stephens one Negro Girl named Hannah and all her Increase to be equally divided between the said William Roseman Stephens and Leon[?] Stephens.

Item. I give and bequeath unto William Stevens Junr. brother to Thomas Darnal Stephens one Negro woman named Luce.

Item. I give and bequeath unto Elizabeth Glasgow two Feather Beds and Furniture and Two Cows and Calves for and during her Natural Life or as long as she lives Single and at her death or marriage to be thenceforth the right and Estate of her two youngest Children William and Allison to be equally divided. I also give and Bequeath unto Elizabeth Glasgow one Mare called Fannie but at her Death or Marriage to be disposed of as above.

Item. I give and bequeath unto Joanna Catherine Darnal Webster sister to Thomas Darnal Stephens one roan horse called Roan and her futur[?] Increase.

Item. I give and bequeath unto Thomas Darnal Stephens the use and service of my Negro boy Moses for and during the Term of _____ and all the _____ of the said _____ if the said Negro Moses shall then be living the said Thomas Darnal Stephens shall have the choice to keep the said Negro Moses and pay fifty pounds currency or sell the said Negro at public Sale and divide the money equally amongst Elizabeth Glasgows four children That is, Theodore, Henry, William and Allison.

Item. I give and bequeath unto my sister Elizabeth H[?]ardman six pounds currency.

Item. I give and bequeath unto Ann Stephens six pounds Currency.

Item. I give and bequeath unto Thomas Darnal Stephens Joannah Catherine Darnal Webster John Stephens and Thomas Conner[?] all the Remainder of my personal Estate not already by me bequeathed to be equally divided amongst them share and share alike one half the Crop now growing also to be equally divided among the four above mentioned and the other half I give and bequeath to Elizabeth Glasgow.

Lastly I hereby Nominate Constitute and appoint Thomas Darnal Stephens sole Executor of this my last Will and Testament hereby Revoking and Declaring null and void all or any other Will or Wills by me heretofore made. I do declare and pronounce this my last Will and Testament as Witness my hand and Seal this seventh day of August in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty eight.

John Roseman [Seal]

Signed, Sealed, published and declared by the Testator in the presents of us who in his presents at his request and in the presents of each other Subscribed as Witnesses thereto.

John Robinson
William Foard
Thomas Young

Prince Georges County to wit, January 12th, 1789 Came John Robinson and Thomas Young two of the Subscribing Witnesses to this within last Will and Testament of John Roseman late of said County Deceased and made Oath on the Holy Evangels of Almighty God that they did see the Testator John Roseman therein named Sign and seal this Will and heard him publish pronounce and declare the same to be his last Will and Testament that at the time of his so doing he was to the best of their apprehensions of sound mind memory and understanding and that they together with William Foard the third Subscribing Witness subscribed their names as Witnesses to this Will in the presence at the request of the Testator and in the presence of each other.

Sworn before Saml. Tyler Reg.

At the same time John Robinson made oath that he wrote the written will and that years after Twelve in the last line of the first page thereof was left out thro' hurry and that it was intended for twelve years. Also in the bequest of Ann Stephens of six pounds that said Bequest was intended for Ann Gray who formerly went by the name Stephens.

Before Saml. Tyler Reg. 
ROSEMAN, John (I17135)
25436 (1) Will of Joseph ALEXANDER :

In the name of God amen: The twenty first day of November 1780. I Joseph Alexander of the County of Tyrell Planter being draughted and is agoing to march against the enemy but being of perfect mind and memory thanks be given unto God therefore calling unto mind the mortality of my body and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to die do make and ordain this my last Will and Testament that is to say principally and first of all I give & recommend my soul into the hands of God that gave it and my body I recommend to the Earth to be buried in decent Christian burial at the discretion of whose hands I fall into nothing doubting but at the General Resurrection I shall receive the same again by the mighty power of God and as touching such worldly Estate wherewith it hath pleased God to bless me in this life I give demise and dispose of the same in the following manner and form.

Imprimis - I give & bequeath to my beloved brothers John Alexander Abner Alexander & Jesse Alexander one sartain peice of land lying and being in Little Allegator and near the had of the Creek known by the name of Black Walnut land containing 228 acres as the Sundary lines round the same will make appar the said land to be equally or near as possable devided amongst the before mentioned when the youngest comes of age -

Iteam - I give & bequeath unto my dear beloved mother Zilpha Alexander all my cattle and hogs and one good hunting gun whom I appint Executrix with my beloved brother John Alexander whom I appint Executor of this my last Will and Testament -

Iteam - I give and bequeath to my beloved sisters all of my Estate not before mentioned to be equally devided or as near as possible to and amongst my before mentioned sisters to be devided at my deceace -

And I do hereby utterly disenul all and every other former Testements Wills Legacies and bequests and Executors by me in any ways before named willed and bequeathed ratifying and confirming this and no other to be my last Will and Testament In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal the day and year above written -

Joseph Alexander (Sealed)

Signed Sealed & Delivered In presents of us the witnesses

Anna (his -x- mark) Devonport
Jemimi (his -x- mark) Combes
Robart (his -x- mark) Combes 
ALEXANDER, Joseph (I37615)
25437 (1) Will of Joseph ALEXANDER, Sr. :

In the name of God Amen. I Joseph Alexander Senr. of Tyrrell County in the Province of North Carolina, planter, being very sick and weak of body but of perfect and sound mind and memory thanks be to almighty God and calling to mind the uncertainty of death knowing that it is appointed for all men once to die desire to make this my last will and testament in manner and form following.

First and principally I recommend my soul into the hands of God that gave it nothing doubting but at the General Resurrection at the last day I shall receive the same again passing there the merits of death and passion of my blessed saviour Jesus Christ to have all and free pardon of all my sins. And my body I leave to the earth to be decently buried at the discretion of my executors hereafter mentioned and as touching such worldly goods as it hath pleased the Almighty God to bestow upon me in this life I leave demise and bequeath in the manner and form following.

Imprimis - My will and desire is that all my just debts and funeral expenses be satisfied and paid.

Item - I give and bequeath to my beloved sons Joseph Alexander, Joshua Alexander, Enoch Alexander and Silvanus Alexander all my lands and swamps to be equally divide between them three years from this day and date to them and their heirs and assigns forever.

Item - I give and bequeath to my beloved daughter Sarah Norman one ewe and lamb one large new pewter dish one side saddle and one fifth part of her mother's cloathes to her and her heirs and assigns forever.

Item - I give and bequeath to my beloved daughter Mary Bateman one pewter bason and one fifth part of her mother's cloathes.

Item - I give and bequeath to my beloved son Isaac Alexander the sum of ten pounds currency of this state to be paid to him at the day of the division to him his heirs and assigns forever.

Item - I give and bequeath to my beloved daughter Jamima Norman one bed and furniture that she now has in her possession and forty shillings current money of this state to be paid at the day of the division and one fifth part of her mother's cloaths to her and heirs forever.

Item - I give and bequeath to my beloved son Henry Alexander the sum of ten pounds current money of this state to be paid to him at the day of the division to him and his heirs forever.

Item - I give and bequeath to my beloved daughter Martha Alexander the remaining part of her mother's cloaths to her and her heirs forever - Their mother's cloaths to be divided in October next.

Item - I give will and bequeath to my beloved children the remaining part of my estate that is to say to Joseph Alexander, Martha Alexander, Joshua Alexander, Enoch Alexander and Silvanus Alexander to be equally divided between them three years from this day and date to them their heirs and assigns forever.

Lastly - I nominat constitute and appoint my beloved sons Henry Alexander and Joseph Alexander my whole and sole executors of this my last will and testament.

In witness whereof I have hereto set my hand and seal this twenty seventh day of March One Thousand Seven Hundred and Ninety Six.

Joseph (his mark) Alexander

Published and pronounced by the said Joseph Alexander as his last will and testament in presence of

Joseph (his mark) Jennett
J. Phelps
A. Phelps 
ALEXANDER, Joseph Sr. (I37597)
25438 (1) Will of Joshua ALEXANDER :

In the name of God Amen. I Joshua Alexander of Tyrrell County in the Province of North Carolina, planter, being in reasonable good health and of sound mind and memory thanks be given to almighty God but calling to mind the uncertainty of death and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to die desire to make and ordain this my last will and testament in manner and form following.

First and principally I recommend my soul into the hands of God that gave it nothing doubting but at the General Resurrection at the last day to receive the same again by the mighty power of God hoping this the merrits death and passion of my blessed saviour Jesus Christ to have full and free pardon of all my sins and my body I recommend to the earth to be buried at the discretion of my executors hereafter mentioned and as touching such worldly estate as it hath pleased God to bestow upon me in this life I give bestow dispose and demise in the manner and form following.

Imprimis - My will and desire is that all my just debts and funeral expenses be satisfied and paid.

Item - I give and bequeath to my well beloved wife Elisabeth Alexander one negro woman by the name of Jenna one negro girl by the name of Darchis one feather bed and furniture one large chest to her and her heirs forever, also I lend the use of my manner plantation to my loving wife Elisabeth Alexander during her natural life or widowhood.

Item - I give and bequeath to the heirs of my dear and loving daughters body Ann Jennett deceased one cow calf to him and his heirs forever.

Item - I give and bequeath unto my well beloved son Benjamin Alexander all my Back or Body land to him and his heirs forever.

Item - I give and bequeath unto my well beloved son Isaac Alexander my manner plantation after the death or marriage of my loving wife Elisabeth Alexander to him or his heirs or assigns forever.

Item - My will and desire is that all my estate that is not before given to be sold by my executors and the money equally divided amongst my dear and loving children that is to say Polly Alexander, Martha Alexander, Benjamin Alexander, Sarah Alexander, Betsy Alexander, Prissila Alexander and Isaac Alexander to them and their heirs forever.

Lastly - I nominate constitute and appoint Joseph Phelps Esq., Asa Phelps and my beloved wife Elisabeth Alexander my whole and sole executors of this my last will and testament revoking all other wills by me heretofore made alowing this only to be my last will and testament.

In witness whereof I have here unto set my hand and seal the nineteenth day of September in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred & Ninety Six.

Joshua Alexander

Published and pronounced by the said Joshua Alexander as his last will and testament in presence of

Esther (her mark) Phelps
Ann (her mark) Tarkenton
A. Phelps 
ALEXANDER, Joshua (I37583)
25439 (1) Will of Thomas Frost, Yeoman of Covehithe otherwise North Hales, Suffolk :

Reference: PROB 11/266/68
Description: Will of Thomas Frost, Yeoman of Covehithe otherwise North Hales, Suffolk
Date [proved]: 15 June 1657
Held by: The National Archives, Kew
Legal status: Public Record(s)
Closure status: Open Document, Open Description
FROST, Thomas (I42960)
25440 (1) Will of William Frost, Yeoman of Buxhall, Suffolk :

Reference: PROB 11/271/221
Description: Will of William Frost, Yeoman of Buxhall, Suffolk
Date [proved]: 04 December 1657
Held by: The National Archives, Kew
Legal status: Public Record(s)
Closure status: Open Document, Open Description
FROST, William (I42961)
25441 (1) William Ballard of Bedford County, Virginia (1767-18??) :

William Ballard, the son of Byrom Ballard Bedford County, Virginia, was born 20 July 1767, as recorded among the records of the South River Monthly Meeting in Bedford County, Virginia.

On 24 April 1788, William Ballard of Bedford County married in a public meeting at South River Meeting House, Elizabeth Anthony of Bedford County, Virginia. Hinshaw, Vol. VI, p. 296. The following witnesses were present: Mary Anthony, Molley Anthony, Mary Ballard, Anna Sea, Mary Johnson, Judith Ballard, Phebe Stanton, Penelope Johnson, Salley Johnson, Robert Hanna, Ashley Johnson, James Candler, Elizabeth Douglas, Betty Johnson, Jane Gipson, Hepzabih Holloway, Edward Lynch, Christopher Anthony, Jr., Christopher Anthony, Christopher Johnson, Achillis Douglas, William Johnson, William Ballard, John Lynch, William Stanton, John Candler, Mary Lynch, Matilda Lynch, Mary Timberlake, Rachel Ballard, Sarah Tate Anthony, Barclay Ballard, Moses Cadwalader, Jr., Charles Anthony, John Timberlake, William Clement, Robert Johnson, Timothy Johnson, Sarah H. Tate. James Pinkney Bell, Our Quaker Friends in Ye Olden Time (Lynchburg: J.P. Bell Co., 1905), p. 71.

On 3 May 1800 William, his wife Elizabeth with children Anthony, Elenor, Mary, Asa, William, Hannah and Sarah, were granted certificate to Westfield Monthly Meeting, North Carolina from Goose Creek Monthly Meeting in Bedford County, Virginia. Hinshaw, Vol. VI, p. 349. On 23 August 1800 at Westfield Monthly Meeting William and sons, Anthony, Asa and William were received on certificate from Goose Creek Monthly Meeting dated 8 May 1800. Hinshaw, Vol. VI, p. 959.

Their children were [birthdates of first four children are recorded in a Record Book of the South River Meeting House, Campbell and Bedford Counties, Virginia; William and Hannah appear in the records of Goose Creek Monthly Meeting, Bedford County, Virginia]:

[i] Anthony, b. 22 February 1789.

[ii] Eleanor, b. 5 June 1790.

[iii] Mary, b. 23 January 1792.

[iv] Asa, b. 19 August 1793.

[v] William, b. 26 December 1794.

[vi] Hannah, b. 10 November 1796.

[vii] Sarah, b. c. 1797.

(2) Hinshaw, William Wade, Encyclopedia of America Quaker Genealogy, Vol. VI [Reprint]: Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1993, p. 296:



1763, _____, _____. Byrum & Eleanor
Ch: . . .
William, b 1767, 7, 20. . . .

1788, 4, 24. William, Bedford Co., Va., m in a public mtg, Elizabeth ANTHONY, Bedford Co., Va.
Anthony b 1789, 2, 22
Eleanor b 1790, 6, 5
Mary b 1792, 1, 23
Asa b 1793, 8, 19

(3) Hinshaw, William Wade, Encyclopedia of America Quaker Genealogy, Vol. VI [Reprint]: Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1993, p. 349:




_____, _____, _____. William & Elizabeth
William b 1794, 12, 26
Hannah b 1796, 11, 10
Salley b 1798, 8, 14

1798, 11, 3. William con [condemned for] misconduct & acc

1800, 5, 3. William & w, Elizabeth, & ch, Anthony, Elenor, Mary, Asa, William, Hannah & Sarah, gct [granted certificate to] Westfield MM [Monthly Meeting], N. C.

(4) Hinshaw, William Wade, Encyclopedia of America Quaker Genealogy, Vol. I [Reprint]: Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing County, Inc., 1994, p. 959:




1798, 10, 20. William dis [disowned]

1800, 8, 23. William & s, Anthony, Asa & William, rocf [received on certificate from] Goose Creek MM [Monthly Meeting], dated 1800, 5, 8.

(5) Hinshaw, William Wade, Encyclopedia of America Quaker Genealogy, Vol. I [Reprint]: Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing County, Inc., 1994, p. 1003:



William Ballard
Elizabeth Ballard
Bartly b. 6-28-1802
Samuel Jorden b. 4-11-1805


William McDonald Ballard
Birth: Jul. 20, 1767
Death: 1816, Carroll County, Virginia, USA

[Note by compiler: Carroll County, VA did not exist until 17 January 1842, when it was formed from Grayson and Patrick Counties, VA.]

William McDonald Ballard born 20 Jul 1767, Bedford Co., Va.

Died 1816 Campbell Co., Va. [Note by compiler: According to this same source, the decedent died in Carroll County, VA.]

Son of Eleanor Candler and Byrum Ballard.

Married, Elizabeth Anthony 24 Apr 1788, South River Quaker Meeting, Bedford Co, VA.

They had 10 children.

Quaker Meeting Records show William Ballard and family migrate to Grayson County in 1794 - this part of Grayson county later became Carroll County.

1800 - William Ballard and his wife Elizabeth (Anthony), and children Christopher "Anthony," Elenor, Mary, Asa, William, Hannah, and Sarah, are granted a certificate from Goose Creek Monthly Meeting in Bedford County, Virginia to the Westfield Monthly Meeting in North Carolina.

Family links: Parents: Byrum Ballard (1740 - 1817), Eleanor Candler Ballard (1740 - 1791); Spouse: Elizabeth Anthony (1769 - 1826); Children: Barclay Moorman Ballard (1802 - 1878)

Burial: Ballard Cemetery, Grayson County, Virginia, USA

Created by: anne thiem
Record added: Aug 02, 2014
Find A Grave Memorial# 133700227 
BALLARD, William (I37257)
25442 (1) William Ballard of Caroline County, Virginia. (c. 1719-after 1757) :

We know there were at least two William Ballards residing in Caroline County, Virginia in the early decades of the 18th century. It is difficult to distinguish the two families; the names of their wives are obvious clues, but other records lack that key indicator, so while we study the allied families associated with them, we set those records aside, for now.

We believe the William Ballard who married Sarah _____ was a sibling of Richard, Thomas, John and Bland Ballard. The second William Ballard who married Mary _____, was a different family.

William Ballard and Sarah _____ first appear in the Caroline County records on 13 March 1740/1 when they acknowledge a deed endorsed to John Chiles. March 1740/1. William Ballard & Sarah, his wife acknowledge their deed of feoffment with livery and seizin endorsed to John Chiles. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1740-1746, p. 19.

In 1743, a "William Ballard of Caroline County" acquired 400 acres in Lousia County, and in 1750 sold this land to a Thomas Ballard, likely his brother Thomas who left a will in Albemarle County in 1783. The problem with this conveyance, however, is there is no relinquishment of dower by Sarah, which has us questioning whether it is the same William. It is possible they ignored the legal requirement; or perhaps this might be their father, rather than the brother. It could very well be the William Ballard who was married to Mary Chenault; there is no way to know at the moment. Deed dated 8 August 1743 from John Red of Lousia Co. to William Ballard of Caroline Co., for £25, 400 acres on both sides of Naked Creek . . . to John Rogers' corner . . . on Maj. Henry's line. Wife Mary relinquished dower. Recorded 8 August 1743, Louisa Co. Va. Deed Book A, pp. 97-98. William Ballard sold this same land to Thomas Ballard on 22 October 1750, for £50, 400 acres in Fredericksville Parish, Lousia Co., on both sides of Fishing Creek whereon sd. Ballard is now living, granted by patent to John Red 30 June 1743 . . . on John Rogers' corner in Major Henry's line. Witnesses: David Watts, Edward Lankford, Benj. Henslee. Recorded 23 October 1750, Louisa Co. Va. Deed Book A, p. 403.

The next record is the most compelling related to William, for it documents a conveyance by Richard Ballard, Mary Ballard, William Ballard, and Sarah Ballard; the wives acknowledge their dower interest in the transaction. There are several ways to look at this; the land being conveyed belonged to the brothers; or perhaps the brothers may have married sisters, and this is land that they inherited. In either case, it documents a family connection between Richard Ballard and William Ballard. 11 January 1744. Richard Ballard, Mary Ballard, William Ballard and Sarah Ballard, Mary and Sarah first being privately examined, acknowledged their deed of land indented to Thos. Watts. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1740-1746, p. 342.

Next we see that William and Sarah Ballard had conveyed land to John Almond in 1756. The transaction was proven in the subsequent two months by William Brumskill in June and John Montague in March. This last record is very significant because John Montague is probably the John Montague who was the brother of Clement Montague; Clement Montague's daughter, Isabella, married James Ballard, the son of Benjamin Ballard of Spotsylvania County (the son of Bland Ballard of Spotsylvania County). Given that relatives of the wife likely served as witnesses to ensure her interests were protected, it is possible that Sarah was a Montague (or Brumskill or Bradford). 13 May 1756. William Ballard and Sarah Ballard's deed indented to John Almond was proved by Richard Bradford. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1755-1758, p. 163. 10 June 1756. William Ballard and Sarah Ballard deed indented to John Almond was further proved by William Brumskill. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1755-1758, p. 167. 8 July 1756. William Ballard and Sarah Ballard's deed indented to John Almond was further proved by John Montague. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1755-1758, p. 187.

Apparently John Almond failed to pay a note on the property; in 1759, William Ballard obtained a judgement against him. 15 June 1759. Petition: William Ballard agt. John Allmond. Judgment is granted the plaintiff for £3.15.9 current money with interest from 11 May 1757. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1759-1763, p. 52.

* * *

Records Mentioning Willliam Ballard and Mary (Byrom) Chenault

[This is a work in progress; there are Quaker records to be studied.]

21 June 1733. William Ballard and Mary Ballard his wife, administrators of the Estate of Howlett Chenault, dec'd. Bond 100 pounds sterling. Essex Co. Va. Will Book 6.

A William Ballard is named in an action for debt brought by James Booth and Thomas Davis against Stephen Chenault and William Ballord on 15 September 1724. 15 September 1724. In action of Debt brought by James Booth & Thomas Davis against Stephen Chenault & William Ballord, judgment granted plaintiffs for 212 pounds of tobo in cask & costs. Essex Co. Va. Order Book 1723-25 (Part II) p. 193. Stephen Chenault is the father of Howlett Chenault, who was the first husband of Mary Byrum, who later married William Ballard Jr.

September 1743. William Ballard & Mary his wife, she being first privily examined acknowledged their deed indented to Henry Mills which is ordered to be recorded. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1741-1746, p. 234.

Indeterminate Records

Below are Caroline County records we have not been able (to date) attribute to one or the other William Ballards of Caroline County.

13 May 1737. Moses Kid acknowledged his deeds of lease and release of land indented to William Ballard. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1732-1740, p. 415.

11 December 1749. William Hunter against William Ballard ordered to pay plaintiff £1.15. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1740-1743, p. 188.

12 April 1759. Road Order: Laying a road from Burk's Bridge to the Three Notched Road, & Benja. Hubbard & William Johnston, Gent., two that were appointed to view the same having made report . . . ordered that the old road by the old Ivy Church be cleared & that Eusebius Stone, Gent., be surveor of the road from the forks of the road below Colo. Baylor's to the bridges by the said old church & to have John Taylor Jr, William Parker, Armistead Quarter, Col. Baylor's Mill Quarter, Ben: Gatewood, Willm. Ballard, Joseph Ballard, John Brown, John Eubank, Abraham Wood & his own people to assist him in keeping the road in repair, & that James Bell be surveyor of the other part of the road from the Three Notched Road to the bridge . . . Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1759-1763, p. 6.

11 May 1759 Road Order: Eusebius Stone, Gent. Is appointed overseer of the road from John Baylor Esq. to the fork of the road by the Ivy Church & to have the following hands, Colo. Baylor's home house & mill quarter, Jno. Bowin, Ben: Gatewood, Jos. Bullard, John Walden's quarter, Willm. Ballard, Armistead's quarter, John Eubank, Abram Wood, & William Poe to assist him in keeping the road in repair. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1759-1763, p. 16.

12 April 1765. John Richards, Gent., agt. James Weymouth. In case. This day came the plaintiff and the defendant came not. It is considered by the Court that the plaintiff recover of the defendant and William Ballard, his security, his damages, but because they are unknown, it is ordered that the Sherif summon a jury to inquire thereof. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1764-1765, p. 469.

13 June 1765. Ordered that Richard Edmundson serve as overseer of the new road from the main road by Capt. Dixon's quarter into the road by Mr. John Taylor's quarter and that he have besides his own people those at Colo. Baylor's mill quarter, Mr. John Taylor's quarter, Capt. Dixon's quarters, Humphry Burdette's, William Ballard's, Fridler's, William Newell's, Thomas Brown's, Francis Hale's and James Johnson's to assist in keeping the same in repair and they are discharged from working on other roads. But it is further ordered that the said road be cleared and kept up where it formerly went from Pendleton's plantation to Francis Haile's and not as it has been lately cleared. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1765-1767, p. 4.

13 August 1767. William Ballard, haveing remained in the prison bounds upwards of twenty days charged in execution at the suit of John Richards, was brought before the Court by virtue of a warrant for that purpose. William subscribed and delivered in Court a schedule of his estate and took the oath for the relief of insolvent debtors. It is ordered that he be released out of custody and that the Sheriff make sale of the estate contained in the schedule and pay the money to the plaintif towards discharging his execution. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1767-1770, p. 24.

* * *

Issue: At least one of them had a son, William.

15 May 1773. James Bowie Junr. against William Ballard Junr. On Petition the Defendant being duly summoned failed to appear tho solemnly called. On motion of the petitioner by his attorney, judgment is granted him against Defendant for £4.4.3, the debt in the petition specified together with his costs in this behalf expended. Caroline Co. Va. Order Book 1772-1776, p. 244. 
BALLARD, William (I37486)
25443 (1) William Ballard of Charles City County, Virginia (c. 1668-c. 1725) :

Anna [BALLARD], living in 1726. Perhaps married Henry Talman. We know that Captain Henry Talman of Felmingham, county Norfolk, England, was the son of William Talman, the Comptroller of Great Britain under William and Mary. Captain Henry Talman resided in Saint Peter's Parish, New Kent County, and was captain and owner of the ship Vigo that ran goods between Bristol and Virginia. They had four children; the record of the birth of three of them exists in the Saint Peter's Parish Register from New Kent County, Virginia: William (married Elizabeth Hewlett and left issue); Martha (born 16 March 1733); Rebecca (born 2 April 1737); Henry (born 26 December 1739; died young). According to one source, Captain Talman died in London in 1775,4, but the Virginia Gazette of 7 December 1769 (Purdie & Dixon, p. 3, Col. 1) reports that "Captain Henry Talman died a few days ago at his house in New Kent County." 
BALLARD, Anna (I37407)
25444 (1) William Ballard of Charles City County, Virginia (c. 1668-c. 1725) :

Elizabeth [BALLARD], married William Firth. 
BALLARD, Elizabeth (I37410)
25445 (1) William Ballard of Charles City County, Virginia (c. 1668-c. 1725) :

Francis [BALLARD], born c. 1705, died before 7 June 1727. He figures in the records of Charles City county on three occasions, one a lawsuit, the two others regarding the administration of his estate by his brother, Thomas:

19 July 1726. Sherriff makes return of execution taken out at suit of Francis Ballard against body of George Squires. Execution and contents received. Signed: Thomss Epes, Subsheriff. Charles City Co. Va. Wills & Deeds, 1725-31, p. 114.

7 June 1727. Inventory of Mr Francis Ballard, dec'd. Value £12.0.0, by Jno. Minge, Tho. Harwood, Jno. Major. Presented by Thomas Ballard, Admin., and recorded 7 June 1727. Charles City Co. Va. Wills & Deeds, 1725-31, p. 168.

3 April 1728. Accounts current of estate of Mr Francis Ballard. Debits: Thomas Perry, John Minge, Capt. William Brown, William Bounsieur, John Goodale, William Hopkins, Capt. Henry Soane. Presented by Thomas Ballard, Admin. Charles City Co. Va. Wills & Deeds, 1725-31, p. 198. 
BALLARD, Francis (I37405)
25446 (1) William Ballard of Charles City County, Virginia (c. 1668-c. 1725) :

Martha [BALLARD], a minor in 1726, was probably born c. 1711. 
BALLARD, Martha (I37414)
25447 (1) William Ballard of Charles City County, Virginia (c. 1668-c. 1725) :

Rebecca [BALLARD], living in 1726. 
BALLARD, Rebecca (I37406)
25448 (1) William Ballard of Charles City County, Virginia (c. 1668-c. 1725) :

This is a work in progress -

Very little is known of William Ballard, the youngest son of Thomas Ballard of James City county. We assume that he was born after 1668, given the bequest made to all of the children of Thomas Ballard except William by Robert Baldrey in his will dated 1 May 1668 and recorded 30 December 1676 in York county.

He is probably the William Ballard who witnessed a deed on 11 October 1686 between family friend Henry Blagrave of New Kent county and John Gowry of Stafford Parish, Stafford county, for the right to 600 acres in Stafford granted by patent to Capt. David Mansell "my late grandfather," being a patent dated 6 October 1654. The language of the acknowledgment indicates that it was executed in New Kent county. Please note that a person 14 years old or older could serve as a witness in Colonial Virginia.

He figured in the York records shortly after his father's death, in a suit he brought against James Harrison, William Ballard being then described as "assignee of Benj: Goodrich, Attorney of Alice Ballard, Exorx Coll: Tho. Ballard, dec'ed": this suit, begun at a court held 24 September 1691, was dismissed at a court held 24 November 1691, the defendant making oath the debt had been paid through Jerome Ham.

Most significantly, two records place him as residing in James City County. A William Ballard appears in a Militia list for James City county dated 27 March 1702 preserved at the Public Record Office at London, England. And he is probably the William Ballard who in 1704 had 300 acres in James City York county, as shown in the Quit Rent Roll of that year.

Since he appears to have resided in James City county, then sadly the bulk of his public life likely took place in what are now known as "burned" counties whose records have been destroyed, such as James City, among regrettably many others. . . .

There is also mention of a William Ballard in a deed recorded among the records of Charles City County, suggesting he had acquired land there as an investment sometime after 1667 (the date the property was acquired by Charles Roan, who took a patent for it that year), and a William Ballard who is named in a deed that recites the chain of title. The transaction between Archibald Blair and Benjamin Willard is dated 31 December 1728 and recorded in Charles City county:

Deed dated 31 December 1728 from Archibald Blair to Benjamin Willard, for £130, 200 acres on Kittawan Creek in Weynoke Parish, bounded by land now or late of Edward Turner & William Arronger, being a moiety of 400 acres purchased by Thomas Gregory & William Ballard of Charles Roan, Gent., & divided by line running from mouth of Mapscoe Creek. Witnesses: Jno. Edloe, Richd. Grinsell. Recorded 1 January 1728.

Since one had to be at least 21 years of age to purchase land, that transaction was probably after 1695, since no mention of an order to record the deed appears in the extant Order Books. . . .

This compiler has searched the extant records of Charles City county (dating from 1655 to 1696) and found no mention of any Ballards prior to 1725, which we believe is because the family did not live there until a boundary adjustment between James City county and Charles City county when a part of James City was added to Charles City in 1721. . . .

13 August 1804. Will of Thomas Ballard of Charles City County, Parish of Westover.

Just debts shall be paid. The family burying place now on my land shall remain solved and free for the internment of the family & their connections. That is to say a sufficiency ground for that purpose and for no further disposel. This I do for through the respect and duty I owe my ancestors and family and hope the same may be remembered by those who may ever consider it.

The will names brothers John Ballard, Francis D. Ballard, sisters Elizabeth Fontain relect of Moses Fontain, Sarah Fountain wife of Abraham Fontain and Lucy Eppes, wife of Peter Epppes. Executor: John Ballard, Wyatt Walker, John Firth. Witnesses: Wm. Graves, Ed. M. Williams, Furnea Southall. Recorded 20 September 1804.

William Ballard and Elizabeth _________ had issue:

[i] THOMAS, married Mary Dancy.

[ii] Francis, born c. 1705, died before 7 June 1727. He figures in the records of Charles City county on three occasions, one a lawsuit, the two others regarding the administration of his estate by his brother, Thomas:

19 July 1726. Sherriff makes return of execution taken out at suit of Francis Ballard against body of George Squires. Execution and contents received. Signed: Thomss Epes, Subsheriff. Charles City Co. Va. Wills & Deeds, 1725-31, p. 114.

7 June 1727. Inventory of Mr Francis Ballard, dec'd. Value £12.0.0, by Jno. Minge, Tho. Harwood, Jno. Major. Presented by Thomas Ballard, Admin., and recorded 7 June 1727. Charles City Co. Va. Wills & Deeds, 1725-31, p. 168.

3 April 1728. Accounts current of estate of Mr Francis Ballard. Debits: Thomas Perry, John Minge, Capt. William Brown, William Bounsieur, John Goodale, William Hopkins, Capt. Henry Soane. Presented by Thomas Ballard, Admin. Charles City Co. Va. Wills & Deeds, 1725-31, p. 198.

[iii] Rebecca, living in 1726.

[iv] Anna, living in 1726. Perhaps married Henry Talman. We know that Captain Henry Talman of Felmingham, county Norfolk, England, was the son of William Talman, the Comptroller of Great Britain under William and Mary. Captain Henry Talman resided in Saint Peter's Parish, New Kent County, and was captain and owner of the ship Vigo that ran goods between Bristol and Virginia. They had four children; the record of the birth of three of them exists in the Saint Peter's Parish Register from New Kent County, Virginia: William (married Elizabeth Hewlett and left issue); Martha (born 16 March 1733); Rebecca (born 2 April 1737); Henry (born 26 December 1739; died young). According to one source, Captain Talman died in London in 1775,4, but the Virginia Gazette of 7 December 1769 (Purdie & Dixon, p. 3, Col. 1) reports that "Captain Henry Talman died a few days ago at his house in New Kent County."

[v] JOHN, married Faitha Edmunds.

[vi] Elizabeth, married William Firth.

[vii] WILLIAM, likely married Elizabeth Clopton.

[viii] Martha, a minor in 1726, was probably born c. 1711. 
BALLARD, William (I37291)
25449 (1) William Ballard of Charles City County, Virginia (c. 1668-c. 1725) :

THOMAS [BALLARD], married Mary Dancy. 
BALLARD, Thomas (I37403)
25450 (1) William Ballard of Charles City County, Virginia (c. 1668-c. 1725) :

Will of Elizabeth Ballard of Westover Parish, Charles City County, dated 22 May 1726, recorded 2 November 1726. Charles City Co. Va. Wills & Deeds, 1725-1731, p. 131.

To daughter Martha Ballard, when of age or married, negro girl Ancy, now in the possession of my brother-in-law Henry Soane; and my daughter is to continue with said Henry and my sister Sarah Soane until 18.

If Martha dies, negro to be sold and money divided between my children: Thomas Ballard, Francis Ballard, Rebecca Ballard, Anna Talman, John Ballard, Elizabeth Firth and William Ballard.

To my son-in-law William Firth, one gray horse and to have the obligation to pay £5 I owe Benjamin Dormous on a judgment in James City Court obtained against me.

Executor: Brother-in-law Henry Soane. Witnesses: Henry Soane, Simon Stubblefield, Mich'a Sherman. Presented by Henry Soane, proved by other witnesses. Inventory, p. 152. Value £28.18.8½, by court order dated November 1726; appraised by John Lide, Wm. Parrish, Charles Christian & Jeffry Murrell, recorded 1 February 1726; presented by Capt. Henry Soane. 
(BALLARD), Elizabeth (I37300)

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